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c.500  HIEROGLYPHIC Λ WRITINGS  made by Zapotecs at Monte Alban, Oaxaca.
(See Greek 750, Latin 620, Mesopotamia 500, Oscan 480)
800 PW 15     500 PW 16, TAWH 17, wikO, wikHW, wikZ
c.500 PYRAMIDS built by Zapotecs near Oaxaca, notably one 500m high at Monte Alban. 500 TTT, rcNA
New Temple
Chavin de Huantar New Temple
Both photos by Dtarazona
Chavin de Huantar
Model of temple area
Old Temple is right of New Temple.
c.500 New Temple built at Chavin de Huantar.  Same U-shaped ceremonial center with a sunken circular plaza, but much expanded. 500 wikCdH     400 jqj
c.500 CHAVIN culture of Peru 1000-250 begins an art phase called "New Temple" until 200.  Chavin art decorates the walls of the temple and includes carvings, sculptures and pottery.  Art is intricately complex and deliberately cryptic, to be understood only by priests.  Eagles are common. 500 wikC, wikCdH
c.500 Urabarriu stage of CHAVIN culture from 900 ends.  Chakinani stage begins until 400.  Residents migrate to surround the ceremonial center.  Llama domestication, reduced deer hunting, increased exchange with outside civilizations. 500 wikC
c.500 Monte Alban is established on a defensible hill above the Valley of Oaxaca, and grows rapidly into the major regional center.  The populations of valley-floor villages such as San Jose Mogote are much diminished. 500 bk, eah
c.500 Circular PlazaChavin de Huantar Peru, a ceremonial center from at least 750, no longer used as such.  The Circular Plaza, which had been occupied by a succession of cultural groups, is replaced by a small village.  Residents salvaged building stones and stone carvings to use in house walls. no later than 500 wikCdH

photo CyArk
c.500 Casma Valley shows decorated cylindrical columns, an architectural element from the northern highlands. 500 jqj
c.400 Artistic and cultural dominance of the Gulf Coast wanes. 400 eah
c.400 OLMEC civilization disappears.  Existed from 1400, at Veracruz from 1200, at La Venta from 900.  Perhaps they passed on their knowledge to the Mayas who begin to occupy some of the same territory. 500 mxfld
400 B76 X-14, wikHA, wikO
c.400 2 Λ  MAYAN CALENDARS  invented in Yucatan:  a 365-day solar calendar and a 260-day ritual calendar.   Solar year = 365.24 days.  (See Cleostratos 520, Chinese 444, Zoroastrian 441, Metonic 432, Babylonian 380, Eudoxos 370)  Lunar month = 29.52 days.  Many large carved stone sculptures and monuments at La Venta are damaged; the city loses political power and population, and is gradually deserted. 400 eah
Monte Alban
Monte Alban, taken from the northern platform.           Photo Eke
c.400 Zapotec MONTE ALBAN culture begins until 1521.  Phase 1 begins until 100. 400 wikZC
c.400 Chakinani stage of CHAVIN culture from 500 ends.  Jarabarriu (final) stage begins to 250.  Proto-urban settlement pattern, consisting of a center of lowland valley peoples and smaller satellite communities in higher altitude areas.  Cultural specialization and social differentiation. 400 wikC
c.400 Occupation of Chavin de Huantar Peru ends.  Began 3000.  Social instability and upheaval begins.  Larger Chavín civilization begins decline.  Large ceremonial sites abandoned, some unfinished, and replaced by villages and agricultural land. 5-400 wikCdH 400 PW 16
200 jqj
c.400 Chavin has sophisticated economic systems with roads and distant trading.  The monument is remodeled and greatly expanded. 400 jqj
c.310 HOPEWELL culture begins in eastern North America until 400CE.  Burials more impressive, chiefdoms, long distance trade. 500 B76 V-126 310 PW 16
200 wikAP
c.300 Mexico:  Cuicuilco, now the largest center on the high plateau of the Basin of Mexico, has substantial public architecture, including a circular, stone-faced pyramid.  In western Mexico, deeply buried tombs at the bottom of shafts are in use.  Located in the Mexican states of Jalisco, Nayarit, and Colima, the tombs contain ceramic figures and vessels in great quantity.  Stylistic names assigned to the ceramics correspond to the names of the modern states. 300 eah
c.300 Classic Maya cities of Tikal, Uaxactun, and Seibal, begin growth. 300 wikMC
c.300 Teotihuacan, first settled. 300 wikPC

Americas 300-201