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Italy
c.500 BARI, port on Adriatic coast of Apulia, founded by Greeks, under Greeks until 275. 500 rcSI
c.500 (Re?)dedication of Grove of Diana at Aricia by Latin League. 500 CAH 7.2
c.500 High point of Etruscan power and culture.  It now begins rapid decline. 500 SHWC 103, TToH
c.500 Imports of Attic painted pottery begin to decline in coastal cities, but increase further inland, though all areas decline after 450. 500 CAH 7.2-131
c.500 Etruscan ApolloEtruscan Apollo known from an over-life-size painted terracotta statue at Veii.  Probably made by Vulca, the only Etruscan artist whose name is known.  It was part of a scene of Apollo and Heracles contending over the Ceryneian Hind, 12 metres above the ground on beams on the acroterion of the Portonaccio Sanctuary of Minerva. 550-20 wikAoV
500
B76 15-1064
photo {{PD-US}}
c.500 Etruscan armorLeft:  An Etruscan warrior, found near Viterbo, dated 500BCE.
Right:  An Etruscan bronze helmet, undated.
500 wikEMH

left PHGCOM
right: GNU FDL
c.500 Via GabinaVIA GABINA mentioned as existing between Rome and Gabii. 500 bbhst, wlwnd
c.500 Two-masted square-sailed SHIP portrayed in an Etruscan tomb fresco. 500 TTT 5-400 twn
ships on a kylixSHIPS painted on a kylix from Volsci.  The merchant ship is round, built for cargo.  The warship has both sails and oars for ramming. 500
CGS 575
c.500 AEQUI, Italic tribe of valleys of Himella, Tolenus, and upper Anio Rivers, expanding from highlands toward Latium, hold mountains behind Tibur and Praeneste. 500 OCD 15
c.500 Cult of the DOISCURI (Castor & Pollux) is at Lavinium, port city south of Rome until 496. 500 OCD 213
c.500 Civil strife begins between patrician creditors and pleb debtors. 500 GHH, HRR
c.500 SAFETY PIN invented by Romans. 500 TTT
c.500 PYTHAGORAS, head of school at Croton from 530, displaced by coup of rival party, flees to Metapontum, where he dies 497. 500 B76 15-325
dies 497 TToH
c.500 ARICIA, leading city of Latium, joins Latin League until 340. 500 OCD 107, rcRm
c.500 Pyrgi Tablets  Pyrgi Tablets :  Bilingual text in Etruscan and Phoenician engraved on 3 gold leaves, 1 for Phoenician and 2 for Etruscan.  Found at Etruscan port of Pyrgi.  The Etruscan language portion has 16 lines and 37 words. 500 wikEL


photo Pufacz
c.500 temple of AthenaTemple of Athena at Posidonia built.  Architecture is partly Ionic and partly early Doric. 500 pstm, wikPst


Photo
Norbert Nagel
500 Sep. CONSULS:  Ser. Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus and M. Tullius Longus 500 CAH 7.2-628, CDCC 849, DGRBM 1-590, 3-945, csm, wikCon
c.499 Senate orders consuls to appoint a dictator to deal with the Latins.  Consuls appoint T. Larcius.  Larcius appoints Sp. Cassius his magister equitum. 499
LdHR 1-76
c.499 FIDENAE, 8km north of Rome, besieged by Romans. 499 DGRBM 1-747, 2-11
c.499 PRAENESTE, in Latin League from ?, defects to Rome until ?. 499 CAH 7.2-285, DGRBM 1-747, wikPls
c.499 Crustumiura Latium, a Sabine city on the Sabine border, taken by Romans. 499 DGRBM 1-747, 2-11, DGRG 1-713
499 Sep. CONSULS:  T. Aebutius Helva and C. (P.?) Veturius Geminus Cicurinus 499 CAH 7.2-628, DGRBM 1-747, 2-11, 3-1251, csm, wikCon
c.498 Roman CENSUS registers 150,700 adult males. 498 CAH 7.2-137, CDCC 179, csun
c.498 A. Postumius Albinus is dictator.  T. Aebutius Helva is magister equitum. 498 DGRBM 2-11
Some sources say T. Lartius is 1st dictator. 498 GHH, HRR
498 Sep. CONSULS:  Q. Cloelius Siculus and T. Larcius Flavus(or Rufus) (2nd) 498 CAH 7.2-628, DGRBM 2-175, 3-817, csm, wikCon
c.498 FIDENAE, 8km north of Rome, colonized by consul T. Larcius Flavus. 498 CAH 7.2-280, DGRBM 2-175
c.497 1st Temple of Etruscan SATURN (god of seed-sowing), begun 501 at the foot of the Capitoline Hill in the western end of the Forum, is finished and dedicated.  Nothing survives.  Current ruins are from a reconstruction in 3rd cent. CE.  Gradual collapse has left nothing but the remains of the front portico standing. 498 DGRA 1112, TToH
497 B76 15-1064, CAH 7.2-287, OCD 446, flkr, wikTS
c.497 PYTHAGORAS, head of school at Metapontum from 500, dies.  Son-in-law ARISTAEUS succeeds until ?. 499 GHH     497 DGRBM, KPHP 8, TToH
no date: OCD 108
497 Sep. CONSULS:  A. Sempronius Atratinus and M. Minucius Augurinus 497 CAH 7.2-628, DGRA 1009, DGRBM 1-407, 419, 3-777, csm, wikCon
c.496 TARQUINS, exiled from 509, make alliance with Latin towns against Rome.  Tusculum, Ardea, Lavinium, Aricia, Tibur, and others begin war with Rome. 496 DGRG 2-120, Dur 3-35
c.496 Cults of CERES, LIBER (Dionysus?), and LIBERA brought from south Italy to Rome, as vowed by dictator Aulus Postumius Albus earlier this year.  Temple dedicated 493. 496 B76 15-1064, DGRBM 1-937, Dur 3-62, CDCC 398, acdm
c.496 Greek god DIONYSUS absorbed into Roman pantheon. 496 Dur 3-62
496 Sep. CONSULS:  A. Postumius Albus and T. Verginius Tricostus Caeliomontanus 496 CAH 7.2-628, DGRBM 1-90, 532, 3-1269, csm, wikCon
c.496 Consul A. Postumius Albus resigns consulship because he suspects consul T. Verginius Tricostus Caeliomontanus of something. 496 DGRBM 1-532
c.496 Aulus Postumius Albus appointed dictator to deal with Etruscan/Latin alliance.  He vows to bring the cult of the Dioscuri, at Lavinium from 500, to Rome, and to build a temple to CERES and LIBERA if Rome is victorious. 499 or 96 wikLRD
498 DGRBM 1-90
496 DGRBM 1-532, 937, 2-776, Dur 3-35
no date: wikTCP
c.496 Battle of LAKE REGILLUS near Tusculum:  Roman dictator Aulus Postumius Albus defeats Etruscan/Latin alliance led by Octavius MAMILIUS, dictator of Tusculum, and Tarquinius Superbus.  Rome conquers 30 Latin cities. 499 B76 15-1090, CDCC 277
499 or 96 CAH 7.2-258, CDCC 496 498 DGRBM 1-90, DGRG 1-211, SORH, TToH     497 B76 X-204, wikLRB     496 CDCC 281, DGRBM 3-979, GHH, LEWH 83, MCAW 104, OCD 911, 1100
c.496 T. Herminius Aquilinus killed in single combat by Octavius MAMILIUS, dictator of Tusculum at Lake Regillus. 498 DGRBM 1-253
c.496 Octavius MAMILIUS, dictator of Tusculum, killed at Lake Regillus. 499 OCD 1100 498 wikOM
c.496 TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS, Etruscan former king of Rome 534-09, flees to Aristobulus at Cumae, Campania. 496 DGRBM 3-979
c.496 TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS, Etruscan former king of Rome 534-09, dies in exile at Cumae, Campania. 496 DGRBM, DGRG 1-717, GHH, HRR, wikLTS
495 Sep. CONSULS:  Ap.(1) Claudius Sabinus Regillensis (an arrogant patrician) and P. Servilius Priscus Structus 495 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 1-767, 3-528, 793, HRRP 1-163, csm, wikAC, wikCon
c.495 Centurion M. LAETORIUS is 1st pleb magistrate. 495 DGRBM 2-709
c.495 Consul P. Servilius PRISCUS defeats the Aurunci at Aricia Latium. 495 DGRG 1-211, wikLRB
c.495 The VOLSCII attack Roman areas. 495 HRRP 1-163
c.495 When the Volscian insurrection is announced, the plebs refuse to take arms, saying, "Let the patricians fight, since they reap all the profits.".  Consul Servilius promises that after the war, all pleb debts will be cancelled.  Plebs relent.  Consul Appius(1) Claudius beheads 300 Volscii hostages. 495 HRRP 1-163
c.495 POMETIA, between Antium and Norba in Latium under Rome from 503/2, comes under the Volscii until ?. 495
CAH 7.2
c.495 CORA Latium, under Rome from 503/2, comes under the Volscii until ?. 495
CAH 7.2
c.495 After the capture of Pometia, the "Ecetrani Volsci" send ambassadors to Rome to sue for peace, which they get only by ceding part of their territory. 495 DGRG 1-802
c.495 Temple of MERCURY on Aventine Hill overlooking Circus Maximus dedicated. 495 CAH 7.2-127, DGRA 480, OCD 673
c.495 SHIELDS bearing portraits of his ancestors dedicated by Appius Claudius in the temple of Bellona. 495 CDGRA 174
c.495 Territory of Rome divided into 17 districts (tribus rusticae), which receive the names of patrician families  (e.g.  Cornelia, Horatia, Fabia). 495 CDCC 907, lvR
c.495 CLAUDIA, a new Roman TRIBE, is created from Sabine conquests, bringing the total to 21 until 387.  All tribes except Crustumina are named for patricians. 495 CAH 7.2-246, 281, DGRBM 3-1187, GHH, HRR, SORH
c.495 SIGNIA Latium becomes a Latin colony. 495 CAH 7.2-280, CDCC 219
c.495 The term "LATIN COLONY" refers to the legal status of a newly founded community, not to the ethnic origin of the settlers or the manner in which it is founded.  In any Roman colony at least 50% of the colonists are Romans.  The rest are taken from the allies.  Romans continue to allow Italian allies to share in colonial schemes to the time of the Social War 91BCE. CAH 7.2-278
c.494 LATINS, invaded by AEQUI, ask Rome for help. 494 DGRG 1-54
c.494 VELITRAE Latium, in Volscii land, becomes a Latin colony 1st time. 494 CAH 7.2-280, DGRBM, SORH
494 Sep. CONSULS:  A. Verginius Tricostus Caeliomontanus and T. Veturius Geminus Cicurinus 494 CAH 7.2-629,
DGRBM 1-532, csm, wikCon
c.494 Consul A. Verginius Tricostus Caeliomontanus defeats the Volscii. 494 DGRBM 1-532
c.494 Roman PLEBS, returning armed from the Volscian campaign, secede from Rome in response to debt pressure and the harsh rule of Appius(1) Claudius Sabinus Regillensis.  Plebs, under C. Sicinius Bellutus and L.(2) Junius Brutus, hold up on the "Sacred Mount" (location disputed) on the Anio River until 493, demand that the senate grant plebean representatives with veto power (tribunes), or they will start a new city.  Ends by mediation of Menenius Agrippa Lenatus. 495 CDGRA 196, GHH     494 CDCC 749, DGRA 1149, DGRBM 1-482, 3-816, Dur 3-22, HRR, LdHR 1-102, LEWH 83, MCAW 105, SORH, TToH, bk, wikSP
494/3 CAH 7.2-212
493 DGRA 353, DGRBM 2-715, HRRP 1-164
493/2 B76 15-1089
c.494 Manius VALERIUS MAXIMUS (1st Valerian to be called Maximus), a patrician popular with plebs, is dictator to deal with civil strife. 494 DGRBM 2-1001, 3-1283, wikLRD
c.494 Q. Servilius Priscus Structus is magister equitum. 494 DGRBM 3-528
c.494  Lex Sacrata  Either affirms sacrosanctity of tribunes or establishes plebs as a sworn confederacy against patricians.
1. Establishes 2 PLEB TRIBUNES to grant political rights and power to plebs.
2. AEDILES originated as assistants of tribunes.  2 pleb magistrates in charge of police functions and the temple where records of concessions of patricians are kept.
494 CDCC 10, CDGRA 6, 645, DGRBM, SHWC 105, SORH, invf, unrv, wikAd, wikLRL
494/3 CAH 7.2
c.494 Temple of Castor and Pollux (the Dioscuri) begun by Aulus Postumius Albus in the Forum in gratitude for victory at the Battle of Lake Regillus 496.  His son finishes it in 484. 494 wikLMRF, no date: wikTCP
c.494 PLEB TRIBUNES have:
  1. AUXILUIM:  power to protect citizens from action of magistrates.
  2. INTERCESSIO:  power to intervene to check a magisterial decree or senatus consultum.
  3. Presidency of peoples assembly, and right to put rogations to them, which if accepted become plebiscites.
  4. Power to coerce and punish offenders against the peoples assembly, subject to appeal to the assembly itself.
494 SORH
c.494 LUDI "games" ROMANI a religious festival in honor of Jupiter (2 days from 509) in Sept. increased to 3 days (Sept. 12 to 14).  It is held somewhat annually until 366, and lasts 3 days until 191. 494 wikLR
c.494 Dictator M' VALERIUS MAXIMUS raises 2 legions of 4,000 men each. 492 DGRA 493
c.494 Dictator Manius VALERIUS MAXIMUS induces plebs to enlist in war against Sabines and Aequi, promising to cancel debts when the enemy is repulsed.  He triumphs over the Sabines, but the senate refuses to honor his promise.  The plebs have the sense to see it was not Valerius who betrayed them.  He dies soon after. 494 DGRBM 2-1001, wikLRD
c.494 ANAXILAS of Messenia becomes tyrant of Rhegium until 476. 496 DGRA 1182     494 CAH 4, DGRBM 1-164, DGRG 2-704, OCD 61, rcSI     494/3 CAH 7.2
c.493 P. Postumius Tubertus is one of 10 envoys sent by the senate to the plebs on the Sacred Mount. 493 DGRBM 2-175
c.493 PLEBS, camped on the Sacred Mount from 494, vow to kill anyone who attacks their tribunes or aediles, go home.  2nd secession 449. 493
Dur 3-22
c.493 Roman CENSUS registers 110,000+ adult males. 493 CAH 7.2-137, CDCC 179, csun
c.493 1st pleb TRIBUNES possibly include:  L. Albinus,  C. Icilius Ruga,  C. Licinius,  P. Licinius,  Dionysius.  Records are contradictory. 493 DGRBM 2-260, 783
c.493 ARDEA Latium, comes under the Volscii until ?. 493 CAH 7.2
c.493 Greek goddess DEMETER introduced at Rome by the directors of the Sibylline Books.  But under the name of an old Latin grain goddess CERES, in Rome from 496.  A temple is built for her near the Circus Maximus on Aventine hill, dedicated by Sp. Cassius Vescellinus.  Ceres is worshipped with Liber and Libera. 496 Dur 3-62
493 CAH 7.2-136, 287, CDGRA 157, DGRBM 1-937 OCD 223
493 Sep. CONSULS:  Postumius Cominus Auruncus (2nd) and Sp. Cassius Vescellinus (2nd) 493 B76 II-617, CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 1-444, 3-1271,
OCD 211, csm, wikCon
c.493 Consuls, until now entering office on the ides (15th) of September, begin entering on the kalends (1st) of September until 479. 493 DGRA 353
c.493 Sp. Lartius Flavus is legate to consul Postumius Cominus Auruncus. 493 DGRBM 2-175
c.493 ROME / LATIN adversity from 508 ends because of attacks by Volscii and Aequi.   FOEDUS CASSIANUM  (Treaty of Sp. Cassius), a defensive alliance between Rome and 30 Latin cities mediated by consul Sp. Cassius Vescellinus.  Provides peace in Latium, binding commercial contracts between their cities, mutual military aid, equal division of spoils, joint colonies set up in captured lands.  Orders hearing of lawsuits relating to private contracts between a Roman and a Latin within 10 days in the courts of the state where the contract was made.  Lasts until 380.  Rome joins Latin League. 499-3 OCD 107
493 B76 II-617, CAH 7.2-128, 229, CDCC 496, CDGRA 370, DGRBM 3-1271, DGRG 1-88, 211, Dur 3-35, HRR, HRRP 1-189, LdHR 1-122, LEWH 84, MCAW 105, OCD 211, 583, SORH, wikFoCas
c.493 As soon as the plebs had become reconciled to the patricians, and had returned to Rome, consul Cominius Auruncus marches against the Volsci, while consul Cassius Vescellinus remains at Rome to ratify the league with the Latins. 493 DGRBM 3-1271, SORH
c.493 Rome / Volscii War begins until 396. 493 DGRBM, Dur 3-35
c.493 Consul Postumus Cominius Auruncus defeats 2 armies from Volscian capital Antium. 493 wikAnz     492 GHH, HRR
c.493 Consul Postumius Cominus Auruncus takes Volscian towns LONGULA, POLLUSCA, and CORIOLI. 493 DGRBM 1-444, wikAnz 492 GHH, HRR
c.493 Gn. Marcius CORIOLANUS wins his name by capturing Volscian CORIOLI. 493 CAH 7.2, DGRBM, SORH, TToH     492 Dur 3-20
c.493 Menenius Agrippa Lenatus dies.  Senate votes to give him an extravagant funeral at public expense.  Plebs make donations to his kids. late 493
DGRBM 2-716
c.492 Because pleb insurrection in 493 caused land to be uncultivated, Rome has FAMINE until 491. 492 DGRBM 2-884, GHH, HRR, lvR     491 SORH
c.492 COMITIA TRIBUTA (tribal assembly) established. 492 GHH, HRR
c.492 L. Sicinius Bellutus is pleb aedile.  He joins tribune Sp. Icilius in attacking the senate because of the famine. 492 DGRBM 3-816
c.492 Spurius Icilius is pleb tribune.  He attacks the senate for holding out provisions.  Patricians oppose him. 492 DGRBM 2-556
c.492  Lex Icilia de Tribunis Plebis  by tribune Sp. Icilius:  Imposes fines for interruption of tribunes while addressing the people's assembly.  If the fines are refused, the offender is killed and his property confiscated. 492 CAH 7.2-222, HRR, SORH, invf     471 DGRA 690     469 CDGRA 379
This law may be later, because it is not applied until 461. DGRA 1149
c.492 NORBA Latium, in Volscii land, becomes a Latin colony. 492 CAH 7.2-280, CDCC 219, DGRG 2-446, GHH, HRR, SORH
c.492 MEDULLIA Latium, allied with Rome from ?, defects to Sabines. 492 DGRG 2-306
c.492 Rome sends embassy to Cumae to beg for grain, but the ships, which had been already loaded with grain, are confiscated, by Aristodemus allegedly for the property of Tarquin. 492 DGRG 1-717
c.492 ARISTODEMUS tyrant of of Cumae from ?, dies. 492 OCD 112
492 Sep. CONSULS:  T. Geganius Macerinus and P. Minucius Augurinus 492 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 2-884, csm, wikCon
c.492 L. Geganius Macerinus, bro of consul Macerinus, is sent to Sicily to get grain. 492 DGRBM 2-884
c.491 Spurius Icilius is pleb aedile.  He participates in prosecution of Coriolanus. 491 DGRBM 2-560
c.491 L. Sicinius Bellutus is elected pleb tribune 2nd time, because of his hostility to patricians. 491 DGRBM 3-816
c.491 Patrician Gn. Marcius CORIOLANUS offers free grain to plebs for giving up the tribunate.  Fails.  Charged.  Banished at insistence of plebs.  Flees to the Volsci. 491 B76 III-151, CAH 7.2, DGRBM, Dur 3-35, GHH, LEWH 84, TToH
c.491 GELON of Gela Sicily sends famine relief grain to Rome. 491 SORH
491 Sep. CONSULS:  M. Minucius Augurinus (2nd) and A. Sempronius Atratinus (2nd) 491 CAH 7.2-629,
DGRBM 1-407, csm, wikCon
c.490 Bronze STATUE of JUPITER installed on Capitoline Hill. 490 DGRA 1086
c.490 Roman defector Gn. Marcius CORIOLANUS leads the Volscii into Roman territory as far as the Fossae Cluiliae on the outskirts of Rome.  Changes his mind because of prayers of mother and wife.  Murdered by the Volscii (but possibly as late as 470). 491 bk     490 CAH 7.2-287, DGRBM 1-853, OCD 290     489/8 CAH 7.2, HRR, lvR
no date: LEWH 84
c.490







c.490
ALCMAEON Greek physician of Croton flourishes.

Λ METAPHYSICS V:  1st to argue for immortality of the Λ SOUL V (See Heraclitos 500, Diogenes 440).

PHYSICS V:  Equality (isonomia) of opposing forces (e.g. wet, dry, hot, cold, sweet, bitter, etc.) preserves health.  dominance by any one of them produces disease.
(MEDICINE V:  See Sushruta 495, Hippo 450)

ANATOMY:  Sensory organs are connected to brain by channels (poroi).  Discovered optic nerve, eustacian tubes, difference between veins & arteries.  Discussed sleep, death, and embryo development.
(See Ebers Pap. 1550, Hippo 450, Empedocles 444)
600-501 TToH
500 TToH
500-491 TTS
500-450 sepAlc
no date:
OCD 38, wikAlc
c.490 Greek physician ALCMAEON of Croton dies. 500 bkrgs     490 sepAlc
c.490 Via LatinaVIA LATINA mentioned as existing between Rome and Tusculum at the pass between Mt. Algidus and Mt Alban. 490 bbhst, wlwnd
490 Sep. CONSULS:  Q. Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus and Spurius Larcius Flavus (or Rufus 2nd) 490 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 1-590, 2-175, csm, wikCon
490/89 ANAXILAS tyrant of Rhegium 493-76 siezes Zancle Sicily. 490/89 OCD 675
490/89 Samians in Zancle Sicily, having made a pact with Hippocrates, are expelled by ANAXILAS tyrant of Rhegium. 490/89 OCD 61
c.489 AEQUI and VOLSCII wars with Rome begin (with interruptions) until 431.  Take Latin towns. 489 SORH
c.489 Maenius is pleb tribune.  He proposes an addition to the Circensian games. 489 DGRBM 2-896
489 Sep. CONSULS:  C. Iulius Iullus and P. Pinarius Mamertinus Rufus 489 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 2-656, 911, 3-367, csm, wikCon
c.488 SATRICUM Latium, 30km southeast of Rome, taken by the Volsci, who remain until 385. 488 CDCC 788
488 Sep. CONSULS:  Spurius Nautius Rutilus and Sex. Furius Medullinus Fusus? 488 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 2-1005, 3-682, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.487 The VOLSCII are attacked by Romans. 487 CAH 7.2
c.487 PRINCEPS SENATUS, an office appointed for life, is made a magistrate appointed by the curies. 487 DGRA 1018
c.487 URBAN PREFECT, an office created by Romulus to manage Rome when the king was away, is elevated to an magistracy elected by the curia.  Only men of consular rank are elligible. 487 DGRA 953
487 Sep. CONSULS:  patrician T. Sicinus Sabinus and C. Aquillius Tuscus? 487 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 3-691, 815, 1193, csm, wikCon
c.487 Consul C. Aquillius Tuscus defeats the Hernici. 487 DGRBM 3-1193
486 Sep. CONSULS:  Sp. Cassius Vescellinus (3rd) and Proculus Verginius Tricostus Rutilus 486 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 3-1174, 1271, OCD 20, 211, LdHR 1-102, csm, wikCon
c.486 Consul Sp. Cassius Vescellinus marches against the Volscii and Hernici. 486 CAH 7.2-276
c.486 The HERNICI of the Trerus (Sacco) valley are defeated by Sp. Cassius Vescellinus, forced to become allies. 486 CAH 7.2-276, HRR, LdHR 1-122, SORH
c.486 Consul Tricostus Rutilus marches against the Aequi; but as they would not meet him in the field, he ravages their territory and returns to Rome, where he opposes the agrarian law of consul Cassius Vicellinus. 486 DGRBM 3-1174
c.486 C. Rabuleius is pleb tribune.  He tries to mediate between the consuls in the disputes over the agrarian law proposed by consul Sp. Cassius. 486 DGRBM 3-640
c.486 Consul Sp. Cassius Vescellinus proposes  Rogatio Cassia Agraria  dealing with land taken from the Hernci:  part to be leased, revenue goes to treasury,   part to be distributed to plebs and allies.  Rejected by senate and even by plebs due to inclusion of allies.  Eventually results in execution of Cassius for pursuing monarchy.  Reintroduced 481. 486 CAH 7.2, CDGRA 14, DGRA 685, DGRBM 3-1272, Dur 3-23, GHH, HRR, LEWH 84, OCD 212, SORH, bk, invf, unrv 484 DGRA 40
This may be a fabrication from the Gracchan era.
c.486 The Italic tribe of HERNICI are admitted to the Rome / Latin defensive alliance on equal terms by  treaty  of Sp. Cassius Viscellinus.  They remain allies until 362. 486 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-1271, DGRG 1-1060, GHH, LEWH 84, OCD 505, wikHrn
c.486 Rome begins intermittent wars with Hernici, Aequi, Volsci, and Veii until 425. 486 CDCC 938
From 485 to 479 one of the consuls is always a Fabius. 485 LdHR 1-120
c.485 QUAESTORS first appointed. 485 GHH, HRR
c.485 Kaeso Fabius Vibulanus and L.(1) Valerius Potitus are quaestors. 485 DGRBM 3-1253
c.485 Sp. CASSIUS VICELLINUS, consul 486, is impeached by quaestors Vibulanus and Potitus for aspiring to kingship, condemned by popular vote, beheaded by patricians.  His house is leveled, and the spot where it stood in front of the temple of Tellus is left waste.  A brazen statue of Ceres is erected in her temple, with an inscription that it was dedicated out of the fortune of Cassius. 486 HRRP 1-171 485 CAH 7.2-183, DGRA 1068, DGRBM 2-909, 3-1253, 1272, Dur 3-20, HRR, SORH
c.485 1st known STATUE of a DEITY in Rome is the bronze statue of Ceres. 486 DGRA 1068
485 Sep. CONSULS:  Ser. Cornelius Cossus Maluginensis and Q. Fabius Vibulanus 485 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 1-865, 2-909, 3-1253, csm, wikCon
c.485 Consul Ser. Cornelius Cossus wars with the Veii successfully. 485 DGRBM 2-909
c.485 Consul Fabius routs the Aequi and Volsci. 485 GHH
484 Sep. CONSULS:  L. Aemilius Mamercus and Kaeso Fabius Vibulanus 484 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 2-910, 3-1253, csm, wikCon
c.484 Cult of the DOISCURI (Castor & Pollux), at Lavinium from 500, received into Roman pantheon as protectors of Rome because of a vow made by Aulus Postumius before battle of Lake Regillus 496. 484
Dur 3-62, OCD 213
c.484 Temple of Castor & Pollux (the Dioscuri) begun by Aulus Postumius Albus in the Forum in 494, finished by his son.  What it looked like is unknown.  The 3 columns remaining today are from a reconstruction by Tiberius dedicated 6CE. 484 CAH 7.2-287, wikTCP
c.484 Consul L. Aemilius Mamercus fights the Aequi and Volsci.  Sources disagree on who won. 484 DGRBM 2-910
c.484 TUSCULUM Latium makes  treaty  with Rome. 484 CAH 7.2
483 Sep. CONSULS:  M. Fabius Vibulanus and L.(1) Valerius Potitus 483 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 3-514, 1253, csm, wikCon
c.483 Vestal virgin OPPIA executed for chastity vow violation. 483 DGRBM 3-34
c.483 C. Maenius is pleb tribune.  He tries to prevent consuls from levying troops until they divide the ager publicus among the plebs.  Unsuccessful.  The consuls leave Rome and hold the levy a mile beyond the gates, where the tribunes have no power. 483 DGRBM 2-896
c.483 1st ROME vs. VEII & FIDENAE WAR begins until 474. 483 CAH 7.2-296, DGRG 3-1262, GHH, HRR, LEWH 84, lvR     482 HRRP 1-197, bk
482 Sep. CONSULS:  patrician Q. Fabius Vibulanus (2nd) and pleb C. Iulius Iullus 482 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 2-656, 3-1253, csm, wikCon
c.482 Consuls VIBULANUS ans IULLUS both sent against the Veii, but find none willing to fight.  They ravage Veii territory, and return. 482 DGRBM 2-656, 3-1253,
c.482 VOLCIANS defeat L. Aemilius Mamercus at Volscian capital Antium.  Next day, Mamercus defeats Volcians at Longula. 482 wikLRB
481 Sep. CONSULS:  Kaeso Fabius Vibulanus (2nd) and Spurius Furius Medulinus Fusus 481 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 2-1005, 3-1253, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.481 Spurius Icilius (Licinius) is pleb tribune.  He threatens to deny senate the ability to levy troops for war against Aequi and Veii if his law is not passed. 481 DGRBM 2-560, 783
c.481  Rogatio Licinia Agraria  by tribune Spurius Icilius (Licinius):  Reintroduces the Agrarian law of Cassius 486.  Tries to force a land grant by opposing a levy of plebs for war against Aequi and Veii.  He is opposed by consul Kaeso Fabius Vibulanus. 481 DGRBM 2-560, 783, GHH, HRR, invf, unrv
c.480 Before 480 no date in the Julian Calendar should be trusted unless confirmed by astronomical phenomena. 480 B76 4-578
480 Sep. CONSULS:  M. Fabius Vibulanus (2nd) and Gn. Manlius Cincinnatus 480 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 2-920, 3-1253, csm, wikCon
c.480 Consuls Vibulanus and Cincinnatus defeat the Veii and other Etruscans at VeiiCincinnatus and former consul Quintus Fabius are killed. 480 CAH 7.2-296, DGRBM 2-920, 3-1253, GHH, HRR, wikLRB
c.480  Rogatio Pontificia Agraria  by tribune Tiberius Pontificius:  another defeated attempt to force a land grant by resisting military levies. 480 invf, unrv
c.480







c.480







c.480
XENOPHANES of Colophon flourishes at Elea 520-475.  Greek poet, critic of Homer, Hesiod, religion, anthropomorphic gods, veneration of athleticism, in Elea from 520, head of Eleatic school from ?, teacher of Parmenides.

Λ METAPHYSICS V:   Λ UNIVERSAL SUBSTRATUM V is earth.  "From earth are all things, and to earth all things return... from earth and water come all of us."
(See Pythagoras 520, Parmenides 460, Anaxagoras 450, Empedocles 444, Leucippos 440)

Λ PHYSICS V:  2 extremes drive the world: wet and dry, which alternate to create and destroy life.
GEOLOGY:  Reasons that stratified rocks were laid down as layers of sediments on the ocean floor.  Given the thickness of the rocks, he concludes that the Earth is ancient.  Correctly interprets fossils.  Figures that since fossil sea shells exist on mountain tops, Earth surface must have fluctuated.
(See Heraclitos 500, Anaxagoras 450)

EPISTEMOLOGY V:  Asserts probability instead of truth, propriety instead of good.  "No man has perceived certainty, nor will anyone perceive it."
(See Plato Meno 386,  Theaetetos 368)

THEOLOGY:  Attacks immortality of Olympian gods.  "Homer and Hesiod have attributed to the gods all sorts of things that are matters of reproach and censure among men: theft, adultery, and mutual deception."  1st Greek to consider the possibility of MONOTHEISM:  "There is one God... greatest among gods and men, who neither in shape nor in thought resembles mortals... Yet men imagine gods to be born and to have clothing and voice and body like themselves." "Men have created gods in their own image."  God is spherical in form, comprehends all things, moves all things, cannot die or be born, does not intervene in human affairs.
Considers PANTHEISM:  "All is one and the one is God.".
(See Heraclitus 500, Svetasvatara 400 Republic 370)
500 higrd
480
KPHP 10
475 wikXnp
no date:
B76 X-780, MCAW 93,
OCD 1141
c.480 ANAXILAS tyrant of Rhegium 493-76 gets help from Carthaginian HAMILCAR for father-in-law Terillus of Himera against Theron. 480 DGRBM 1-164
c.480 ANAXILAS tyrant of Rhegium 493-76 supports Carthaginian HAMILCAR against GELON of Syracuse and Gela. 480
OCD 61
c.480 OSCANS of south Italy have an Λ ALPHABET V written like Etruscan from right to left.  Appears in inscriptions on coins.  Oscan language spoken 500-100CE.
(See Zapotec 500, Mesopotamia 500, Greek 403)
500 SHT 1-769
5-400 ansc, omng, wikOIS, wikOL
c.479 Consuls, entering office on the kalends (1st) of September from 493, begin entering office on the kalends of August (then called Sextilis) until 451. 479
DGRA 353
479 Aug. CONSULS:  Kaeso Fabius Vibulanus (3rd) and T. Verginius Tricostus Rutilus 479 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 3-1174, 1253, csm, wikCon
c.479  Rogatio Fabia Agraria  by consul Kaeso Fabius:  Proposes land distribution, asking the senate to consider distributing land to plebs based from conquered territory in current wars. 479 GHH, HRR, invf, unrv
c.479 The FABIAN clan with their clients occupy a small frontier post on the Cremera river. 479 CAH 7.2-296, DGRBM 3-1255, GHH, HRR
477 DGRBM 2-131
478 Aug. CONSULS:  L. Aemilius Mamercus (2nd) and C. Servilius Structus Ahala, who dies in office, and is replaced by suffect, (Opiter Verginius Tricostus) Esquilinus 478 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 1-83, 2-53, 910, csm, wikCon
c.478 Consul L. Aemilius Mamercus defeats Veii at their walls, then makes a 1 year truce with them, which the senate thinks too lenient.  Mamercus is denied a triumph. 478 DGRBM 2-910, 3-1254
477 Aug. CONSULS:  C. (or M.?) Horatius Pulvillus and T. Menenius Lanatus 477 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 2-716, 3-605, csm, wikCon
c.477 Consul Horatius Pulvillus is first sent to fight the Volsci. 477 DGRBM 3-605
c.477 JANICULUS, a hill across the Tiber from Rome, taken by Etruscans until later 476. 477 DGRBM 2-716, 3-605
476 DGRBM 3-528, GHH, HRR
c.477 Battle of CREMERA River between Rome and Etruscan VEII supported by Fidenae.  The Fabian clan try to prevent Veii and Fidenae from joining.  All (306) Fabians are killed by the Veii.  Q. Fabius Vibulanus survives because too young to participate. 479 bk     477 CAH 7.2-24, 296, CDCC 338, DGRBM 3-1254, DGRG 1-700, GHH, HRR, LEWH 84, 84, MCAW 112, OCD 297, SORH, TToH, wikLRB
c.477 Etruscans defeat the Fabii at the Cremera, then defeat consul Menenius, then cross the Tiber. 477 DGRBM 3-605
c.477 Consul Horatius Pulvillus recalled from fighting the Volscii to deal with the Etruscans. 477 DGRBM 3-605
c.477 Consul MENENIUS is impeached and fined, soon dies of grief. 477 GHH
c.477 Consul Horatius Pulvillus fights indecisive battle with Etruscans at Temple of Hope, then another at the Colline Gate, in which Romans are slightly superior. 477 DGRBM 3-605, wikLRB
c.477 ANAXILAS tyrant of Rhegium 494-76 threatens Locri, but Hieron intervenes. 477 OCD 61 476 CAH 7.2
c.477 HIERON-I, tyrant of Gela and Syracuse 478-66, invades south Italy, helps Sybaris against Croton and Locri against Anaxilas. 477
OCD 514
476 Aug. CONSULS:  A. Verginius Priscus Tricostus Rutilus and Sp.(or Ser.) Servilius Structus 476 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 3-528, 1174, csm, wikCon
c.476 Consul Sp.(or Ser.) Servilius Priscus Structus tries to assault the Etruscans on the Janiculus hill, repulsed with great loss, and would have been routed, but his colleague Virginius rescues him. 476 DGRBM 3-528,
c.476 JANICULUS hill, under Etruscans from 476, recovered by Romans. 476 HRR
c.476  Rogatio Considia et Genucia Agraria  by tribunes Q. Considius and T. Genucius:  Another defeated attempt to distribute land. 476
DGRBM 1-827, 2-245, invf, unrv
c.476 Pleb tribunes Considius and Genucius accuse x-consul T. Menenius Lanatus of negligence at battle of the Cremera 477, causing the extermination of the Fabii.  Menenius starves himself to death. 476 DGRBM 1-827, 2-245, LdHR 1-110, HRR, HRRP 1-174, invf
c.476 ANAXILAS tyrant of Rhegium from 494 dies.  2 minor sons succeed under regency of slave MICYTHOS until 467. 476 CAH 4, 5, DGRBM 1-164 690, 2-1083, DGRG 2-704, GHH, HRR, OCD 61, rcSI
475 Aug. CONSULS:  P. Valerius Poplicola and C. Nautius Rutilus 475 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 3-602, 682, csm, wikCon
c.475 Sp.(or Ser.) SERVILIUS STRUCTUS, consul 476, brought to trial by pleb tribunes L. Caedicius and T. Statius for his botched assault on the Janiculus hill.  Acquitted. 475 DGRBM 1-531, 3-528, 901, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-175
c.475 C. Nautius Rutilus ravages territory of the Volsci, but cannot bring them to a battle. 475 DGRBM 3-682
c.475 XENOPHANES of Colophon, at Elea from 520, dies. 480 OCD 61     478 B76 X-780
475 GRG 242, OHG
c.475 TARAS, Spartan city from 706, becomes a democracy until 347. 475 OCD 1037     473 rcSI
467/6 LEWH 71
474 Aug. CONSULS:  L. Furius Medullinus and A. Manlius Vulso 474 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 2-1005, 3-1285, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.474 Roman CENSUS registers 103,000 or 133,000 adult males. 474 CAH 7.2-137,
CDCC 179, DGRBM, csun
c.474  Rogatio Considia et Genucia Agraria  by unknown tribunes:  Rouses plebs again with a defeated agrarian proposal. 474 invf
c.474 Campanian Greeks, with aid from HIERON-I tyrant of Syracuse and ARISTODEMUS of Cumae, destroys fleet of Etruscans of Campania off CUMAE.  Etruscans of Rome are now cut off from Campania and no longer a threat to Greeks of Neapolis.  Campania under Greeks until 420. 475 vrb     474 B76 1-148, 8-350, 14-789, 15-1087, BCoC 480, CAH 7.2-133, 263, DGRG 1-717, LEWH 71, MCAW 112, OCD 199, 204, 301, 410, 515, 856, OHG, bk, lvS, rcSI
c.474 Consuls march against Veii, and get them to a truce without fighting.  1st ROME vs. VEII & FIDENAE WAR from 483 suspended by a 40 year truce until 438.  Veii is left in possession of Fidenae just up the Tiber.  Etruscan power is broken. 474 CAH 7.2-296, DGRBM 3-1285, GHH HRR, HRRP 1-193, LEWH 84, SORH, bk, vrb     473 lvR
c.474 PITHECUSAE on island of Ischia west of Cumae founded by HIERON-I tyrant of Syracuse. 474 lvS
c.474 Campanian Greeks, with aid from HIERON-I tyrant of Syracuse 478-66 and ARISTODEMUS of Cumae, destroys Etruscan fleet off CUMAE Italy. 475 vrb     474 B76 V-32, 1-148, 8-350, 15-1087, BCoC 480, CAH 5, 7.2, DGRBM 2-454, HRR, LEWH 71, MCAW 112, OCD 199, 204, 301, 410, 515, 856, OHG, bk, lvS, rcSI
473 Aug. CONSULS:  L. Aemilius Mamercus (3rd) and Vopiscus Iulius Iullus OR Opiter Verginius 473 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 2-656, 910, 3-1174, csm, wikCon
c.473 Pleb tribune Gn. GENUCIUS charges x-consuls L. Furius Medullinus and A. Manlius Vulso of violating lex Considia et Genucia Agraria 474. 473 DGRBM 2-245, 3-1285, LdHR 1-110, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-175
c.473 Pleb tribune Gn. GENUCIUS murdered in his bed by patricians before his charge is brought to the assembly.  This intimidates the plebs, so that when the consuls force pleb enlistment in the army, no tribune dares object.  Centurion Publilius Philo Volero shouts, "Your tribunes desert you.  They will allow a citizen to die of beating rather than risk assassination."  Volero is made tribune for 472. 473 DGRBM 1-418, 2-245, 3-1285, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-175, SORH
c.473 IAPYGI tribe defeats Taras and Micythos of Rhegium.  3,000 Rhegians are killed.  This begins a conquest of Greek cities by Lucanians. 473 CAH 7.2-284, DGRBM 2-1083
c.473 The MESAPI defeat Taras. 473 DGRG 1-473
472 Aug. CONSULS:  L. Pinarius Mamercinus Rufus and P. Furius Medullinus Fusus 472 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 2-911, 1005, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.472 Publilius Philo Volero is pleb tribune.  He does not bring the consuls of the previous year to trial, as expected, but, secures the plebs greater freedom in election of tribunes.  They had been elected in the comitia centuriata, where the patricians had majority votes.  Volero proposes that tribunes be elected by the comitia tributa (tribal assembly).  The patricians react violently, and prevent the tribes from voting on it this year. 472
DGRBM 3-297, 603, GHH, HRR
c.471 M. Duilius, C. Laetorius,  Sp. Icilius,  L. Maecilius  L. Numitorius are pleb tribunes elected to the comitia. 472 DGRBM 2-1215     471 DGRBM 1-1090, 2-560, 709, 895
471 Aug. CONSULS:  Ap.(2) Claudius Crassinus Sabinus Regillensis and T. Quinctius Barbatus 471 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 1-605, 767, 3-634, OCD 906, csm, wikCon
c.471 Publilius Philo Volero is re-elected pleb tribune.  His colleague C. Laetorius is equally determined to pass reform legislation. 471 DGRBM 3-603, GHH
c.471  Lex Publilia Voleronis  by pleb tribune Publilius Volero, is past, due to support by consul Capitolinus Barbatus, in spite of opposition by Furius Medullinus.  Tribunes, until now elected by patricians, are now elected by a council of plebs (comitia tributa), also newly established by Volero.  Also enables election of pleb aediles thru tributa, and increases number of tribunes from 2 to 5 until 457.  Furthermore the tribes have a say in all matters affecting the whole nation, and not only affecting plebs.  Patricians again react violently; but though consul Ap.(2) Claudius has recourse to force he cannot prevent the tribes from passing these laws. 472 DGRA 1150, DGRBM 2-1005, SORH
471 CAH 7.2, CDCC 95, CDGRA 204, 381, 497, 649, DGRA 337, 696, DGRBM 1-605, 1090, 2-709, 3-603, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-193, OCD 927, TToH, bk, invf, unrv
c.471 Consul Capitolinus Barbatus conquers the Aequi, who dare not meet him in battle, ravages Aequi country, takes much loot, distributes it among his troops. 471 DGRBM 1-605
c.471 Consul Ap.(2) Claudius fights the Volsci. 471 DGRBM 1-767, HRR
c.471 Consul Ap.(2) Claudius deserted by his army. 471 DGRBM 1-767, GHH, HRR
c.471 Consul Ap.(2) Claudius decimates his mutinous army. 471 CDGRA 227
470 Aug. CONSULS:  L.(1) Valerius Potitus (2nd) and Ti. Aemilius Mamercus 470 CAH 7.2-629, DGRBM 2-910, 3-514, csm, wikCon
c.470 L. Aemilius Mamercus supports an agrarian law of Sp. Cassius to get back at the senate for denying him a triumph. 470 DGRBM 2-910
c.470 Ap.(2) Claudius Sabinus violently opposes agrarian law of Sp. Cassius. 470 GHH
c.470 M. Duilius and C. Sicinus are 2 of the 5 elected (1st time in the comitia tributa) pleb tribunes. 470 DGRBM 3-816, LdHR 1-110
c.470 M. Duilius and C. Sicinus summon Ap.(2) Claudius Sabinus before peoples assembly for violent opposition to agrarian law of Sp. Cassius.  Ap.(2) Claudius dies of illness before his trial. 470 DGRG 1-1090, 3-816, GHH, HRRP 1-178
c.470 COINS V issued by Etruscan cities.  Minting concentrated in Populonia.
(See Cyprus 530, China 520, Darius-I 510)
500 Dur 3-6 475-70 wikEC
450 lrth
c.470 PYXUS (later Buxentum) founded on west coast of Lucania by Greeks from Rhegium sent by Micythus. 470 DGRBM 2-1083, DGRG 1-460
469 Aug. CONSULS:  T. Numicius Priscus and A. Verginius Caeliomontanus 469 CAH 7.2-630, DGRBM 1-532, 2-1214, 3-528, csm, wikCon
c.469 Consul A. Verginius Caeliomontanus attacks the Aequi.  His negligence nearly gets his army destroyed, but they eventually win by their own valor. 469 DGRBM 1-532
c.469 Consul T. Numicius Priscus attacks and defeats Volsci, takes Volscian town CENO. 469 DGRBM 3-528
468 Aug. CONSULS:  patrician T. Quinctius Barbatus (2nd) and Q. Servilius Structus Priscus 468 CAH 7.2-630, DGRBM 1-605, 3-528, OCD 906, csm, wikCon
c.468 Consul T. Quinctius Barbatus wars victoriously against the Volscii and Aequi. 468 DGRBM 1-605
c.468 ANTIUM, capital of the Volsci, taken by Consul Quinctius Barbatus, under Rome until 459. 468 DGRBM 1-605, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-125
467 HRRP 1-193, SORH
c.468 Consul T. Quinctius Barbatus awarded a magnificent triumph and the title "Capitolinus". 467 HRRP 1-193
467 Aug. CONSULS:  Ti. Aemilius Mamercus (2nd) and Q. Fabius Vibulanus 467 CAH 7.2-630, DGRBM 2-910, 3-1255, csm, wikCon
c.467 Consul Vibulanus supports patricians against the tribunes.  Consul Mamercus supports the tribunes.  Vibulanus effected a compromise by proposing that a colony be founded at Antium. 467 DGRBM 3-1255
c.467  Rogatio Aemilia et Fabia Agraria : Joint proposal by consuls T. Aemilius and Q. Fabius Vibulanus, following up on the individual rogatio of T. Aemilius:  Creates a colony and distributes land near Antium.  Met with disinterest by plebs despite senatorial approval. 467 DGRBM 2-910, invf, unrv
c.467 ANTIUM Latium under Rome 468-59, becomes Roman colony, under Rome until 459.  Native Volscii are included together with Romans, Latins and Hernici. 468 DGRG 1-148
467 CAH 7.2-278, 280, DGRBM 2-190, GHH, SORH
c.467 2 sons of Anaxilas of Rhegium visit Syracuse on invitation of Hieron, who persuades them to oust Micthyos and rule Rhegium.  They return to Rhegium. 467 DGRBM 2-1084
c.467 Former slave MICYTHOS, tyrant of Rhegium from 476, either resigns, as required by 2 sons of Anaxilas, or is deposed by the people.  Sources disagree.  A son of Anaxilas, CLEOPHRON succeeds until 461. 467 CAH 5,
DGRBM 2-760, 1084, DGRG 2-704, GHH, HRR, rcSI
c.467/6 RHEGIUM and TARAS defeated with heavy losses by native Italian IAPYGES of Apulia.  Democracy set up at Taras. 467/6 LEWH 71
466 Aug. CONSULS:  Q. Servilius Priscus (2nd) and Spurius Postumius Albinus Regillensis 466 CAH 7.2-630, DGRBM 1-91, 3-528, csm, wikCon
c.466 Temple to Dius Fidus dedicated. 466 CAH 7.2
c.466 Latin cities ARICIA and ARDEA quarrel over boundaries.  They appeal to Rome to arbitrate.  Rome judges that the land belongs to Rome. 466
DGRBM 3-734, OCD 107
465 Aug. CONSULS:  Q. Fabius Vibulanus (2nd) and T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus (3rd) 465 CAH 7.2-630, DGRBM 1-605 3-1255, OCD 906, csm, wikCon
c.465 The war against the Volscii and Aequi continues.  Consul Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus on Mt. Algidus, learns of Aequi raiding Roman territory, returns, and defeats them. 465
DGRBM 1-605
c.465 Roman CENSUS registers 104,714 adult males. 465 CAH 7.2-137, CDCC 179, csun
134,214 adult males 465 GHH, HRR
464 Aug. CONSULS:  A. Postumius Albinus Regillensis and Sp. Furius Medullinus Fusus 464 CAH 7.2-630, DGRBM 1-91, 2-1005, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.464 Consul Sp. Furius Medullinus defeated, wounded, and besieged in his camp by the Aequi.  He is relieved by other consul Barbatus. 464 DGRBM 2-1005, lvR
c.464 T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus may have rescued consul FURIUS from a trap set by the Aequi. 464 OCD 906
463 Aug. CONSULS:  P. Servilius Priscus and L. Aebutius Helva, who dies of plague 463 CAH 7.2-630, DGRBM 2-11, 3-528, csm, wikCon
c.463 Tribunes in vain demand full execution of the agrarian law. 463 LdHR 1-125
c.463 PLAGUE at Rome kills both consuls, 2 of the 4 augurs, and the curio maximus who is head of all patricians. 463 GHH, LdHR 1-125
c.463 PLAGUE kills consul P. Servilius Priscus. 463 DGRBM 2-11, 3-528, HRR
c.463 T. Virginius Tricostus Rutilus is augur, dies of plague same year. 463 DGRBM 3-1174
c.463 AEQUI camp on Mount Algidus, 3 miles from the Esquiline gate of Rome.  It becomes the scene of their conflicts with Rome. 463 DGRG 1-54 462 HRRP 1-194
462 Aug. CONSULS:  L. Lucretius Tricipitinus and T. Veturius Geminus Cicurinus 462 CAH 7.2-630, DGRBM 1-747, 3-1174, csm, wikCon
c.462 Q. Fabius Vibulanus appointed urban Prefect. 462 DGRBM 3-1255
c.462 Demand for public written laws by the plebs becomes general. 462 GHH, HRR
c.462  Rogatio Terentilia  by pleb tribune C. Terentillus (Terentius) Arsa:  proposes a committee of 5 to revise laws and to regulate power of consuls.  Patricans violently and successfully oppose it, but it is brought back in 461.  Eventually results in the twelve tables 450. 462 CAH 7.2-227, CDGRA 383, DGRA 386, 688, 699, DGRBM 3-996, GHH, HRRP 1-201-2, LdHR 1-125, SORH, invf, unrv
c.462 GABI territory ravaged by Volscii in a predatory incursion against Rome. 462 DGRG 1-920
c.462 VOLSCII return from an invasion of Roman territory laden with loot.  Consuls Tricipitinus and Geminus surprise them, and nearly annihilate the whole Volscian army. 462 DGRBM 3-1174, DGRG 1-920, GHH, HRR
c.462 AEQUI defeated by Romans. 462 GHH, HRR
461 Aug. CONSULS:  P. Volumnius Amintinus Gallus and Servius Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus 461 CAH 7.2-630, DGRBM 1-590, 3-1282, csm, wikCon
c.461  Lex Terentilla  by tribune C. Terentillus (Terentius), a bill to reform the law of 462 into a fixed code, is introduced a 2nd time, proposing 10 men instead of 5.  It is again successfully resisted by patricians. 461 DGRBM 1-590, GHH, HRR
c.461 M. Volscius Pictor says that soon after the plague, M. Volscius Pictor and his elder bro fell in with a party of patrician youths who came rushing thru the Subura, when their leader Kaeso Quintius (Quinctius), son of L. Cincinnatus, knocked down his brother, who was still feeble from sickness, and injured him so much that he died shortly afterwards.  This is the 1st instance where Lex Icilia 492 is invoked to charge someone. 461 DGRA 1149, DGRBM 3-1281, GHH
c.461 Aulus Virginius is pleb tribune.  He accuses Kaeso Quintius, son of L. Cincinnatus.  Consul Tricipitinus tries to rescue Quintius, from prosecution, but Quintius is condemned.  His bail is set at 30,000 lbs. of bronze.  He flees to Etruria.  L. Cincinnatus sells all his property except 4 acres to pay the bail.  The patricians in revenge charge Volscius Pictor with lying. 461
DGRBM 3-1174, 1269, HRR, HRRP 1-203
c.461 Earthquake at Rome. 461 GHH, HRR
c.461 CLEOPHRON tyrant of Rhegium from 467 expelled by popular insurrection in both Rhegium and Messana.  Democracy until 387. 461 CAH 5,
DGRBM 2-760, rcSI
460 Aug. CONSULS:  P. Valerius Poplicola (2nd) and C.(1) Claudius Sabinus Regillensis
Suffect:  L. Quinctius Cincinnatus (illegally appionted)
460 CAH 7.2-630, DGRBM 1-752, 767, 3-514, 602, GHH, HRR, csm, wikCon
c.460 Sabine Appius HERDONIUS with 4,000 Sabines and some exiled Romans siezes Rome in a night attack, entrenches himself on Capitoline hill. 460 CAH 7.2-98, 286, DGRBM 1-767, 2-406, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-203, LdHR 1-126, OCD 642
c.460 L. MAMILIUS, dictator of Tusculum, helps Romans defeat Sabine Appius HERDONIUS and recover the capitol.  The 4,000 Sabines are killed. 460 DGRBM 2-912, HRR, OCD 642, wikOM
c.460 Consul P. Valerius Poplicola recovers Rome, but is killed in battle, and is replaced by L. Quinctius Cincinatus. 460 DGRBM 3-602, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-203
c.460





c.460
PARMENIDES of Elea, pupil of Xenophanes, teacher of Zeno, founder of Eleatic school, 1st monistic philosopher, flourishes.

Λ METAPHYSICS V:   "All is one."  Says all things and phenomena are just an appearance of a single eternal reality - "being".
Past and future, change, motion don't exist.  (Opposite of Heraclitos 500)  Says reality is changeless, singular, eternal, finite, indestructible, a solid homogeneous sphere.   (See Xenophanes 480, Anaxagoras 450, Hippasus 445, Empedocles 444)

Λ EPISTEMOLOGY:  Introduces rational proof as basis fo assertions.  1st to consider the meaning of "to be", and to employ reductio ad absurdum arguments.  Says what can be known is all that "is".
(See Plato Meno 386,  Theaetetos 368)
490 OHG
475
MCAW 113
450 BHM 74
dies 440
MCAW 101
no date:
B76 VII-766, OCD 377, 667, 782
459 Aug. CONSULS:  Q. Fabius Vibulanus (3rd) and L. Cornelius Maluginensis Uritinus 459 CAH 7.2-630, DGRBM 2-909, csm, wikCon
c.459 Roman CENSUS registers 117,319 adult males.  The lustrum is not performed this year. 459 CAH 7.2-137, CDCC 179, DGRA 720, csun
c.459 Quaestors accuse Volscius Pictor before the comitia of the curiae or the centuries, of having borne false witness against Kaeso Quintius, but the tribunes prevent them from prosecuting the charge. 459 DGRBM 3-1282
c.459 ANTIUM, Roman colony from 467, defects back to the Volscii but is quickly reconquered. 459 CAH 7.2-279, DGRBM, DGRG 1-149, GHH, HRR, SORH
c.459 Consul Fabius Vibulanus defeats the Aequii on Mount Algidus, advances against Volscian city Ecetra, devastates its territory, but doesn't attack the city. 459 DGRBM 2-909, DGRG 1-803
458 Aug. CONSULS:  C. Nautius Rutilus (2nd) and [?] Carve[?], who apparently dies, and is replaced by Suffete L. Minucius Esquilinus Augurinus 458 CAH 7.2-630,
DGRBM 3-682, csm, wikCon
c.458 Consul MINUCIUS AUGURINUS, for fear of the Aequii, retreats to MT. ALGIDUS 20km southeast of Rome.  The Aequii, supposedly under Cloelius Gracchus, besiege Minucius.  L. Quinctius CINCINATUS is appointed dictator, recruits an army in 15 days, persuades the Aequii to deliver Cloelius Gracchus to him, rescues Minucius, returns to Rome, resigns dictatorship on the 16th day.  Some or all of this story is thought fabricated. 458 B76 II-940, CAH 7.2-288, DGRBM 1-752, 805, DGRG 1-669, Dur 3-20, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-194, 204, LEWH 84, MCAW 120, OCD 241, OCD 693, SORH, bk, wikLRB, wikLRD     456 Dur 3-31
c.458 L. Tarquitius Flaccus is magister equitum to Cincinnatus.  He is compelled by poverty to serve without a horse. 458 DGRA 472, DGRBM 2-157, 3-979
c.458 Dictator Cincinnatus is father of Kaeso Quintius.  Cincinnatus presides in the comitia for the trial of Volscius Pictor.  The tribunes dare not further oppose, and Volscius Pictor is forced into exile. 458 DGRBM 3-1282, HRRP 1-204
c.458 L. MAMILIUS, dictator of Tusculum, granted Roman citizenship by the senate for his help 460 in a war against the Aequi and Volsci.  458 DGRBM 2-912, wikOM
c.458 Consul Nautius Rutilus defeats Sabines at Eretum. 458 DGRBM, DGRG 1-848, 3-682
c.457 Number of TRIBUNES:  5 from 471, doubled to 10.  2 from each class are elected, but the law which orders it is not stated. 457 CAH 7.2-218, CDGRA 645, DGRA 1150, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, SORH
457 Aug. CONSULS:  C. Horatius Pulvillus and Q. Minucius Esquilinus 457
CAH 7.2-630, DGRBM 3-605, csm, wikCon
Diodorus adds: L. Quinctius Cincinnatus (2nd) and M. Fabius Vibulanus
c.457 The Aequi return to hassle Rome. 457 CAH 7.2-288
c.457 Consul C. Horatius Pulvillus defeats the Aequi and destroys Corbio. 457 DGRBM 3-605
c.456 3 legati are sent to the Aequi. 456 CDGRA 374
c.456 L. Icilius is pleb tribune.  Gets tribunes the right to convoke the senate in order to discuss a rule that forbade tribunes to be absent from Rome for more than 1 day. 456 DGRA 1151, DGRBM 2-560
c.456  Lex Icilia de Aventino Publicando  by pleb tribune L. Icilius:  Allots land on Aventine Plateau to plebs.  Icilius forces consuls to bring this plebiscite to the sentae, which assents.  Consuls then propose it to the populus, which passes it in the comitia centuriata.  Livy says this preserved tribune authority, and was passed as a concession to exclude plebs from the decemvirate committee for tabulation of the 12 tables.  It is opposed by consul M.(1) Valerius Maximus Lactuca. 456 CAH 7.2-139, 223, 237, DGRA 1078, DGRBM 2-1001, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-204, OCD 155, SORH, invf, unrv     454 wikLRL
c.456 LUDI SAECULARES, a secular festival involving sacrifices and theater, for 3 days and nights to mark the end of a saeculum and the beginning of the next held for the 2nd time. 456 DGRBM 1-532
456 Aug. CONSULS:  M.(1) Valerius Maximus Lactuca "lettuce" and Sp. Verginius Tricostus Caeliomontanus 456 CAH 7.2-630, DGRBM 1-532, 2-1001, csm, wikCon
455 Aug. CONSULS:  T. Romilius Rocus Vaticanus and C. Veturius Geminus Cicurinus 455 CAH 7.2-630, DGRBM 1-748, 3-658, csm, wikCon
c.455 Consulship shows a sudden influx of new families until 452. 455 CAH 7.2-114
c.455 Tribunes of 456 are reelected. 455 DGRBM 2-560
c.455 The Aequi return to hassle Rome. 455 CAH 7.2-288
c.455 Consuls defeat the Aequi, but cheat the plebs out of their share of the loot. 455 DGRBM 1-748, GHH, HRR
c.455 PYTHAGOREAN SOCIETY at Croton from 530, almost totally destroyed by democratic revolution.  Survivors return to Greece and settle in Thebes and Phileius. 460-400 OCD 904
455 B76 VIII-326
454 wikPhl
450 B76 15-325
c.455 2nd temple of Hera2nd temple of Hera at Posidonia built.  Has wide, dish-shaped Doric capitals like the 1st 600.  Columns have 24 flutes rether than the usual 20.  Temple of Hera-2 has a wider column size and smaller intervals between columns.  It is also used to worship Zeus and another unknown god.  East of it are remains of 2 altars.  The smaller one is a Roman addition. photo
Norbert Nagel


460-50 wikPst
c.454 PHILOLAUS, Pythagorean of Croton, moves to Greece until 400. 454 wikPhl
c.454 Aug. CONSULS:  Spurius Tarpeius Montanus Capitolinus and A. Aeternius Varus Fontinalis 454 CAH 7.2-630, DGRBM 1-606, 2-180, csm, wikCon
c.454 C. Claudius Cicero is pleb tribune.  . 454 DGRBM 1-707
c.454 L. Sicinius Dentatus is pleb tribune.  He prosecutes before the people T. Romilius Rocus Vaticanus, consul of 455, and gets his condemnation. 454 DGRBM 3-816
c.454 Plebs defeat patricians in fight over public laws.  Senate assents to a plebiscite whereby envoys (3 patricians including Servius Sulpicius Camerinus and A. Manlius Vulso) are sent to Athens to get a copy of the laws of Solon and others for study.  They remain until 452. 454 CAH 7.2-227, DGRA 688, DGRBM 1-590, 3-1285, Dur 3-23, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-127, LEWH 84, MCAW 121, SORH     451 TToH
c.454  Lex Aternia et Tarpeia de Multis  by consuls Sp. Tarpeius and A. Aternius:  Allows magistrates to fine citizens who resist their authority, but fixes maximum fine at 2 oxen + 30 sheep. 455 DGRA 685, GHH     454 CAH 7.2-123, HRR, HRRP 1-207, OCD 601, invf, unrv, wikLRL
c.454 Pleb aedile L. Alienus prosecutes ex-consuls Cicurinus and Vaticanus for military misconduct or offences against plebs.  Both are condemned and heavily fined.  Cicurinus is fined 10,000 asses. 454
CAH 7.2-226, DGRBM 1-748, 3-658
c.453 Consul Quinctilius Varus dies of plague and is replaced by crippled war hero Sp. Furius Medullinus Fuscus. 453 DGRBM 3-1230, lvR
c.453 In response to Etruscan piracy, Syracusan commanders Phayllus and Apelles with 60 ships take Elba, and ravage coasts of Etruria and Corsica. 454 CAH 7.2-133
453 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-861
453/2 CAH 5
453 Aug. CONSULS:  Sex. Quinctilius Varus and P. Curiatius Fistus Trigeminus 453 CAH 7.2-630, DGRBM 2-153, 3-1174, 1230, csm, wikCon
c.453 C. Veturius Cicurinus is elected augur. 453 DGRBM 1-748
c.453 FAMINE and PLAGUE hit Rome. 453 DGRBM 2-153
c.453 C. Horatius Pulvillus dies of Plague. 453 DGRBM 3-605
c.452 The 3 Roman envoys in Greece from 454 return.  A 10 patrician legislation board (Decemviri) is appointed to revise laws in light of the Greek data gathered. 452 CAH 7.2-227, DGRA 688, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-212, LdHR 1-128
c.452  Lex Maenia Sestia :  sets a scale for fines, 1 ox = 12 sheep = 100 lb. of bronze. 452 wikLRL
c.452 SYBARIS, under Croton from 510, comes under tyrant Thetallos until 447. 452 rcSI
452 Aug. CONSULS:  T. Menenius Lanatus and P. Sestius Capitolinus Vaticanus 452 CAH 7.2-630, DGRBM 1-606, 2-716, 3-796, csm, wikCon
451 Aug. CONSULS:  Ap.(3) Claudius Crassus and T. Genucius Augurinus 451 CAH 7.2-631, DGRBM 1-419, 767, 2-245, csm, wikCon
Some sources make Ap.(2) & Ap.(3) Claudius the same man.
c.451 Intermarriage between patricians and plebs is forbidden until 445. 451 GHH, HRR
c.451 Plebian aggitation for laws to check abuses by patrician magistrates leads to suspension of the Roman constitution and total power given to 10 patrician DECEMVIRI, all former consuls:  (Sp. Postumius Albinus,  T. Genucius Augurinus,  P. Sextius Capitolinus,  Sp. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus,  Ap.(3) Claudius Crassus,  C. Iulius Iulus,  T. Romilius Rocus Vaticanus,  Aulus Manlius Vulso) (either the 452 board or another one) to replace consuls for 2 years. 451 B76 II-976, CAH 7.2-227, DGRA 386, 688, DGRBM 1-91, 419, 590, 748, 767, 2-656, 3-658, 1233, 1285, Dur 3-23, HRR, HRRP 1-213, LdHR 1-128, LEWH 84, MCAW 121, OCD 316, SORH
c.451 Consuls, entering office on the kalends (1st) of August (then called Sextilis) from 479, abdicate to the decemviri, who enter office on the ides (15th) of May until the decemvirate is abolished in 450. 451 DGRA 353

Italy 450-391
V