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c.500 Carthaginian HANNO with fleet of 60 ships explores west coast of Africa, probably beyond Cape Verde. 500 CDCC 107, 337, Dur 3-20, TToH     490 Dur 2-341, MCAW 109
c.500 IRON AGE, in Nubia from 700, spreads to sub-Saharan Africa. 500 TAWH 17
c.500 Metalworking is commonplace in West Africa.  Ironworking is fully established in West and East Africa.  Copper objects from Egypt, North Africa, Nubia and Ethiopia exist in West Africa, suggesting that trade had been established by this time. by 500 nwe
c.500 KAIROUAN in northeast Tunisia founded by Carthaginians. 500 CAH 6-369
c.500 COPPER SMELTING begins in Mali and Niger. 500 PW 16
c.500 Nok culture begins in forests of central Nigeria to 200CE.  The Nok are revered for their art and terracottas. 500 PW 16, cocc
c.500 NIGERIA:  NOK culture begins smelting iron. 500 wikA
c.500 Garamantes civilization (probably ancestors of the Tuareg) exist in Libyan Desert to 500CE. by 500 nwe
c.500 LEPTIS MAGNA, Phoenician city in Libya, comes under Carthage until 202. 500 rcNA
c.499 HASDRUBAL, ruler of Carthage from 510, ends.  HAMILCAR-I succeeds to 480. 499 hifiC
c.497 Greeks and Cartaginians begin trading. 497 GHH
c.480 HAMILCAR-I son of Hanno, elected basileus of Carthage. 480 CAH 6-365
c.480 HAMILCAR-I son of Hanno, 3rd Magonid ruler of Carthage from 510, killed at Himera Sicily.  Son HANNO-II the Navigator succeeds to 440.  Kings lose most power to an aristocratic Council of Elders, and become little more than figureheads. 480 B76 17-918, LEWH 71, MWΦ 120, OCD 6, 208, 486, 516, 985, 1061, RAH 213, hifiC, rcNA, wikMag, wikHam1, wikMC
c.480 Satraps commanded by Xerxes-I, king of Medo-Persia 486-65, to circumnavigate Africa, sail just a little beyond the Pillars of Hercules. 480
MCAW 113
c.476 CYRENE, under Greek king Battus-IV 515-465, under Persia from 525, recovers independence until 331. 479-74 OCD 307
c.466 EUESPERIDES (Hesperides) Libya founded by Greeks of Cyrenaica as their capital. 466 TTPC
no date: B76 I-788
c.465 BATTUS-IV 7th Greek king of Cyrene from 515, independent from 476, ends.  Son ARCHESILAUS-IV succeeds to 440. 470 lvG
465 rcNA, wikC
c.463 INAROS prince of Libya, under Persia, rebels against satrap HAKHAMANISH, who flees to Memphis. 463 Schedl
461 DGRBM 2-572
c.455 CYRENE shelters Athenian survivors from Egyptian expedition. 455 OCD 307
c.450 Barcid family comes to prominence as suffetes in Carthage. 450 hifiC
c.440 HANNO-II the Navigator, son of Hamilcar, 4th Magonid ruler of Carthage from 480, ends.  Neph HANNIBAL-I MAGO (Himilco-I in Sicily 460-10) succeeds to 406. 440 hifiC, rcNA, wikMag, wikMC
c.440 BATTAID DYNASTY of CYRENE ends.  Began 630.
ARCHESILAUS-IV 8th Greek king of Cyrene from 465 expelled, flees to Euesperides, killed.  His head is thrown into the sea.  Cyrene becomes republic under Medo-Persia until 331.
460 rcNA
450 DGRG 1-735 440 B76 13-149, OCD 307, lvG, wikC
c.414 Greek city of EUESPERIDES Libya besieged by Libyan tribes.  Rescued by Spartan GLYPPOS enroute to Sicily. 414 CDCC 332
c.410 HIMILCO-I, Magonid ruler of Carthage in Sicily from 440, ends.  HANNIBAL-I succeeds to 406. 410 wikMag
c.410 Carthage mints 1st COINS, and then not for commercial reasons but for payment of troops in Sicily.  This series ceases in 390. 410 CAH 7.2-507
c.409 HANNIBAL-I gets royal power. 409 CAH 6-373
c.406 HANNIBAL-I MAGO, Magonid ruler of Carthage from 440, dies in Sicily.  HIMILCO-II succeeds to 396. 406 B76 8-369, MWΦ 197, hifiC, rcNA, wikMag, wikMC
c.405 Greek city of EUESPERIDES Libya invites other Greeks to move in. 405 CDCC 332
c.405 HIMILCO-II with a treaty and diseased troops, returns from Sicily to Carthage.  Plague spreads to citizens, with effects for several years. 405 DGRBM 2-474
c.403 ARISTON leads insurrection at Cyrene, kills or expells all nobles. 403 DGRBM 1-309

THEODOROS of CYRENE, mathematician, pupil of Protagoras, teacher of Plato and Theaetetos, flourishes.

MATH:  Allegedly proves that radical 3 and radical 5 and the roots of other non-square numbers up to 17 are irrational.  His works are lost, so his method of proof is not known.
(See Hippasus 445,  Pythagoreans 445, Archytas 390, Thymaridas 375)
Spiral of Theodoros

GEOMETRY:  The "Spiral of Theodoros" is composed of contiguous right triangles with hypotenuse lengths equal √2, √3, √4, , √17; additional triangles cause the diagram to overlap.
(See Hippias 420,  Democritos 400, Archytas 390, Theaetetos 380)
425 aleph
400-391 TTS
BHM 83
no date: OCD 1055 wikTC
c.398 Hamilcar in Sicily from ?, returns to Carthage until 396. 398 GHH
c.397 Carthage prepares for another invasion of Sicily. 397 GHH
c.396 Carthage quells North African revolt. 396 CAH 7.2
c.396 HIMILCO-II, Magonid ruler of Carthage from 406, assumes responsibility for failure of Sicilian campaign, suicides out by starvation.  MAGO-II succeeds to 375. 397 MCAW 147
396 CAH 6, hifiC, rcNA, wikMag, wikMC
c.396 Hamilcar returns to Sicily. 396 GHH
c.395 DEMETER worship from Sicily introduced to Carthage because of the plague on Carthaginian troops in Sicily 396, after Carthaginians had sacked the sanctuary of Demeter-Kore. 395 DGRG 1-546
c.392 MAGO returns from in Sicily 396 to Carthage.  He is soon promoted to suffete (man in charge) and remains so until 383. 392 DGRBM 2-902
c.390 COINS, minted in Carthage from 410, stopped until 350. 390 CAH 7.2-507
c.383 MAGO-II, suffete (man in charge) of Carthage from 392, ends. 383 DGRBM 2-902, hifiC
c.383 HIMILCO-III, succeeds and ends.  ESHMUNIATON / Suniatus, member of the Council of Elders, succeeds until 382/0 383/2 hifiC
c.383/2 ESHMUNIATON opposes the Magonids at Carthage until 382/0. 383/2 rcNA
c.382/0 ESHMUNIATON / Suniatus, ruler of Carthage, is disposed of in the courts when he is condemned for treason. HANNO-III assumes the position of first citizen, or tyrant until 360. 382/0 hifiC
CONFUSION ALERT!  There are 2 Hanno the Greats (in 382 and 250).  The numbering which had begun with the previous 2 rulers named Hanno is ignored.  Here, the numbering from the previous 2 Hannos is continued, thereby differentiating the 2 "Greats" as Hanno-III and Hanno-IV.     hifiC
c.375 MAGO-II, Magonid ruler of Carthage from 396, suicides.  MAGO-III succeeds to 344. 383 hifiC
383 Himilco-3 succeeds: rcNA
375 wikMag, wikMC
c.370 ARISTIPPUS, former associate of Socrates, flourishes.  Founds Cyrenaic School of hedonistic philosophy in Cyrene. 396 DUR 2-458 394 GHH
370 MCAW 155
c.369 Messenians at Greek city of EUESPERIDES Libya from ?, leave. 369 CDCC 332
c.360 AGESILAUS-II Eurypontid king of Sparta from 399 dies of illness in Cyrene.  Nectanebo has the corpse royally embalmed before sending it to Sparta.  Son ARCHIDAMUS-III, succeeds to 338. 361 MRDK, rcPl     361/0 OCD 98 360 CDCC 22, 486, Dur 2-458, MCAW 158, OCD 27, 98, 1007, OHG     359 lvG
c.360 HANNO-III, ruler of Carthage from 382, apparently steps down from his position as head of state until 344.  MAGO-III succeeds until 344. 360 hifiC
c.356 ARISTIPPUS, former associate of Socrates, founder of the Cyrenaic School in Cyrene, dies. 356 KPHP 84
c.350 COIN minting in Carthage, stopped from 390, resumed with prolific gold coins (possibly minted in Sicily). 350 CAH 7.2-507
c.348 Rome / Carthage Λ 2nd treaty V and trade agreement.  Romans will stay away from Sardinia and Libya.  Carthage will not attack Latin cities loyal to Rome.  Contains trade clauses acknowledging the possibility that Roman traders might visit Sicily or Africa, but primarily to protect commercial interests of Carthage, not Rome. 348 Agθ 33, B76 13-149, CAH 7.2-323, DGRG 1-533, LEWH 85, MCAW 163, MWΦ 210, OCD 208, TToH, bk
c.348 Above treaty includes "the Carthaginians, Tyrians, Uticeans, and their allies".  Apparently ties with Phoenicia still exist. 348 DGRG 1-533
c.345 HANNO-III with 50,000 inf backed by cav, many chariots, and siege engines, sent to Sicily. 344 DGRBM 2-342, hifiC
c.344 MAGO-III, Magonid ruler of Carthage from 360, suicides.  HANNO-III resumes to 340. 344 hifiC, wikMag, wikMC
vacant until 340: rcNA
c.340 HANNO-III, Magonid ruler of Carthage from 344, attempts a coup against Council of Elders to restore full monarchial power, fails, tortured, executed.  All of his family are executed.  Son GISCO succeeds to 330.  Dynasty continues until 308.  Hannid Dynasty begins until 308. 344 CAH 7.2
343 Agθ 33
340 DGRG 1-542, hifiC, wikMag, wikMC 339 hifiC, rcNA 337 wikMC
c.332 LIBYA, under Cyrene from ?, comes under Macedon until 323. 332 rcNA
c.331 CYRENE and Cyrenaica, independent from 476, republic 440-?, submits to Alex-III, under Macedonia until 322.  APOLLONIOS becomes governor. 331 CAH 6, DGRBM 1-237, 3-261, lvG, rcNA
no date: OCD 307
c.330 GISCO, 2nd Hannid ruler of Carthage from 337, ends.  HAMILCAR-II succeeds to 309. 330 hifiC, rcNA, wikMC
c.323 THIBRON, ostensibly championing some Cyrenaean exiles, sails from Crete to Cyrene, defeats the Cyrenaeans in battle, takes Apollonia Cyrenaica, extorts 500 talents and half of their war-chariots. 324 DGRBM 3-1103
no date: wikθb     322 atl4
c.323 MNASICLES, an officer of Thibron, defects to the Cyrenaeans, helps them recover Apollonia. 324 DGRBM 3-1103
no date: wikθb
c.323 THIBRON, aided by Barcaeans and Hesperians, takes the town of Tauchira, but loses many men to the enemy.  His fleet is wrecked by a stormThibron gets reinforcements from the Peloponnese, defeats the Cyrenaeans (now aided by Libyans and Carthaginians), and besieges Cyrene. no date: wikθb
c.323 A faction of Cyrenean oligarchs ask Ptolemy satrap of Egypt for help against Thibron. no date: wikθb
c.323 PTOLEMY satrap of Egypt 323-05 sends large force under Macedonian Ophellas, to rescue Cyreneans from Thibron. 322 DGRBM 3-32 no date: wikθb
c.323 LIBYA, under Macedon from 332, comes under Ptolemies until 96. 323 rcNA
c.322 Macedonian OPHELLAS defeats Thibron, who flees, and falls into the hands of some Libyans, who deliver him to Epicydes, an Olynthian, whom Ophellas, having taken Taucheira, had made governor of the town.  Ophellas then rules Cyrene as a vassal of Ptolemy until 312. 323 B76 III-329, rcNA
322 B76 15-180, CAH 7.1-397, MWΦ 127, OCD 752, lvG     321 Jud 5-1183, atl4     no date: wikθb
322 Agθ 144, atl4
c.322 CYRENE comes under Ptolemies until 312. 323 B76 III-329, rcNA     322 B76 15-180, CAH 7.1-397, DGRBM 3-582, MWΦ 127, OCD 752, lvG     321 Jud 5-1183, DGRG 1-733, atl4
no date: wikθb     322 Agθ 144, atl4
c.322 THIBRON crucified in Apollonia Cyrenaica. 323 wikθb
c.322 Macedonian OPHILLAS appointed governor of Cyrene by Ptolemy. 322 MWΦ 127, OCD 752
c.318 HAMILCAR negotiates treaty allowing AGATHOCLES to return to Syracuse. 318 MWΦ 199
c.313 AGIS, a general under Ptolemy, suppresses a revolt at Cyrene. 313 atl4
c.312 OPHILLAS governor of Cyrene under Ptolemy from 322, rebels until 309.  Cyrene independent until 298. 313 DGRBM 3-32
313/2 OCD 752
312 OCD 307
c.311 Carthage sends a force of 130 warships, 2,000 Carthaginian troops, many of noble birth, 10,000 Africans, 1,000 mercenaries, 200 chariots from Etruria, and 1,000 Balearic slingers under Hamilcar-II against Sicily. 311
Agθ 70
310 Aug. 20 AGATHOCLES with 60 ships arrives in Africa, lands at Latomiae on the Hermaean promontory, about 110km from Carthage, attacks Carthaginians.  Beaches his ships and puts up an earth wall to guard them.  In Africa until 307. 310 Agθ 90, B76 I-133, 13-148, CAH 7.1-394, 7.2, DGRBM 1-182, 499, Dur 2-555, GHH, HRR, LEWH 90, MCAW 178, MWΦ 126, 199, atl4, bk, lvS, wikAg
c.310 AGATHOCLES burns his ships, tells his men it is because he made a vow to Demeter. 310 Agθ 106, atl4
c.310 AGATHOCLES captures Carthaginian Megalopolis (unknown location), tears down its walls, and camps in the open. 310 Agθ 107, atl4
c.310 Carthaginian senate, having 40,000 poorly trained infantry, 1,000 cav, and 2,000 chariots to defend Carthage, put them under 2 leaders of opposite parties, Hanno and Bomilcar.  Agathocles has 2,500 well trained inf under his own command; 3,500 Syracusans, 3,000 Greek mercenaries, and 3,000 foreigners (Celts, Samnites and Etruscans), 500 bowmen and slingers. 310 Agθ 110, DGRBM 2-342
c.310 AGATHOCLES captures Carthaginian Tunis (not necessarily modern Tunis), and tears down its walls. 310 Agθ 108, atl4
c.310 A Carthaginian admiral picks up the brass prows of Agathocles' burnt ships and sails them to Carthage. 310 Agθ 110
c.310 AGATHOCLES defeats a Carthaginian army under Hanno and Bomilcar.  Hanno is killed.  Bomilcar orders retreat.  Nearly the whole army flees to Carthage.  The Greeks pursue, then turn back to plunder the camp. 310
Agθ 114-15, HRR, atl4
c.310 Carthaginians get religious, ship many costly gifts to Tyre as offerings to Melkart, sacrifice (burn) 200 high ranking children locally to Moloch.  Another 300 children volunteer for death by fire. 310
Agθ 116
c.310 AGATHOCLES builds 2 ships, and sends them under Nearchus to inform Syracuse of their victory. 310 Agθ 119
c.310 Carthaginians recall their army from Sicily. 310 atl4
c.310 AGATHOCLES sets up base camp at Tunis (not necessarily modern Tunis), leaves a detachment there to watch Carthage, marched to the east coast and takes a suburb of Carthage called Neapolis by storm, but spares the citizens, so he can play liberator. 310/9
Agθ 122-3
c.310 ELYMAS king of Libyans joins to Agathocles, presently besieging Hadrumetum, until 309. 310 Agθ 123
c.310 While Agathocles is besieging Hadrumetum, the Carthaginians surprise and besiege his base camp at Tunis (not necessarily modern Tunis). 310/9
Agθ 123
c.310 AGATHOCLES leaves most of his men besieging Hadrumetum, surprise attacks Carthaginians besieging Tunis, who run back to Carthage, then returns to Hadrumetum. 310 atl4
310/9 Agθ 124
c.310 HADRUMETUM taken by Agathocles, who then marches south to Thapsus, storms Thapsus.  Smaller towns then surrender. 310 atl4
310/9 Agθ 124
310/9 By the end of the year Agathocles controls 200 African towns. 310/9 Agθ 125
c.309 Syracusan troops mutiny because of non-payment. early 309 CAH 7.1-396
c.309 ASPIS dockyard and fortress founded by Agathocles. 310 DGRG 1-242
309 Agθ 126     308 atl4
c.309 ELYMAS king of Libyans, ally of Agathocles from 310, proved faithless. 309 Agθ 127
c.309 Carthaginians are busy trying to reconquer rebellious Numidians.  War shifts fron the coast inland. 309
CAH 7.1-396
c.309 At Tunis (not necessarily modern Tunis) Lyciscus, one of Agathocles' generals, gets drunk, and insults him.  Agathocles makes a joke of it, but his son Archagathus kills Lyciscus.  The army divides, some wanting to kill Archagathus.  The Carthaginians learn of it and solicit the disgruntled Sicilians to defect.  Agathocles threatens suicide, therby reuniting his men behind him.  They all walk toward the Carthaginian camp as though defecting.  Then they surprise attack the Carthaginians and defeat them. 309
Agθ 128-30, DGRBM 2-845, atl4
c.309 HAMILCAR-II, 3rd Hannid ruler of Carthage from 330, killed in Sicily. 309 Agθ 130-36, CAH 7.1-401, atl4, hifiC, wikMC
308 MCAW 181, MWΦ 199
c.309 Head of HAMILCAR-II, 3rd Hannid ruler of Carthage from 330, is sent to Agathocles, who takes it to the Carthaginian camp.  BOMILCAR succeeds to 308. 309 Agθ 136, hifiC, rcNA, wikMC
c.309 AGATHOCLES leaves son Archagathus in charge of Tunis, marches the best part of his army inland. 309
CAH 7.1-396
c.309 AGATHOCLES narrowly defeats a Carthaginian army in the interior of Africa, but his own camp is looted by Numidians.  By this time, there are Greek and Numidian mercenaries fighting on both sides. 309 CAH 7.1-396, atl4
308 Agθ 141-2
c.309 AGATHOCLES, seeking allies, sends an envoy to OPHELLAS, governor of Cyrene.  Promises the whole kingdom of Libya in return for help overthrowing Carthage. 309 Agθ 144-5,
CAH 7.1-396
c.309 OPHELLAS, governor of Cyrene, gets permission from Ptolemy to join Agathocles of Syracuse, in his attempt to conquer Carthage. 309 lvPt1 308 atl4
c.309 OPHELLAS, governor of Cyrene, recruits thousands of mercenaries from Greece.  With 10,000 inf, 600 cav, 100 chariots, plus 10,000 unarmed followers he marches west for 2 months to join Agathocles.  They attack Carthaginians successfully until 307.  Cyrene's rebellion against Ptolemy pauses until 306. 309
CAH 7.1, lvPt1
308 Agθ 145-8, atl4
c.308 OPHELLAS governor of Cyrene from 322, murdered by AGATHOCLES of Syracuse, who takes over his troops. 309 OCD 307, 752
308 Agθ 148, fall CAH 7.1, atl4, lvG, lvS, rcNA
c.308 MAGAS, step-son of PTOLEMY, sent to recover Cyrene after death of Ophellas. 308 DGRBM 2-898
c.308 BOMILCAR, 4th Hannid ruler of Carthage from 309, with 500 citizens and native African mercenaries, tries to overthrow Council of Elders.  His followers are promised pardon, and desert.  Bomilcar is crucified.  Hannid Dynasty ends.  Began 340.  Monarchy is terminated.  Oligarchic republic succeeds to 146. 308 Agθ 154, CAH 7.2-496, DGRBM 1-499, DGRG 1-542, atl4, hifiC, rcNA, wikMC
c.308 UTICA conquered by AGATHOCLES of Syracuse. 308 Agθ 155,
CDCC 916     307 atl4
c.308 HIPPUACRA on the coast conquered by AGATHOCLES of Syracuse. 308 Agθ 156-7
c.307 AGATHOCLES, in Africa from 310, leaves his son Archagathus in charge of Africa.  With 2,000 men and much loot Agathocles returns to returns to Sicily until later 307. 308 CAH 7.1-402     308/7 Agθ 158 307 B76 I-133, CAH 7.1, 7.2, MWΦ 199, OCD 25, 208, atl4, wikAg
c.307 ARCHAGATHUS sends general EUMACHUS with 8,000 inf, 800 cav south against the Numidians and other allies of Carthage. 307 atl4
306 Agθ 162
c.307 EUMACHUS takes Tocae and Phillene, then gains submission of the Asphodelian tribe. 306 Agθ 162-3
c.307 EUMACHUS takes Meschela, Hippuacra, and a free town named Acris, which is sacked and inhabitants enslaved.  Eumachus then marches back to Archagathus, laden with plunder. 306 Agθ 163
c.307 ARCHAGATHUS sends EUMACHUS on a 2nd raid south. 306 Agθ 163
c.307 EUMACHUS surprise attacks Miltiane, but after a street fight Eumachus is driven out with heavy loss. 306 Agθ 163
c.307 CARTHAGE sends out 30,000 men in 3 columns to attack Archagathus from 2 directions and Eumachus with the 3rd. 306 Agθ 163
c.307 Though Eumachus had not yet returned, ARCHAGATHUS divides his army. 307 atl4
306 Agθ 165
c.307 EUMACHUS is defeated and killed by the Carthaginians.  Of his 8,000 inf and 800 cav, only 30 footmen and 40 knights escape. 306 Agθ 166
c.307 ARCHAGATHUS learns of Eumachus' disaster withdraws to Tunis, and sends word to Agathocles to rescue them.  All Numidians join the Carthaginians, and they besiege Tunis. 307 atl4     306 Agθ 166
c.307 AGATHOCLES returns from Syracuse to Tunis, finds his African troops near mutiny.  He attacks the Carthaginians, now controling high ground, and is defeated, losing 3,000. 307
Agθ 173
c.307 An accidental fire in the Carthaginian camp, plus 5,000 Libyans who intended to defect arriving from the Sicilian camp causes the Carthaginians to panic, thinking they were under attack.  They flee to Carthage.  The 5,000 Libyans return to the Sicilian camp, where they are again mistaken for attackers, and cause another panic. 307
Agθ 175-6
c.307 All African allies of Agathocles desert.  AGATHOCLES, in Africa from earlier 307, leaves his sons Archagathus and Heracleides in charge of the mess in Africa, escapes, to Sicily. 307 Agθ 177-9, B76 I-133, MWΦ 199, OCD 25, 208, late DGRBM 1-64, atl4, wikAg
c.307 ARCHAGATHUS and HERACLEIDES, sons of Agathocles, are killed by Syracusan army, which agrees to terms with Carthaginians:   The Sicilians give up all Carthaginian towns still in their hands; and for these they are paid 300 talents; as many as wished could enlist on the Carthaginian side at their old pay grade, the rest to be settled at Solus in Punic Sicily. 307
Agθ 180, DGRBM 2-388, HRR, atl4
c.306 Rome / Carthage Λ 3rd TREATY  V (the Philinus treaty) renews previous pacts.  Romans are barred from all Sicily and Carthaginians from all Italy. 306 CAH 7.1-404, 7.2, DGRG 1-540, MWΦ 129, atl4, bk
c.306 Cyrene, rebelling against Ptolemy from 312, paused from 309, resumes until later that year. 306
OCD 307
c.306 Cyrene, rebelling against Ptolemy from 312, recovered by Ptolemy, who installs his stepson MAGAS as governor until 274. 308 rcNA     306 OCD 307 300 CAH 7.1, atl4

North Africa 300-201