Levant
by 500 Judah consists of a few Yahwists living in and around Jerusalem, often internally conflicting, and under Persian domination. by 500 SHWC 32
c.500 Son of Jozadak, JOSHUA ends.  Former High Priest 538-15, leader of Israel from 513. 490 gw
c.500  Book of LEVITICUS  completed either near the end of the Judean monarchy or in the exilic and post-exilic period.  Scholars agree that it had a long period of growth, and reached its present form in the Persian period (538332) wikBL
c.500 GOLDEN RULE attested in Leviticus.  "You shall not take vengeance or bear a grudge against your kinsfolk.  Love your neighbor as yourself."   (See Thales 600, Egypt, China, Mahabharata, Isocrates 390) Lev 19:18
c.490 MATTAN-IV becomes king of Tyre (mainland under Persia 539-411) until 480. 490 arg, rcLeb, wikKT
c.481/0 Phoenician fleets attached to Xerxes' army are commanded by their respective kings: Tetramnestus of Sidon, Mattan-IV of Tyre, Marbalus of Arvad. 481/0
CAH 6-322
c.480 MATTAN-IV king of Tyre from 490 ends.  Successor unknown until 420. 480 rcLeb, wikKT
c.480 JEDIAH ben Joiarib, High Priest from 495, ends.  JACHIN succeeds to 465. 480 sjud
c.479 ESHMUNAZAR-I becomes priest/king of Sidon until 470. 479 CAH 6-323
c.475 SHECHEM, a village among ruins from 724, destroyed, abandoned until 330. 475 IDB Sup-821
c.470 ESHMUNAZAR-I, priest/king of Sidon from 479, ends.  TABNIT succeeds until 465. 475 or 70 CAH 6-323
c.470 JOIAKIM ben Joshua, High Priest from 515, governor of Judah from 515, ends. Antiq 11:5:1, 5:5 Eliashib succeeds
Son ELIASHIB succeeds to 423. 470 gw, wikHP
460 DHJ 334
JEDIAH ben Joiarib succeeds until 480. 495s sjud
470 gw, hifiI, wikHP
c.465 TABNIT, priest/king of Sidon from 470, ends.  ESHMUNAZAR-II succeeds until 450. 539-30 elay
465 or 60 CAH 6-323
c.465 Prophet MALACHI chastises Jews for witholding tithes and offering blemished sacrifices.  Yahweh promises to send Elijah back. 470-60 Sdl 5-180 450 IDB 3-229
435-12 bivu     CBCOT 68
c.465 JACHIN, High Priest from 480, ends.  SERAIAH ben Hilkiah succeeds to 450. 465 sjud
c.464 NEHEMIAH, officer under Artaxerxes-I, comes to Jerusalem to help the Jews until 424. 464
LEWH 46
c.464 A minority say Nehemiah preceedes Ezra.  i.e. that Ezra comes to Jerusalem in 398 - 7th year of Artaxerxes-II, whereas Nehemiah comes in 445, under Artaxerxes-I.  On this hypothesis the order of the book of Ezra-Nehemiah, which places Ezra first, is due to the Chronicler, who gives precedence to a priest-scribe over a layman.  Nehemiah's 1st mission in 445 is to rebuild the wall of Jerusalem.  Nehemiah returns to Jerusalem in 443 and institutes reforms which he legitimizes by appealing to Deuteronomy.  In 398 Ezra is given full powers by Artaxerxes-I, who had just lost control of Egypt, to unite the old established population in Samaria, and the returned exiles from Babylon. CHJ 2-374
c.463 BISHLAM, MITHRIDATES, and TABEEL, Persian satraps of Samaria, ?, and ?, send letter to Artaxerxes-I.  They say the Jews are rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem, and if they succeed, they will rebelArtaxerxes agrees and tells them to stop the wall. Ezr 4:1-17, 1Esd 2:16-26
c.462 Persian general MEGABYZOS appointed satrap of Syria until 448. no date: B76 VI-753, wikMg
c.458 July EZRA ben Seriah, scribe, and party of Jews come from Babylon to Jerusalem, with decree from Artaxerxes-I to refurbish temple and restore worship.  Takes 3 days to organize.  Day 4 he deposits money, etc. with priest Meremoth ben Uriah.  Makes burnt offering. Artax yr 7: Ezr 7:8, 1Esd 8:7,
Antiq 11:5:2
459 hifiI     458 CBCOT 71, DHJ 348, GHH, HCC, MCAW 120, IDB 2-217, 241, TToH, bivu, bk, htc
c.454 Athenian army remnant flees from Egypt to Sinai to Gebal (Greek Byblos) before it is rescued. 454 MCAW 120
c.450 ESHMUNAZAR-II king of Sidon claims ports of Dor and Joppa. 450 WPOT 278
c.450 ESHMUNAZAR-II king of Sidon solicits Tyre to join in rebellion against Persia, fails, solicits help from Egypt, which is offered.  He then rebels against Persia, and is besieged until 448.  Egyptian help is inadequate. 450 MCAW 162
c.450 sarcophadus Esh-IIESHMUNAZAR-II, king of Sidon from 465, ends.  His sarcophagus shows Egyptian influence.  BODASHTART succeeds until ?. 525-22 elay
451 CAH 6-323



photo Eric Chan
c.450  PRIESTLY CODE  the majority of Leviticus plus some of the laws in Numbers.  Forms ⅓ of the commandments of the Torah. 450
IDB 1-500
c.450  Book of MALACHI  deplores mixed marriages and laxity of cult duties and ethical standards.  Predicts a messianic herald. 500-450 B76 2-922
450 BNTH 69, IDB 3-229 433 CBCOT 72     400 bk
c.450 SERAIAH ben Hilkiah, High Priest from 465, ends.  ELIASHIB-I succeeds to 430. 470 gw     458 GHH
450 sjud
c.450 SOLAR CALENDAR V, used in Judea from 516, replaced by a revised LUNAR CALENDAR. 450 IDB 4-924
c.450 LACHISH deserted from 588, rebuilt. 450 IDB 3-54
c.450 SIDON, under Persia 539-332, besieged by Persians 450, falls and is severely punished. 450 MCAW 162
c.448 MEGABYZOS Persian satrap of Syria from 462, rebels, declares independence. 450 OHG     448 SOTS 247
no date: B76 VI-753, Jud 3-646
c.446 Walls of Jerusalem destroyed again. Ezr 4:23, Neh 1:3     446 HCC
c.445 NEHEMIAH begins as Persian satrap of Jerusalem until 433.  He and the 3rd group of returnees come from Babylon to Jerusalem, take 3 days to organize, tell no one of their intent to rebuild the wall. Neh 1:1-28, 6:15     446 hifiI
445 B76 7-128, CBCOT 72, DHJ 351, HCC, IDB 1-241, LEWH 46, MCAW 124, Sdl 5-203, bihi, bk, htc, trubi
445/4 CAH 6-277
444 CBCOT 71, GHH, IDB 3-534, SOTS 268, WBH 21, bihi, bivu     419 lgbt
c.445 ADEUS, satrap of Syria, Phoenicia, Samaria, receives letters from Artaxerxes-I instructing him to help Nehemiah. 440 Antiq 11:5:7
c.444 Tobiah satrap of Ammon, incites Ammonites to hinder efforts to rebuild Jerusalem. 446-4 hifiAm
c.444 At Feast of Tabernacles Ezra & Nehemiah read the  LAW of Moses  (refers to Pentateuch rather than Priestly Code) to the Jews.  The Hebrew language has to be translated, because the people now speak Λ ARAMAIC V.  (See 700, Mesopotamia 500) Neh 8
445 BBP 44, E2LM 14
444 IDB 1-504
443 htc
c.444 NEHEMIAH begins rebuilding wall of Jerusalem amid much opposition. Neh 3     444 WBH 21, biti, hifiI 439 LEWH 46     429 GHH
c.444 Sanballat, satrap of Samaria, opposes Neheniah. 444 GHH
c.440 SOPHERIM, a body of priests directing religious life, established. 443 htc 440 pphj5
c.437 WALL of Jerusalem finished in 28th year of Artaxerxes-I. Antiq 11:5:7
c.433 NEHEMIAH recalled.  Persian satrap of Jerusalem from 445, recalled to Susa.  High priest ELIASHIB-I replaces him until 430. Neh 5:14, 13:6       433 B76 7-128, DHJ 336, MCAW 128, hifiI, bk, indy, trubi     433/2 Sdl 5-193     432 GHH, SOTS 268    423 HCC    407 lgbt
c.433 High priest ELIASHIB-I, ruling Judah 433-30, makes liberal reforms:  builds a chamber in the temple court for Tobiah the Ammonite, neglects the Levites, permits intermarriage, work on Sabbath. Neh 13:4
c.432 Sanballat, satrap of Samaria, builds a Jewish temple on Mt. Gerizim southwest of Shechem.  SAMARITAN SCHISM can be said to begin here or c.350.  Samaritans retain only the Pentateuch as authoritative. 444 WBH 21
432 IDB 1-504, 506
432 or 332 IDB 2-217 400 BBP 117
The chronicler dates it 432.  (Neh 13:28-9)
Josephus dates it 332.  (Antiquities 11:8:2,4)
IDB 1-506
c.430 Sanballat, satrap of Samaria from ?, ends.  SIN-UBALLIT-I succeeds to 407. 430 sjud
c.430 ELIASHIB-I, high priest from 450, ends.  Son JOIADA-I succeeds until 415. Antiq 11:7:1       433 gw, hifiI, wikHP
430 sjud     423 bihi, bivu     413 GHH
c.428 EZRA calls assembly of the people, says divorce foreign wives, and separate from the locals.  The people agree.  A commission for regulation of mixed marriages is established.  It operates until May 427.  Ez 10:9
428 Dec 8 Sdl 5-197
c.428 NEHEMIAH returnsIn Susa from 433, allowed by Artaxerxes to return to Jerusalem as Governor until 415.  Reverses Eliashib's liberal reforms. Neh 13:7       432 IDB 3-534 430/29 Sdl 5-193     428 GHH 420? HCC     405 lgbt
no date: SOTS 268
c.420 Mainland TYRE, under Persia 539-411, with unknown rulers from 480:  ABDEMON (in Salamis Cyprus) becomes king until 411. 420 adeT, arg, rcLeb, wikKT
c.415 JOIADA ben Eliashib, high priest from 430, ends.  Bro JOHANAN-I succeeds until 395. Antiq 11:7:1
415 sjud     410 bivu, gw, hifiI, wikHP     408 bihi     404 bivu
c.415 NEHEMIAH dies.  Persian satrap of Jerusalem 2nd time from 428.  BAGOAS-I succeeds until ?. in reign of Artax.: Antiq 11:5:8
415 MCAW 139, bihi, bivu
413 hifiI     410 bihi
c.411 ABDEMON king of Tyre (in Salamis) from 420 ends.
TYRE:  Island independent 630-332, mainland under Persia from 539, comes under Evagoras of Salamis Cyprus until 374.
411 adeT, arg, rcLeb, wikKT
c.410 JESUS, bro of Johanan, hp 420-00, friend of Bagoas, gets Bagoas to promise that Jesus would replace hp Johanan.  Johanan kills bro Jesus in front of the temple. Antiq 11:7:1
410 BNTH 56 400 DHJ 360
c.410 BAGOAS Persian satrap of Judah enters temple.  Priests warn him not to enter the Holy of Holies.  Bagoas says, "Am I less pure than the one who murdered his brother in the temple?".  Bagoas punishes Jews 7 years with a 50 drachma tax on every sheep brought as a daily burnt offering. Antiq 11:7:1
410 BNTH 56 400 DHJ 360 364 GHH
c.407 BAAL SELIM-II becomes king of Sidon until 374. 407 hifi     401 elay
c.407 SIN-UBALLIT-I, satrap of Samaria from 430, ends.  Son DALIAH succeeds to 380. 407 sjud
c.407 Jews of Elephantine Island in Nile River write to BAGOAS Persian satrap of Judah requesting assistance rebuilding the temple at Elephantine, recently damaged by an anti-Jewish riot.
"Our forefathers built this temple in the fortress of Elephantine back in the days of the kingdom of Egypt, and when Cambyses came to Egypt he found it built.  They [Persians] knocked down all the temples of the gods of Egypt, but no one did any damage to this temple."
408
CAH 6-285, Jud 4-94
407
ENBD 1139, IDB 4-210, IDB 4-210, WPOT 328, sjud, wikEP
c.407 BAGOAS Persian satrap of Judah replies to Elephantine Jews in Λ Aramaic   (See parchment 460). 407 DBANE 88, wikEP
c.407 Correspondence between Jewish community at Elephantine and Jerusalem ceases. 410 hifiI
by 400  PENTATEUCH  is separated from books of Joshua and Kings, becomes the TORAH (written law).  Final edition canonized as Law of Moses.  No further revisions permitted.
An oral interpretation of Pentateuchal texts had become traditional.
by 400
IDB 1-500, 504, 506, 3-724
by 400  "TORAH"  originally only the Sermon of Moses in Deuteronomy 621, now refers to the whole Pentateuch.  The definition will be further expanded to all revellation, written and unwritten. by 400
IDB 1-506
c.400  MIDRASH  initiated.  Comments on Torah texts and homiletic stories.  The comments will evolve into a method of interpreting Torah texts to resolve problems in interpretation.  The stories will fill in gaps left in the biblical narrative. 400 htc
c.400  Book of CHRONICLES  written. 400 B76 2-882, IDB 1-580, Jud 4-823
by 400 The Jews have other popular books which are not considered inspired:  historical:  Former Prophets, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, plus Latter Prophets:  Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, minor prophets. 400 IDB 1-507
c.400  Book of JOEL  written. 400 IDB 2-926
c.400  Book of JONAH  written. 400 bk     4-300 IDB 2-967
c.400 Persian troops going to and from Egypt ravage Judah. 400 DHJ 360
c.397 EZRA ben Seriah, scribe, comes from Babylon to Jerusalem in 7th year of Artaxerxes-II with decree from him to refurbish the temple and restore worship. Ezra 7:8     398 WBH 21 398/7 WPOT 330
397 CMoG3 102, 225,
Jud 3-647
c.397  PRIESTLY text  of Jewish law (the P in JEDP) proclaimed by Ezra. 397 CMoG3 102
c.395 JOHANAN-I ben Eliashib, high priest from 415, ends.  Neph JONATHAN ben Joiada succeeds until 380. Neh 12:11, Antiq 11:7:2
408 bivu     400 Jud 9-1246
395 sjud     371 gw, hifiI, wikHP
c.385 TYRE taken by EVAGORAS of Cyprus, which causes much of Phoenicia and Cilicia to rebel against Persia. 385 CAH 6-326
no date: wikEv
c.380 DALIAH, satrap of Samaria from 407, ends.  Bro SHULLUMAIAH succeeds to 370. 380 sjud
c.380 JOHANAN-I ben Eliashib, high priest from 395, ends.  Neph ELIASHIB-II ben Johanan succeeds until 365. 395 sjud
371 gw, wikHP
c.374 TYRE:  Island independent 630-332, mainland under Evagoras of Salamis Cyprus from 411, at death of Evagoras, mainland back under Persia until 332. 374 adeT, rcLeb, wikKT
c.374 BAAL SELIM-II, king of Sidon from 407, ends.  BODASTART (Abdastart, Straton) succeeds until 361. 375 CAH 6-328
374 hifi     366 elay
c.370 SHULLUMAIAH, satrap of Samaria from 380, ends.  HANANIAH succeeds to 350. 370 sjud
c.366 Phoenician cities join SATRAP'S REVOLT against Artaxerxes-II. 366 Φnc
c.365 ELIASHIB-II ben Johanan, high priest from 380, ends.  Son JOIADA-II succeeds until 350. 365 sjud
c.362 BODASTART (Abdastart, Straton), king of Sidon 374-61, helps Satraps Revolt against Artaxerxes-II. 362 CAH 6-328
c.361 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60.  Leads mercenaries to Phoenicia. 361 OCD 27, lvG
c.361 TEOS, 2nd pharaoh of 30th dyn 362-60, leaves bro Tjahapimu in charge of Egypt, enters Phoenicia to help them rebel against PersiansTeos is aided by Greek mercenaries Chabrias of Athens and Agesilaos king of SpartaTeos demands supreme command, thus offending Agesilaos. 363 GHH     361 MCAW 154, OCD 27
360 Shaw 381, lvTeos
c.361 BODASTART (Abdastart, Straton), philhellenic king of Sidon welcomes TEOS. 363 hifi     362 MWΦ 25
360 livTeos
c.361 BODASTART, philhellenic king of Sidon from 374, stabbed to death by his wife.  His sarcophagus shows increased Greek influence in Phoenicia.  TENNES succeeds until 350. 363 hifi     362 MCAW 157 361 CAH 6-328
354 CHJ 2-35     352 elay
c.360 AGESILAOS, miffed at Teos, supports a revolt against him. 360 MCAW 158
c.360 TEOS, 2nd pharaoh of 30th dyn from 362, dethroned by military revolt in Phoenicia, flees to PersiaNEKTANEBO-II, now in Phoenicia, succeeds to 343.  Chabrias returns to Athens. 361 GEoP, GHH, pic
360 lvG, livTeos
c.360 NEKTANEBO-II, 3rd pharaoh of 30th dyn 360-43, hires AGESILAOS and his Spartan mercenaries for 230 talents. 360 MCAW 158, lvG
c.351 ARTAXERXES-III OCHUS king of Medo-Persia 359-38 sends army thru Palestine to recover Egypt 2nd time. 352 CAH 6, Jud 3-647
351 B76 9-836, Grim 379, OCD 126     351/0 CAH 6-329
c.351 HOLOPHERNES, son of Ariaramnes-I of Cappadocia accompanies Artaxerxes-III thru Palestine.  Possibly this accounts for the name Holofernes in the 2nd century Book of Judith. 350 DGRBM 3-21
c.350 TENNES king of Sidon leads rebellion against Artaxerxes-III.  Phoenicia, Palestine, and parts of Cilicia join him. 358 hifi     351 DGRBM 3-994/5, GHH, IDB 4-344, MCAW 160     350 Jud 3-647, LEWH 48
350 or 345 wikΦ     346 B76 17-947, MWΦ 26 345 B76 9-836, CAH 6, Φnc     346 Grim 380
c.350 Persian troops from Cilicia and Syria sent by Artaxerxes-III against Sidon. 346 Grim 380
c.350 Mentor of Rhodes leads 4,000 Greek mercenaries to help Sidon rebel against Artaxerxes-III. 351 GHH
c.350 TENNES king of Sidon from 361, rebelling against Persians 350, conquered, executed.  SIDON burnt by its own citizens, remains under Persians 539-332. 351 DGRBM 3-994/5, GHH, IDB 3-803, 4-723, Φnc     350 Jud 3-647 350 or 45 wikΦ     347 elay
346 CHJ 2-35     345 B76 9-836, MWΦ 26     344 CAH 6
c.350 Mentor of Rhodes and his mercenary army join Artaxerxes-III. 351 GHH
c.350 HANANIAH, satrap of Samaria from 370, ends.  JEROBOAM succeeds to 345. 350 sjud
c.350 SAMARITANS, having a temple at the foot of Mt. Gerizim from 432, split off from Jews.  SAMARITAN SCHISM can be said to begin here or 432.  Samaritans retain only the Pentateuch as authoritative. Antiq 11:8:2   408 GHH
4th cen: B76 VIII-829
c.350 JERICHO, which had participated in the Phoenician uprising, is destroyed by Persians, inhabitants deported to Hyrcania. 350 DHJ 360
c.350 JOIADA-II ben Eliashib, high priest from 365, ends.  Son JOHANAN-II succeeds until 333. 373 GHH 350 sjud
c.350  PENTATEUCH  translated into Greek. 400-300 IDB 4-273
c.350  Book of RUTH  written. 450-250 IDB 4-132     400 bk
c.350 Prophet MALACHI prophesies. 436 htc     350 WBH 21
c.345 JEROBOAM, satrap of Samaria from 350, ends.  ???? succeeds to 335. 345 sjud
c.345 Rebellions in Phoenicia and Palestine against Persians, quelled by Artaxerxes-III. 350 Jud 3-647
345 B76 I-549, 9-836, MWΦ 26
c.345 SIDON, rebelling against Persians from ?, betrayed by Mentor of Rhodes, taken by Artaxerxes-III. 345
B76 I-549
c.345 Prisoners from Sidon transported to Babylonia is recorded by a cuneiform tablet. 345
E2LM 12
c.345 JERICHO, destroyed 350, is resettled by Jewish Babylonian exiles. Neh 7:36
345 Jud 9-1368
c.344 ARTAXERXES-III OCHUS king of Medo-Persia 359-38 gathers Greek mercenaries, personally leads his 2nd invasion of Egypt. 344 B76 9-836, Jud 3-647
c.344 Belesys, governor of Syria participates in a Persian attempt to take Sidon in 344. 344 CAH 6-240
c.340 AXEMILKOS becomes king of Tyre until 332. 340 rcLeb, wikKT
c.335 Unknown, satrap of Samaria from 345, ends.  SIN-UBALLIT-II succeeds to 332. 335 sjud
c.335 BAGOAS-II Persian satrap of Judah from ?, dies. 335 sjud
c.333 JOHANAN-II ben Joiada, high priest from 350, ends.  Son JADDUA succeeds until 320. 371 hifiI     341 GHH 333 sjud
c.333 Possibly in effort to keep his treasure safe and accessible, DARIUS-III puts it and his women under the care of Cophen, son of satrap Artabazus and sends it to Damacsus. 333 DGRBM 1-850
c.333 ALEXANDER the Great decides not to attack DARIUS-III at Babylon, but to first break his sea power and cut him off from Egypt.  Proceeds south into Phoenicia. 333
B76 8-374
c.333 Right after Issus, PARMENIO is sent ahead to secure Damascus, where Darius's war chest is. 333 B76 1-469, lvLx
c.333 DAMASCUS, under Medo-Persia from 529, taken without fight by PARMENIO, under Macedonia until 323.  Among the captive women are Darius' mother Sisygambis, his wife Statira, his six year old son Ochus, and his daughters Barsine (or Statira) and Drypetis.  Barsine dau of Artabazos is also there.  Parmenio needs 7,000 pack animals to take Darius's treasure to Alex. 333 B76 5-447, GHH, lvLx, lnpl
333/2 B76 17-947
332 hmLx, infp, rcS
c.333 Message arrives from DARIUS-III offering a huge ransom for his mother, wife and childrenAlex refuses. 333 B76 1-469, LEWH 79, RAH 331
332 B76 1-470
c.333 ALEX-III proceeds along the Orontes to Emesa, turns west, reaches Arvad, northernmost city of Phoenicia, which surrenders. 333 lvLx
c.333 STRATO king of ARVAD, under Medo-Persia from 539, submits to ALEX-III, gives him a gold crown.  Arvad under Macedonia until 323. 333 B76 1-469, DGRBM 3-923, MWΦ 26, lvLx     332 wikAr
c.333 GEBAL (Greek Byblos), Phoenician city under Medo-Persia from 539, submit to ALEX-III.  Under Macedonia until 323. 333 B76 1-469, CAH 6-808, MWΦ 26, lvLx     332 rcLeb
c.333 BEYRYT Lebanon, under Persia from 539, comes under Macedonia until 323. 333 lvLx 332 rcLeb
c.333 All PHOENICIA except Island Tyre submits to ALEX-III. 333 LEWH 79, hifi
332 LEWH 48, bk, hmLx
c.332 PNYTAGORAS king of Salamis, and other princes of Cyprus visit Alex-III to offer submission.  They help Alex-III besiege Tyre. 332 DGRBM 3-432
c.333/2 Mainland TYRE besieged by ALEX-III.  Coenus and Admetus command the first assault. 333 IDB 4-722
332 Feb CAH 6-808,
Jan CHJ 2-36, lvG, lvLx
c.333/2 At siege of Tyre, Alex-III receives a letter from Darius offering him everything west of EuphratesParmenio says, "I would accept, were I Alexander.".  Alex replies, "I too, were I Parmenio.". 333 B76 1-469, LEWH 79, RAH 331
332 B76 1-470, hmLx
c.332 Mainland TYRE, under Medo-Persia from 374, comes under Macedonia until 314.  Island TYRE, besieged by ALEX-III until summer.  He uses catapults throwing stones instead of darts - a first.  8,000 Tyrians killed, 30,000 enslaved. 333 B76 1-469, CDCC 821, ENBD 1303, MWΦ 26     332 CAH 6, DGRBM 1-120, Dur 2-458, GHH, LEWH 48, 79, OCD 1102, OHG, TToH, TTT, wikLx, wikKT
332 mid 80 Phoenician ships return from the Aegean to Tyre.  Rather than help Tyre, they join the siege along with 120 other ships from Cyprus under Andromachos. 332 mid CAH 6-809, DGRBM 1-172
332 mid Island TYRE, independent from 630, under king AZEMILKOS from 340, besieged by ALEX-III from January, falls.  8,000 killed in battle, 2,000 more crucified along the coast, 30,000 enslaved including women and kids.  King, leading citizens, and Carthaginian embassy pardoned.  Island under Macedonia until 314. 332 B76 1-470, mid CAH 6-331, 809, CHJ 2-36, Dur 2-458, LEWH 48, 79, MCAW 169, MWΦ 126, RAH 331, adeT, rcLeb, wikΦ, wikKT, wikLx
c.332 After Tyre Alex-III sacrifices to Melqart/Heracles and celebrates with a grand procession and athletic festival. 332
CAH 6-809
c.332 After Tyre, Carthaginian ambassador Hamilcar Rhodanus is sent to Alex-III to patch up relations. 332 DGRBM 2-326
c.332 HALAP, under Persia from 539, comes under Macedonia until 323. 332 rcS
c.332 ABILA, northwest of Damascus, under Persia from 539, comes under Macedonia until 323. 332 rcS
c.332 SIDON, under Persia from 539, comes under Macedonia until 323. 333/2 CAH 6-808
332 rcLeb
c.332 ABD-OLUNIM becomes king of Tyre until ?, under Macedonia until ?. 332 wikKT
c.332 ACCO, under Persia from 539, comes under Macedonia until 323. 332 rcHL
c.332 DOR, under Persia from 539, comes under Macedonia until 323. 332 rcHL
c.332 SAMARIA, under Persia from 539, comes under Macedonia until 323. 332 rcHL
c.332 BETH-SHAN in north Jordan valley, under Persia from 539, comes under Macedonia until 323. 332 rcCan
c.332 JOPPA, independent from 360s, comes under Macedonia until 301. 332 rcHL
c.332 GALILEE, under Persia from 539, comes under Macedonia until 305. 332 rcHL
c.332 GERASA, city in northeast Jordan, under Persia from 539, comes under Macedonia until 305. 332 rcJdn
c.332 ASHDOD and ASHKELON under Persia from 539, come under Macedonia until 323. 332 B76 I-580, rcHL
c.332 GEZER on plain of Sharon, under Persia from 539, comes under Macedonia until 321. 332 rcCan
c.332 All Palestine (except Gaza which resists 2 months) including Judah, under Persia from 539, taken by ALEX-III, under Macedonia until ?. 332 B76 1-470, CHJ 2-614, LEWH 46, 48, WBH 21, bk
c.332 HEPHAESTION commands fleet off coast of Phoenicia, at a time and place of little risk. 332 DGRBM 2-382
c.332 GAZA, under Persia from 539, nominally from 525, besieged by ALEX-III 2 months, stormed and taken, under Macedonia until 323.  Men killed, women and children enslaved. 332 B76 1-470, CAH 6-809, DHJ 456, DGRBM, GHH, IDB 2-357, LEWH 46, 48, OHG, hmLx, lvLx, rcHL
c.332 SIN-UBALLIT-II, satrap of Samaria from 335, dies.  JEHOANAH succeeds under Macedonia until 331. end of siege of Gaza: Antiq 11:8:4
332 sjud
c.332 Alex-III king of Macedon 336-23 from Gaza enters Judea. Antiq 11:8:4     332 GHH
c.332 JERUSALEM, under Persia from 539, surrenders to Alex-III, comes under Macedonia until 320. 332 wikLx
c.332  Book of DANIEL  exists, and is shown to Alex-III according to Josephus. Antiq 11:8:5
c.332  BABYLONIAN Λ CALENDAR , used in Judea from 587, replaced by Macedonian until 200. 332 B76 3-600
c.332 ALEX-III returns from Judea to Gaza, then proceeds to Egypt, remains until 331.  Parmenio remains in Levant. 332 B76 1-470, 8-374, DGRBM, GHH, OHG, RAH 332, wikLx
c.332 AMMON, under Persia from 539, comes under Macedonia until 305. 332 hifiAm, rcJdn
c.332 MOAB, under Persia from 539, comes under Macedonia until 323. 332 rcJdn
c.332 Phalanx commander Amyntas, son of Andromenes, is sent with 10 triremes from Gaza to Macedon to recruit troop replacements. 332 late CAH 6-809, DGRBM 2-283
c.331 ANDROMACHOS, Macedonian governor of Palestine at Samaria, burnt alive by Samaritan insurgents. 331 early CAH 6-861, CHJ 2-40, GHH, bk
c.331 ALEX-III, in Egypt from 332, returns to Levant, easily suppresses revolt in Samaria.  The people hand over the leaders, who are executed.  Alex stays a while in Tyre, receives embassy from Athens requesting release of Athenian mercenaries serving Persians captured at Issus.  Grants request. 331
B76 8-374-5, DGRBM, GHH, LEWH 79, lvLx, wikCyp
c.331 NICOCREON, king of Salamis Cyprus, goes to Tyre as required by Alex-III to pay homage. 331 DGRBM 2-1191
c.331 PASICRATES, prince of Soli Cyprus, goes to Tyre as required by Alex-III to pay homage. 331 DGRBM 3-131
c.331 MENON is transferred from the north to be Macedonian governor of Palestine at Samaria until ?. 331 CAH 6-861, CHJ 2-41
c.331 HARPALUS, former treasurer of Alex-III, who had deserted to Greece when Alex was sick in Cilicia, is reinstated. spring 331 CAH 6-805
c.331 CLEANDER, gathering mercenaries in Peloponnese and Macedonia from 334, arrives with them at Tyre. 331 DGRBM 1-778, hmLx
c.331 ALEX-III receives another offer from Darius-III:  all lands west of the Euphrates, plus 30,000 talents for his family. mid 331 CAH 6-811
c.331 ALEX-III leaves Tyre for Syria. 331 mid CAH 6-812,
CHJ 2-42, hmLx, lvG, wikLx
c.331 JEHOANAH, Jewish governor of Samaria from 332, ends. 331 sjud
c.331 SAMARIA settled with Macedonians. 331 DHJ 458
c.331 SOPHERIM, a body of priests directing religious life from 440, disbanded by Macedonians. 331 pphj5
c.331 PHILOXENOS appointed by Alex-III to collect tribute in provinces north of Taurus Mountains, but does not immediately assume this command. 331 DGRBM 3-331
c.331 late MENES of Pella, is transferred from Susa by Alex-III, and appointed satrap of Cilicia, Syria, and Phoenicia.  It is possible that Menes replaces the former satraps. Dec. 331
CAH 6-332, 681
c.331 late General MENES sent by Alex-III with 3,000 talents from Susa west to take over Cilicia, Syria, and Phoenicia. 331 DGRBM 2-1040
c.330 SHECHEM, abandoned from 475, rebuilt and fortified as a Hellenic city until 107. 330 CHJ 2-42, IDB Sup 821
c.330 JUDAH becomes JUDEA until 135CE. guess
c.329 Persian BESSOS becomes Macedonian satrap of Damascus until 325. 323 CHJ 2-43
c.323 Syria and Palestine given to LAOMEDON of MytileneSyria until 319, Palestine until 320. 323 B76 17-947,
Dur 2-555, GHH, wikΦ
c.323 HALAP, under Macedonia from 332, comes under Antigonus until 301. 323 rcS
c.323 BEYRYT Lebanon, under Macedonia from 332, comes under Antigonus until 301. 323 rcLeb
c.323 GEBAL (Greek Byblos), under Macedonia from 333, comes under Antigonus until 301. 323 rcLeb
c.323 DAMASCUS, under Macedonia from 333, comes under Antigonus until 301. 323 rcS
c.323 ABILA, under Macedonia from 332, comes under Antigonus until 301. 323 rcS
c.323 SIDON, under Macedonia from 332, comes under Antigonus until 301. 323 rcLeb
c.323 DOR, under Macedonia from 332, independent republic until 138. 323 rcHL
c.323 ACCO, under Macedonia from 332, comes under Antigonus until 301. 323 rcHL
c.323 SAMARIA, under Macedonia from 332, comes under Antigonus until 301. 323 rcHL
c.323 BETH-SHAN in north Jordan valley, under Macedonia from 332, comes under Antigonus until 301. 323 rcCan
c.323 ASHDOD and ASHKELON under Macedonia from 332, come under Antigonus until 301. 323 rcHL
c.323 GAZA, under Macedonia from 332, comes under Antigonus until 301. 323 rcHL
c.323 MOAB, under Macedonia from 332, comes under Nabataeans until 106. 323 rcJdn
c.322 PTOLEMY-I satrap of Egypt 323-05 goes to Damascus, intercepts body of Alex-III enroute to Macedonia, convinces the leader of the convoy that Alex had wanted to be buried in the temple of Zeus Ammon, diverts the corpse to Memphis. 322 MCAW 172, hwD, Dec lvLx     321 atl4
no date: B76 8-376, wikLx
c.321 SAMARIA rebuilt by Perdiccas. 321 atl4
c.321 PERDICCAS, with large army, marches toward Egypt.  They are accompanied by king Philip Arrhidaeus and wife Euridice, and Roxana with infant Alex-IV. 321 DGRBM 3-187, 664
c.321 PERDICCAS, with large army, continues unopposed as far as Pelusium. 321 DGRBM 3-187
c.321 ATTALUS, son of Andromenes, bro-in-law of Perdiccas, escapes from Egypt with fleet to Tyre, where 800 talents of Perdiccas had been deposited.  These are surrendered to him by Archelaus, governor of Tyre.  Attalus hires 10,000 infantry and 800 cavalry.  He remains at Tyre, to collect friends of Perdiccas who had escaped from the army. 321 DGRBM 1-409, atl4, wikAtls
c.321 GAZARA (Gezer) on plain of Sharon, under Macedonia from 332, comes under Antigonus until 301. 321 rcCan
c.321 ATTALUS, bro-in-law and fleet commander of Perdiccas, sails from Tyre to Rhodes, attacks, and is defeated. 321 DGRBM 1-409, atl4
c.321 Edomites take southern Judea. 321 Sdl 5-182
c.321 Edom is now called Idumea. 321 Sdl 5-182
c.320 PTOLEMY-I satrap of Egypt 323-05, invades Judea, takes Jerusalem, deports many Jews to Alexandria. Antiq 12:1:1     320 B76 17-974, Dur 2-555, IDB 2-856, 3-964     319 atl4
c.320 100,000 Jews deported to Egypt. 320 GHH
c.320  Book of JOB , begun before c.600, redacted to final form. 350-00
Sdl 5-213
c.320 JERUSALEM, under Macedonians from 332, taken on a Sabbath by PTOLEMY-I until ?. Antiq 12:1:1     321 WBH 21 320 B76 17-974, CHJ 2-642, Dur 2-555, GHH, IDB 2-856, 3-964, jomm     319 atl4
c.320 PHOENICIA, under Laomedon from 323, taken by PTOLEMY-I until 314. 320 HDB 3-857, Shaw 393
c.320 JUDEA and Phoenicia, under Laomedon from 323, taken by PTOLEMY-I until 315, who deports many Jews and Samaitans to Egypt. Antiq 12:1:1       320 B76 17-974, DGRBM 3-582, GHH, IDB 3-964, MCAW 174, wikΦ
c.320 Son of Johanan, JADDUA dies.  High priest from 333.  Son ONIAS-I succeeds until 300. Antiq 11:8:7     321 GHH, atl4 320 CHJ 2, IDB 3-603, gw, hifiI, wikHP     310 sjud
c.319 PTOLEMY-I satrap of Egypt 323-05 hearing of death of Antipater, invades Phoenicia & Syria.
2nd War of the Diadochi begins until 316.
Polyperchon, lawful regent of (Philip Arridaeus and Alexander IV), vs. Cassander (son of Polyperchon's predecessor Antipater), Ptolemy of Egypt, and Antigonus Monophthalmus, supreme commander of Macedonian forces in Anatolia.
319
B76 8-377, CAH 7.1-49, lvD, wikWD
c.318 Eumenes chased by Antigonus from Anatolia to Phoenicia until 317, expells Ptolemy's forces and starts to build a navy for Polyperchon. 318 BHS 1-43, CHJ 2-46, anan, hwD, lvD, wikEum
c.318 EUMENES gathers a large mercenary force, despite opposition of Ptolemy-I and Antigonus.  Tries to get control of Phoenicia and Palestine. 318 atl4
c.317 DEMETRIUS, son of Antigonus-I, fights EUMENES until 316. 317 OCD 325
c.317 PTOLEMY-I attacks along Palestinian and Syrian coast until 316, which he occupied because all other commanders were looking elsewhere. 317 lvPt1
c.317 Eumenes of Cardia, in Phoenicia from 318, goes east to join satraps in Persia. 317 hwD
c.315 Phoenician shipyards, on orders from, Demetrius-I, build warships with 6 and even 7 decks of rowers. 315 TTT
c.315 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus, now ruling everything from Anatolia to Persia, invades Phoenicia, takes all Palestine except Tyre. 315 B76 8-377, BHS 1-52, CHJ 2, DGRBM 3-582, hwD
314 GHH, wikAntg, wikΦ
c.315 JERUSALEM and JUDEA, under PTOLEMY-I from 320, taken by ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus until 312. 315 GHH
c.315 TYRE, occupied by Ptolemaic troops, besieged for over a year by Antigonus-I. 315 MCAW 174, lvD, wikTyr
314 lvPt1, wikAntg
c.315 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus at Tyre, condemns Cassander for murder of Olympias, and seizure of Alex-IV, proclaims himself guardian of Alex-IV, declares Greek cities free and orders garrisons out, summons Phoenician kings to Tyre, and begins constructing a fleet. 315
B76 8-377, CAH 7.1, hwD, atl4
c.315 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus returns from Phoenicia to Anatolia. 315
B76 8-377
c.314 TYRE, under Macedonians from 332, defended by Ptolemaic troops, besieged by Antigonus-I from 315, taken, under Antigonus until 301. 314 CAH 6-334, DGRBM 3-582, MCAW 174, atl4, lvD, wikTyr
313 lvPt1
c.314 PHOENICIA, under Ptolemy-I Soter from 320, comes under Antigonus-I until ?. 315 Shaw 393
314 GHH, HDB 3-857
c.312 PTOLEMY on advice of Seleucus, decides to attack Cilicia by land and sea, leads army to Gaza. 312 DGRBM 1-960, 3-583, 771, mid lvD, wikPt1
c.312 Hieronymus of Cardia, the historian, sent by Antigonus-I to collect bitumen from Dead Sea to put pressure on Ptolemy-I.  Thwarted by local Arabs whose trade it had been. 312 DGRBM 2-458, TAG 244
From the Dead Sea came all the bitumen used in Egypt in embalming the dead. TAG 245
c.312 MARESHAH changes hands twice: Seleucid, Ptolemy, Seleucid. 312 IDB 3-264
312 DEMETRIUS, son of Antigonus-I Monophthalamus, with officers Pithon and Nearchus, intercept PTOLEMY-I and SELEUCUS at GAZA and are defeated by their 3,000 cavalry. 312 B76 1-990, 8-377, 15-181, 16-503, 17-947, BHS 1-52, CAH 7.1-49, CDCC 857, CHJ 2-46, DGRBM 3-583, GHH, IDB 1-815, 4-266, LEWH 90, OCD 325, 725, Shaw 394, WBH 21, atl4, bk, hwD, lvD, lvG, lvPt1, wikAntg, wikWD
c.312 This is the first year of Seleucid chronology, which will be used by the Books of Maccabees and Josephus.
c.312 Antigonid NEARCHUS of Crete probably killed at Gaza. 312 OCD 725
c.312 PITHON, general under Antigonus, killed at Gaza. 312 DGRBM 3-378, lvD
CONFUSION ALERT!  Sources confuse PITHON, son of Craterus d.314 and son of Agenor d.312.
c.312 After Gaza SELEUCUS at his own request, is sent with only 800 inf and 200 cav by Ptolemy-I to recover Babylon. 312 BHS 1-53, DGRBM 3-583, 771
c.312 PALESTINE, under ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalamus from 315, taken by PTOLEMY-I, where it remains except for a brief recovery by Antigonus 312 until 305. 312 B76 8-377,
CHJ 2, IDB 3-964, atl4, hifiI
c.312 JERUSALEM, under ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus from 315, easily taken on a Sabbath by PTOLEMY-I, comes under P-I until later 312. 312 E2LM 98
c.312 PTOLEMY proceeds to Syria, where Antigonus-I confronts him.  Hecataeos of Abdera accompanes. 312 E2LM 47, lvD, lvPt1
c.312 PTOLEMY-I satrap of Egypt 323-05, retreats from ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus.  Destroys fortifications of ACCO enroute to Egypt. 312 DGRBM 3-583, Jud 2-222 312/11 lvD     311 atl4
c.312 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus, persuaded by Demetrius, tries to extract asphalt from Dead Sea. 311 atl4
c.312 NABATAEANS appear in history in the mountains of Edom.  Antigonus-I Monophthalamus attacks PETRA, Nabataean capital. 312 CDCC 603, 670
c.312 Nabatean fortress of PETRA attacked unsuccessfully by DEMETRIUS, son of Antigonus-I. 312 B76 VII-157
312/11 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus could pursue Ptolemy to Egypt, but turns east instead to consolidate Babylonia. 312/11 lvD
c.305 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus plans to conquer Egypt, starts down Levant with large army. 306 wikWD 305 lvD
c.305 JERUSALEM, under PTOLEMY-I from 312, comes under ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus until 301. guess
c.305 PALESTINE, under Ptolemy from 312, recovered by Antigonus until 301. 305 rcHL
c.305 GERASA, city in northeast Jordan, under Macedonia from 332, comes under Antigonus until 301. 305 rcJdn
c.305 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus prevented from invading Egypt by storms which impede his fleet.  His army runs out of food, so he returns north. 305 lvD
c.305 AMMON, under Macedonia from 332, comes under Antigonus-I until 301. 305 rcJdn
c.302/1 PTOLEMY-I Soter, king of Egypt 305-285, invades Palestine and south Syria as far as Eleutherus River (midway between Arvad & Byblos) to help Lysimachus and allies fight Antigonus.  He receives a false report that Antigonus had won.  Ptolemy returns to Egypt. 302
IDB 3-964, TAG 10, atl4 301 lvD
c.301 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus, ruler of Syria, killed at Ipsus in Phrygia. 301 LEWH 90, OCD 69, 1030
c.301






c.301
RESULT of IPSUS:  Kingdom of Antigonus-I Monophthalamus is split up.
Lysimachus in Thrace receives eastern Aegean, Ionia, Lydia, Phrygia, north and central Anatolia until 281.
Demetrius delivers his wife's bro Pyrrhus of Epirus as a hostage to Egypt.
Pleistarchis, bro of Cassander, gets Lycia and Cilicia until 299.
Seleucus-I Nicator gets Syro-Palestine, Armenia, Mesopotamia, and Persia as far as Sogdiana and Bactria.
Cassander is king of Macedonia, and is declared king of Greece, but Demetrius Poliorcetes holds a fleet, Peloponnese, Aegean islands, Cyprus, Tyre, and some cities in Anatolia.
Ptolemy gets Cyrenaica, Egypt, south Palestine, coastal Syria, and some parts of Lycia and Pisidia.
North Cappadocia goes to Ariarathes.  Bithynia and Pontus remain independent.
301 B76 8-378, CAH 7.1-426, DGRBM 3-412, MCAW 183, OCD 69, 632, 1031, MRDK, RAH 378, anan, lvD, rcT
300 lvG
c.301 PTOLEMY-I Soter, king of Egypt 305-285, invades Palestine 4th time. 301 IDB 3-964, atl4
c.301 PALESTINE, under Antigonus-I Monophthalmus from 305, comes under PTOLEMY-I Soter until ?.  Under Ptolemies until 249.  Tyre and Sidon resist under Demetrius Poliorcetes until 294. 301 B76 8-378, CHJ 2, GHH, atl4, rcHL
c.301 JERUSALEM, under ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus from 305, taken by PTOLEMY-I, under Ptolemies until ?.  Over 30,000 Jews are taken to Egypt. 302
CHJ 2-187
301 atl4
c.301 TYRE, under Antigonus from 314, comes under Demetrius-I Poliorcetes until 294, but locally governed by a native dynasty until 288/7.  Under Seleucids until 198 301 rcLeb
c.301 SIDON, under Antigonus from 323 comes under Demetrius-I Poliorcetes until 294, under Seleucids until 198. 301 rcLeb
c.301 DAMASCUS, under Antigonus from 323, comes under Ptolemies until 198. 301 rcS
c.301 ABILA, under Antigonus from 323, comes under Ptolemies until 198. 301 rcS
c.301 ACCO, under Antigonus from 323, comes under Ptolemies until 198.  Keeps same name until 261. 301 rcHL
no date: B76 I-177
c.301 JOPPA, under Macedonia from 332, comes under Ptolemies until 198. 301 IDB 2-970, TToH, rcHL
c.301 SAMARIA, under Antigonus from 323, comes under Ptolemies until 198. 301 rcHL
c.301 GALILEE, under Antigonus from 305, comes under Ptolemies until 198. 301 rcHL
c.301 HAMATH, under Antigonus-I from 323, comes under Ptolemies until 198. 301 rcS
c.301 AMMON, under Antigonus from 305, comes under Seleucids until 200. 323 hifiAm
301 rcJdn
c.301 GERASA, city in northeast Jordan, under Antigonus from 305, comes under Ptolemies until 198. 301 rcJdn
c.301 BETH-SHAN in north Jordan valley, under Antigonus from 323, comes under Ptolemies until 198. 301 rcCan
c.301 BEYRYT Lebanon, under Antigonus from 323, comes under Ptolemies until 198. 301 rcLeb
c.301 GEZER on plain of Sharon, under Antigonus from 321, comes under Ptolemies until 198. 301 rcCan
c.301 ASHDOD, ASHKELON, and GAZA, under Antigonus from 323, come under Ptolemies until 198. 301 rcHL
c.301 All Phoenicia up to Eleutherus River (midway between Arvad & Byblos), under Seleucus since Ipsus 301, occupied by Ptolemy-I. 301 GHH, Shaw 393
c.301 Syria is divided between SELEUCUS north of the Eleutherus River and PTOLEMY south of it.  North is called SYRIA SELEUCIS.   South (Palestine) is called COELE SYRIA. 301 CAH 7.1-442, LEWH 90, OCD 69, 1030

Levant 300-201
V