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c.300 AGATHOCLES of Syracuse goes to Italy to help Taras against Lucanians. 300 CAH 7.1-406, 7.2
c.300 Carthaginians main power in west Mediterranean from 500, are now main power in whole Mediterranean until 241. 300 B76 12-886
c.299/8 AGATHOCLES, king of Syracuse 305/4-289, marries THEOXENA, (step?)dau of Ptolemy-I. 300 CAH 7.1
299/8 B76 15-181 no date: Agθ 212
c.297 AGATHOCLES of Syracuse sails to Italy until 289. implied 297 Agθ 213
c.293 STILPO, admiral of Agathocles, plunders Bruttian coast, but loses most of his fleet in a storm. 293 CAH 7.1-407
c.289 AGATHOCLES of Syracuse, in Italy from 297, is forced by ill health to withdraw to Syracuse. 289 atl3
c.289 AGATHOCLES, king of Syracuse from 305/4, dying at Syracuse, does not want his sons to succeed him, restores democracy.  AGATHOCLES dies of cancer age 72.  Succession squabbles follow.  His mercenaries are discharged, but many of refuse to leave Sicily.  Civil war and anarchy until 270.  HICETAS becomes boss until 280. 289 Agθ 97, B76 I-133, 8-382, 17-919, CAH 7.2, CDCC 22, GHH, LEWH 90, MCAW, MWΦ 199, OCD 25, RAH 384, bk, lvG, rcSI
289/8 CAH 7.1-409
288 DGRBM, lvS
c.289 Archagathus, grandson of Agathocles, murdered by Maenon, supposed assasin of Agathocles.  Maenon takes over his army at Etna, and attacks Syracuse, which sends Hicetas against him.  War continues with nothing decisive. 289 DGRBM 2-450
c.289 MAENON expelled by HICETAS, who rules Syracuse as praetor until 280. 289 HRR
c.289 AGIRA, under Syracuse from 339, comes under Carchidona until 277. 289 rcSI
c.289 ENNA (town in central Sicily) under Syracuse from 307, comes under Carchidona until 277. 289 rcSI
c.289 CATANA, under Syracuse from 305, independent? until 263.  Under tyrant Onomarchos until ?. 289 rcSI
c.289 MESSANA Sicily, under Greeks from 729, under Syracuse from 305, siezed by the MAMERTINI "men of Mars", Campanian mercenaries of Agathocles.  Under Mamertini until 264. 289 B76 VI-824, 15-1091, CAH 7.2, MCAW, rcSI     288 B76 VI-545, lvG     264 Dur 3-43
c.287 HICETAS, tyrant of Syracuse, defeated by Carthaginians. 287 MWΦ 199
c.286 PHINTIAS becomes tyrant of Acragas until 280. 286 OCD 6, rcSI
c.282/1 Taras gives naval aid to Pyrrhus for recovery of Corcyra. 282/1 CAH 7.2
c.280 GELA Sicily:  inhabitants removed to Phintias (Licata) by Phintias of Acragas.  GELA, now vacated, is destroyed by the Mamertini. 281 rcSI
280 OCD 459
c.280 PHINTIAS, tyrant of Acragas from 286, ends.  SOSISTRATUS (Sostratus) succeeds until later 280. 280 rcSI
c.280 SYRACUSE, in civil war and anarchy 289-70, under boss HICETAS from 289, comes under Toinon (Thoenon, Thynion) until 279. 280 bk, rcSI
c.280 SEGESTA Sicily, under Syracuse from 307, under Carthage until 260. 280 guess
c.280 ACRAGAS, under Greeks from 580, under Sosistratus 280, taken by Carthaginians, under Carthage until 278. 280 OCD 6
no date: DGRBM 3-884
c.280 HICETAS, tyrant of Syracuse, attacks Carthaginians, and is defeated.  Carthaginians extend their control to Messana and Acragas, and occupy LIPARI islands. 280 MWΦ 199 280/79 CAH 7.2
c.279 HICETAS expelled.  Tyrant of Syracuse from ?.  TOINON succeeds (Thoenon, Thynion, Thymon), but is soon confined to the citadel by SOSISTRATUS, also master of Acragas, who succeeds until 277. 279 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-884 278 GHH, HRR
c.279 After Asculum, Mago sails to Rome and offers his assistance against PyrrhusSenate declines.  Mago sails to south Italy and talks with Pyrrhus in effort to determine his intentions in Sicily. 279 DGRBM 2-902
c.278 SYRACUSE, under Sosistratus and Toinon, besieged by Carthaginians on land and sea.  Sosistratus and Toinon reconcile and ask help of Pyrrhus of Epirus, now in Italy. 279 CAH 7.2 278 MCAW, MWΦ 199
c.278 PYRRHUS king of Epirus 297-72, in Italy from 280, disgusted with lazy Italian allies, invades Sicily, where he is proclaimed king until 276.  Sosistratus and Toinon surrender Syracuse to him. 279 Dur 2-555     278 B76 VIII-326, CAH 7.2, CDCC 737, DGRBM 2-1087, 3-613, DGRG 1-540, GHH, HRR, MWΦ 129, 199, SORH, lvS, wikPyr
c.278 Punic blockade of Syracuse is lifted. 278 CAH 7.2
c.278 ERYX, strongest Punic fortress in Sicily, taken by PYRRHUS of Epirus. 278 DGRBM 3-613,
DGRG 1-853     277 wikPyr
c.278 ACRAGAS, under Carthage from 280, comes under Pyrrhus of Epirus until 277. 280 rcSI
no date: DGRBM 3-884
c.278 LEONTINI comes under Pyrrhus of Epirus until ?, placed under tyrant Heracleides until ?. 278 DGRG 2-159
c.278-7 PYRRHUS king of Epirus 297-72 conquers all Punic cities in Sicily except Lilybaeum.  Remains until 276. 278 B76 VIII-326, CAH 7.2, CDCC 737, MWΦ 129, lvS, wikPyr     277 SORH
c.277 AGIRA, under Carchidona from 289, comes under Epirus until 270. 277 rcSI
c.277 SYRACUSE, in civil war and anarchy 289-70, under boss Sosistratus from 280, comes under Epirus until 275. 277 rcSI
c.277 ENNA (town in central Sicily) under Carchidona from 289, comes under Epirus until 270. 277 rcSI
c.277 ACRAGAS, under Pyrrhus of Epirus from 278, given back to Sosistratus until 276. no date: DGRBM 3-884
c.277 PYRRHUS of Epirus, negotiates with Carthaginians, demands that Carthage abandon all Sicily and make the Libyan Sea a boundary between Carthaginians and Greeks.  Greek cities of Sicily oppose peace with Carthaginians because Carthaginians still control the fortress of Lilybaeum.  Pyrrhus gives in to Greeks and quits peace negotiations. 276 wikPyr
c.277 LILYBAEUM, Punic fortress on far west of Sicily from 396, besieged by PYRRHUS of Epirus.  After 2 months he realizes he needs to blockade it from the sea as well.  Pyrrhus asks men and money from the Sicilians to build a fleet. 278 OCD 610 276 wikPyr
c.276 HALICYAE west Sicily allies with Pyrrhus (after Selinunus and Segesta). 276 DGRG 1-1027
c.276 SYRACUSE, under Pyrrhus of Epirus:   Pyrrhus kills Toinon.  Sosistratus escapes to Acragas, and drops out of history. no date: DGRBM 3-884
c.276 PYRRHUS of Epirus, can't get sufficient cooperation from Sicilians, proclaims a military dictatorship of Sicily, installs military garrisons in cities.  Some Greeks start negotiating with Carthaginians. 276 wikPyr
c.276 Samnite and Tarentine envoys reach Pyrrhus and inform him that of all Greek cities in Italy only Taras had not been conquered by Rome. 276 wikPyr
c.276 PYRRHUS of Epirus, in Sicily from 278, abandoned by local allies, returns to south Italy until 275, commenting, "What a wrestling ground we are leaving, my friends, for the Carthaginians and Romans."
Ending the last Greek intervention in Sicily.
278 MWΦ 129, 200
276 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-614, SORH, lvS, wikPyr     275 DGRBM 2-455, GHH, HRR
c.276 HIERO-II, Greek lieutenant of Pyrrhus, left behind to govern Syracuse when Pyrrhus leaves, goes independent until 275. assumption from OCD 515
c.275 SYRACUSE, in civil war and anarchy 289-70, under Epirus from 277, comes under HIERO-II until 215. 275 rcSI
c.275 ELBA, small mountainous island between Italy and northeast Corsica, under Etruscans from 800 comes under Rome until 396CE. 275 rcNI
c.275/4 HIERO-II of Syracuse defeated by Mamertines of Messana. 275/4 CAH 7.2
c.270 THEOCRITUS (Theophrastus) (born in Syracuse, lives on Cos & in Egypt), poet, writes in praise of Ptolemy-II.  Some poems  Idylls  commonly attributed to him have little claim to authenticity. 275 CAH 7.1, MCAW
270 CDCC 881, LEWH 88, MNDQ 549, OHG
260 Dur 2-556
no date: wikθcr
c.270 SYRACUSE, in civil war and anarchy from 289, under HIERO-II as boss from 277, now under HIERO-II as tyrant until 215, independently until 240. 270 B76 V-32, 8-382, CDCC 853, Dur 2-555, GHH, LdHR 1-300, MRDK 239, OHG, bk, rcSI     269 LEWH 91, OCD 515, RAH 384
c.270 MAMERTINI of Messana 289-64, begin raiding nearby Greek towns.  They are then besieged by HIERO-II tyrant of Syracuse.  A Punic fleet under (a man named) Hannibal drives Hiero-II off, takes Messana, and garrisons it.  Mamertines then appeal to Rome. 270
DGRBM 2-332, SORH
no date: Dur 3-43
c.270 AGIRA, under Epirus from 277, comes under Rome until 396CE. 270 rcSI
c.270 ENNA (town in central Sicily) under Epirus from 277, comes under Rome until 136. 270 rcSI
c.269 AMESELUM Sicily taken and destroyed by HIERO-II tyrant of Syracuse.  Territory divided between the Centuripini and Agyrians. 269 DGRG 1-122
c.265 HIERO-II, defeats Mamertines near river Longanus, besieges Messana, and proclaims himself king. 267 CAH 7.2, MCAW
265 lvG, lvS
264 B76 V-32, LdHR 1-300
c.265 MAMERTINES of Messana 289-64, asks help from Carthaginians, who send Hannibal, who drives off Hiero, garrisons Messana, and hassles the Mamertines as much as Hiero had. 265 CAH 7.2, SHWC 107, lvS
c.264 MAMERTINES now ask Rome for help against Carthaginians.   Consul Appius CLAUDIUS CAUDEX is sent to rescue them.  Meanwhile, the Mamertines make peace with the Carthaginians, and send a messenger to intercept Claudius at RhegiumClaudius ignores it, and invades Sicily anyway. 265 MCAW
265/4 B76 8-382, MWΦ 200     264 B76 VI-824, 15-277, CAH 7.2, Dur 3-43, LdHR 1-300, OHG
c.264 1st PUNIC WAR begins until 241.  Consul CLAUDIUS CAUDEX, with 2 legions, goes from Italy to Sicily, invites the Punic commander to conference, imprisons him, and notifies Carthage that the commander will be killed if they resist. 265 MCAW     264 B76 15-1091, BCoC 497, CAH 7.1, DGRBM, Dur 3-20, 44, GHH, OHG, SHWC 107, TAWH 17, TToH, TTPC, bk, lvG, lvS     263 LdHR 1-301
c.264 HIERO-II, defeated by Claudius Caudex at Messana. 264 TToH
c.264 MESSANA, under Mamertines from 289, comes under Rome until 396CECarthaginians under Hanno peacefully evacuate. 264 B76 13-149, DGRBM 2-342, Dur 3-44, GHH     241 rcSI
c.264 TIMAEUS' history of Sicily from earliest times ends here.  He is the 1st historian to date events by Olympiads.  Polybius picks up history from here.  Polybius says Timaeus was so ignorant of geography, so bad in observation and judgment, that he incorrectly reported things he had seen, and places he had visited; and adds that his work abounded with legend and fables, and omitted important things. 264 B76 IX-1012, CDGRA 450, DGRBM 3-1130
c.264 Consul Appius Claudius CAUDEX advances into Hiero-II's territory up to the walls of Syracuse.  His troops get malaria, and he withdraws to Messana. 264 CAH 7.2, HRRP 1-468 263 B76 15-277
c.263 Consuls Manius Valerius Maximus and Otacilius Crassus with 40-50,000 men arrive in Sicily.  67 towns quickly join them. 263 LdHR 1-303
c.263 Consuls Valerius MESSALLA and Otacilius CRASSUS ravage Syracusan territory, take many small towns. 263 DGRBM 2-455
c.263 Consul Manius Valerius Maximus relieves Punic blockade of Messana.  For this he takes on the hereditary cognomen MESSALLA. 263 DGRBM 2-1049
c.263 AETNA and surrounding district reduced by consul M' Valerius Messala, who repulses attack by Hiero. 263
OCD 674
c.263 CATANA, independent from 289, taken by consul M. VALERIUS MESSALA.  Under Rome until 396CE. 263 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-567, OCD 214, rcSI
c.263 SEGESTA, mostly under Carthage from 400, taken by consul M. VALERIUS MESSALA.  Under Rome until 104. 263 rcSI
c.263 Adranum, Halaesa, Centuripa, Camarina come under control of Romans. 263 CAH 7.2
c.263 HIERO-II, tyrant of Syracuse 270-15, compelled by Rome to  treaty  restricting his kingdom to southeast Sicily and the east coast as far as Taormina.  Becomes ally of Rome against Carthage until death 215. 263 B76 V-32, 15-277, 1091, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-455, DGRG 1-1039, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-303, MCAW, OCD 515, OHG, SORH, lvS
c.263 LEONTINI given by treaty with Rome to Hiero-II of Syracuse. 263 DGRG 2-159
c.262 HANNO, Punic general with elephants, sails to Sicily. 262 MCAW
c.262 Consuls L. Postumius MEGELLUS Jr. and Q. Mamilius VITULUS sent from Rome to Sicily. 262 DGRBM 2-1009
c.262 ACRAGAS under Hannibal son of Gisco besieged by both consuls. 262 B76 I-146, DGRBM 2-332, 1009, 3-1279, HRR, LdHR 1-303, SORH
c.262 HANNO, Punic general tries to relieve Acragas, gets as far as Heraclea, defeated by Romans. 262 DGRBM 2-327, LdHR 1-303, LEWH 98, MCAW
c.262 ACRAGAS under Hannibal son of Gisco besieged 6-7 months, falls to consuls.  25,000 men are killed. 262 B76 I-146, DGRBM 2-332, 1009, 3-1279, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-303, SORH
c.262 HANNO, Punic general in Sicily, ends.  HAMILCAR (not Barca) succeeds until ?. 262 DGRBM 2-327
c.262 HALICYAE west Sicily comes under Romans. 262 CAH 7.2
c.262 Hannibal son of Gisco sent with fleet to Sardinia. 262 CAH 7.2
c.262/1 ACRAGAS, under Carthage from 280, defended by Hannibal son of Gisco and Hanno, besieged, taken and sacked by consuls L. Postumius and Q. MamiliusHannibal son of Gisco and his garrison escape.  Greek inhabitants enslaved.  Under Romans until 255. 262 B76 15-277, DGRG 1-76, 845, LEWH, MCAW 98, SORH     262/1 CAH 7.2     261 lvS, wikLRB
c.261 Consuls L. Valerius FLACCUS and Titus Otacilius CRASSUS sent from Rome to Sicily operate with little success. 261 DGRBM 2-157
c.261 Inland Sicilian towns generally back Romans.  Coastal towns Carthage. 261 SORH
c.261 Hannibal son of Gisco based on Sardinia repeatedly raids Italian coast. 261 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-332, SORH     260 DGRBM 1-1091
c.261 Consul Titus Otacilius CRASSUS continues operations in Sicily uneventfully. 261 DGRBM 1-882
c.260 SEGESTA, under Carthage from 280, taken by consul C. DUILIUS.  Under Romans until 104. 263 rcSI     262 CAH 7.2 260 OCD 367
c.260 TIMAEUS of Locri, historian, in Sicily from ?, dies age 96. 260 B76 IX-1012, CAH 7.2, OHG 259 atl3     256 DGRBM 3-1130
255 CAH 7.1     250 wikTm
c.260 Consul Gn. SCIPIO ASINA, with 17 ships, sails to Messana, and is then drawn to Lipara Islands.  All 17 are captured by 20 Carthaginian galleys sent by Hannibal son of Gisco off Lipara Islands. 260 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-332, SORH, wikLRB
1st Pun War: LEWH 98
c.260 Lipara Islands, under Carthage from ? taken by Romans. 260 GHH, HRR
c.260 Roman FLEET, begun 264, completed, former consul CLAUDIUS CAUDEX commander.  at least 100 quinqueremes, 20 triremes (some say as much as 330 ships in all) each 150 ft long, 300 rowers, 120 soldiers, with grapling hooks & gangways.  Romans with no sailing experience challenge the masters of the Mediterranean. 261 CAH 7.2
260 B76 15-277, DGRBM 1-1091, wikLRB
no date: Dur 3-44
c.260 Hannibal son of Gisco with 50 ships sails from Sardinia to raid Italy.  Encounters the new Roman fleet, loses many ships, escapes to Sicily. 260 DGRBM 2-332
c.260 HIPPANA Sicily taken by Romans. 260 DGRG 1-1069
c.260 Romans camped near Himera defeated with heavy loss by Hamilcar. 260 DGRG 1-1067
c.260 Romans defeated and besieged by Carthaginians at Segesta. 260 CAH 7.2
c.260 Consul C. DUILIUS employs the new tactic of grappling with a corvus (crane) and boarding to defeat the Punic fleet under Hannibal son of Gisco off MYLAE Sicily50 Punic ships sunk or captured.  Hannibal escapes to Carthage.  This gives Rome control of western Mediterranean. 261 DGRA 327, 364
260 B76 15-277, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-327, 332, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-475, LdHR 1-306, LEWH 98, MCAW, OCD 367, SORH, TTPC, bk, lvS, wikLRB
c.260 C. DUILIUS relieves Romans, besieged by Carthaginians at Segesta. 260 CAH 7.2, SORH
c.260 ERYX in west Sicily destroyed by Hamilcar, removing inhabitants to neighboring promontory of Drepana, and founding town of DREPANA. 260 DGRG 1-853
c.259 HAMILCAR defeats Romans at Thermae, advances to Enna and Camerina. 259 CAH 7.2
c.259 Enna and Camerina, loyal to Rome from ?, defect to Hamilcar until 258. 259 CAH 7.2
258 DGRG 1-487
c.259 CORSICA, under Carthage from ?, taken and ravaged by consul, fleet commander, L. Cornelius SCIPIO.  Capital ALALIA captured.  Corsica under Rome until 395CE. 283 TToH     260 HRR     259 B76 5-191, 15-277, CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-94, 690, LdHR 1-306, OCD 961, SORH, rcNI    258 MCAW
259 Consul C. Aquillius FLORUS sent from Rome to Sicily until 258.  He watches Hamilcar thru fall & winter, remains as proconsul until summer. 259 DGRBM 2-177
259 Consul L. Cornelius SCIPIO sent to Sardinia until 25?. 259 DGRBM 3-741
259 Consul L. Cornelius SCIPIO defeats Hanno at Olbia Sardinia. 259 B76 VII-509
c.259 OLBIA Sardinia, under Carthage from ?, taken by L. Scipio, who raids the Sardinian coast. 259 MWΦ 210, SORH
c.259 Consul L. Cornelius SCIPIO drives Carthaginians out of Sardinia and Corsica. 259 DGRBM 3-741, GHH
c.259 HANNIBAL son of Gisco, in Carthage from 260, sent with a fleet to defend Sardinia, which had been attacked by L. Scipio. 259 DGRBM 2-332
c.259/8 HANNO, Punic general, killed defending Olbia Sardinia. 259 MWΦ 210
c.259/8 HANNIBAL son of Gisco, unsuccessful against Romans, killed by his own troops.  Hanno succeeds, and is killed by L. Scipio. 259 DGRBM 2-343 259/8 DGRBM 2-332 258 GHH
c.258 C. Sulpicius Paterculus defeats Punic fleet near Sulci Sardinia. 258 CAH 7.2, wikLRB
c.258 Consul Atilius CALATINUS in west Corsica, trapped, but rescued by skill and bravery of tribune M. CALPURNIUS, who turns the near disaster into victory. 258 LdHR 1-306
c.258 Consuls Sulpicius PATERCULUS and Atilius CALATINUS (Caiatinus) are sent from Rome to Sicily, relieve proconsul C. Aquillius FLORUS, who returns to Rome. 258 DGRBM 1-560
c.258 Hill fort MYTISTRATUM, blockaded by proconsul C. Aquillius Florus 258, taken and burnt by consul Atilius Calatinus (Caiatinus). 258 DGRBM 1-560, 2-177
c.258 HIPPANA taken by consul Atilius Calatinus, who then takes strongly fortified Myttistratum, which is burnt. 258 DGRBM 1-560
c.258 Consul Atilius Calatinus, besieges Camarina.  During the siege, he is ambushed, and about to lose his whole army, but is rescued by tribune Calpurnius Flamma.  Afterward, Calatinus conquers Camarina, Enna, Drepana, and other Carthaginian held places 258 DGRBM 1-560
c.258 DREPANA, under Carthaginians from ?, taken by consul Atilius Calatinus. 258 DGRBM 1-560
Didn't happen. 258 SORH
c.258 Hamilcar retains Drepana, Panormus and other fortresses. 258 SORH
c.258 PANORMUS attacked by Romans. 258 CAH 7.2
c.258 Enna and Camerina, under Hamilcar from 259, recovered by consuls A. Atilius and C. Sulpicius, who, to punish them for defection, sell many of them as slaves. 258 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-560 DGRG 1-487
c.258 late Consul Atilius CALATINUS attacks Lipara islands, then returns to Rome.  Campaign is taken over by his successor. 258 late DGRBM 1-560
c.257 MALTA, under Carthage, raided by Romans. 257 CAH 7.2
c.257 Punic fleet under Hamilcar operates north of Sicily. 257 DGRBM 2-327
c.257 Roman fleet under Atilius Regulus defeats Punic fleet under Hamilcar near Tyndaris on north coast of Sicily.  Rest of Punic ships retreat to Aeolian Islands. 257 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-327, GHH, HRR, SORH, wikBT, wikLRB
c.257 Atilius Regulus defeats Punic fleet off the Lipara islands, though not without considerable loss.  Devastates islands of Lipara and Melite. 257 DGRBM 3-644
c.256 350 Punic quinqueremes, are stationed at Heraclea Minoa to prevent Roman fleet from going to Africa. 256 DGRG 1-1048
c.256 Consuls VULSO and REGULUS with 330 ships, sail from Italy to Sicily, pick up legions, sail from Encomus for Africa. 256 B76 15-1091, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-643, DGRG 1-242, Dur 3-44, LdHR 1-307, LEWH 99, MCAW, OCD 1134, OHG, wikLRB
c.256 Consuls VULSO and fleet commander REGULUS, with 330 ships, defeat 350 Punic quinqueremes carrying 300 rowers and 120 combatants each under Hamilcar and Hanno, off Cape of ECNOMUS at Heraclea Minoa at mouth of Himera (Halycus?) river on south coast of Sicily.  Romans lose 24 ships, capture 64 Punic ships and crews, sink 30. 256 B76 15-277, 1091, CAH 7.2, CGS 584, DGRBM 2-327, 343, 3-643, DGRG 1-805, Dur 3-44, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-480, LdHR 1-307, LEWH 99, MCAW, OCD 911, SORH, TToH, bk, wikBCE, wikLRB     254 DGRG 1-542
CONFUSION ALERT!  The ancients appear to call 2 rivers Himera, and even assert that they joined in the middle of the island!   DGRG 1-1068
c.256 Hamilcar escapes to Heraclea Minoa, soon receives orders to return to Carthage. 256 DGRBM 2-327
c.256 Consuls VULSO & REGULUS land in Africa. 256 DGRBM 1-501, GHH
c.255 HASDRUBAL son of Hanno with a large army and 140 elephants is sent to Sicily, but wastes 2 years doing nothing. after Regulus defeat: DGRBM 2-354
c.255 ACRAGAS, under Romans from 261, sacked by Carthaginian general Carthalo, comes under Carthaginians until ?. 255 B76 I-146, DGRG 1-76, rcSI 254 CAH 7.2
c.255 2nd Roman fleet, reduces Cossyra island southwest of Sicily, defeats Punic fleet near the Hermaean promontory (Cape Bon Tunisia), sinks 114 Carthaginian ships. 255 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-1205, GHH, HRR, atl3
c.255 2nd Roman fleet, built 255, departs from Africa. 255 B76 15-1091, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-456, 1205, DGRG 1-487 LEWH 99, MCAW     no date: Dur 3-44
255 Consuls disregard advice of pilots to avoid the south coast of Sicily because of summer gales.  2nd Roman Fleet wrecked by storm off Camarina.  Consuls escape with 80 ships out of 364.  Hiero takes care of the survivors. 255 B76 15-1091, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-456, 1205, DGRG 1-487 GHH, HRR, LEWH 99, MCAW, SORH     no date: Dur 3-44
254 Consuls Aulus Atilius CALATINUS and SCIPIO ASINA pick up the remnants of the old fleet and sail to Messana. 254
LdHR 1-310
c.254 3rd Roman FLEET: 200 quinqueremes sails to Messana, picks up consuls Calatinus and Scipio and the remnant of the old fleet and sail to Drepana, which they are unable to take. 254
LdHR 1-310
c.254 PANORMUS Sicily, under Carthage from 460, besieged briefly and stormed by consuls Aulus Atilius CALATINUS and SCIPIO ASINA.  Under Rome until 396CE.  Romans now control north coast of Sicily. 254 B76 13-930, 15-277, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-741, LEWH 99, MCAW, OCD 143, SORH, rcSI     253 GHH
c.254 CEPHALODIUM on north coast of Sicily, taken (by treachery) by 2nd Roman fleet under Atilius Calatinus and Scipio Asina. 254 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-589
253 Consuls Servilius CAEPIO and C. Sempronius BLAESUS sent from Rome to join 3rd fleet in Sicily. 253 CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 1-491, 533, csm, wikCon
c.253 3rd Roman FLEET under consuls Blaesus and Caepio raids east Tunisia, gathers much loot, but accomplishes nothing noteworthy.  Thru pilot ignorance they run aground, and escape by turn of tide only by throwing all non-essentials overboard.  they return to Panormus Sicily. 253 DGRBM 1-491, 533, CAH 7.2, GHH, LdHR 1-310
253 LILYBAEUM attacked by Romans unsuccessfully. 253 CAH 7.2
253 3rd Roman fleet, 150 ships, sails from Panormus for Italy, wrecked again by another storm off Cape Palinurus Promontory Lucania. 253 B76 15-1091, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-491, 533, CAH 7.2, HRRP 1-483, LdHR 1-310, LEWH 99, MCAW, SORH, bk
252 HRR     no date: Dur 3-44
c.252 Consuls P. Servilius GEMINUS and C. Aurelius COTTA sent from Rome to Sicily, fight Carthaginians successfully. 252 DGRBM 1-866, 2-239
252 HIMERA taken by Consuls GEMINUS and COTTA after inhabitants had been removed by Carthaginians. 252 DGRBM 1-866, 2-239, SORH
252 THERMAE taken by Romans.  They avoid contact with Hasdrubal's army. 252 CAH 7.2, SORH
c.252 Consul C. Aurelius COTTA borrows ships from Hiero, blockades Lipara Islands, leaves tribune Q. Cassius in charge, with orders not to engage in battle.  Cassius disobeys, losing many Romans.  Cotta returns, besieges Lipara, takes it, kills inhabitants, demotes Cassius. 252 DGRBM 1-866, 2-456, 798, HRRP 1-483
252 LIPARA ISLANDS, under Romans from 260, annexed by Rome. 252 CAH 7.2-299
c.251 Consuls C. Furius PACILUS and L. Caecilius METELLUS sent from Rome to Sicily to oppose Hasdrubal. 251 CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 2-1056, csm, wikCon
c.251 HASDRUBAL son of Hanno with 200 ships carrying 30,000 men, 140 elephants, tries to recover Panormus, where proconsul Metellus keeps his army. 251 HRRP 1-483
c.251 Consul L. Caecilius METELLUS thwarts an attack by HASDRUBAL son of Hanno at PANORMUS, kills 20,000 men, captures 104 elephants, kills the rest.  Hasdrubal escapes to Lilybaeum.  Romans now control all Sicily except Lilybaeum, Drepana, and Mt. Eryx. 251 GHH, LEWH 99, wikLRB
251/0 B76 15-277, CAH 7.2 250 DGRBM 1-654, 2-354, 3-644, OCD 677, SORH
c.250 HASDRUBAL son of Hanno returns to Carthage, and is crucified. no date: DGRBM 2-354, HRRP 1-484
c.250 Thinking that the time has come to end the war, Rome sends consuls Manlius VULSO and C. Atilius REGULUS with 4 legions and 200 ships to Sicily. 250 DGRBM 3-644
c.250 LILYBAEUM, on far west Sicily, under 10,000 Carthaginians, besieged by consul L. Manlius VULSO with 110,000 Romans.  Siege continues under subsequent Romans until 241.  Unsuccessful. 250 B76 15-277, CAH 7.2, DGRBM, HRRP 1-486, MCAW, OCD 1134, SORH, TToH, bk
c.250 HASDRUBAL secretly marches from Lilybaeum to Panormus, hoping to surprize it.  Commandant proconsul L. Caecilius Metellus totally defeats Hasdrubal, captures 13 generals, 120 elephants.  This is the biggest and last land battle of the war. 250 LdHR 1-311
c.250 Admiral Hannibal son of Hamilcar, with 50 ships, sails to Aegusae islands, thence to Lilybaeum.  Lands 10,000 men with supplies for Lilybaeum, then sails to join Adherbal at Drepana. 250 DGRBM 2-332
c.249 Consul P. Claudius PULCHER is sent from Rome to Sicily to reinforce troops at Lilybaeum. 249 DGRBM 1-768
c.249 Consul P. CLAUDIUS PULCHER, commander of Sicily, blasts Roman religion.  Preparing to blockade Lilybaeum, he is informed that the "sacred chickens" would not eat.  He says, "Let them drink.", then drowns them. 249
LEWH 99, OCD 247
c.249 Lilybaeum besieged by consul P. Claudius Pulcher.  Siege lasts until 241. 250 LdHR 1-316 247 GHH
c.249 Dictator Aulus Atilius Calatinus (Caiatinus) arrives in Sicily.  Nothing comes of it. 249 DGRBM 1-560, GHH
c.249 Punic fleet under Carthalo at Heraclea Minoa watches for Roman fleet which is approaching to relieve Lilybaeum. 249 DGRG 1-1048
c.249 CARTHALO, admiral under Adherbal, is sent to burn Roman fleet anchored off Lilybaeum. 249 DGRBM 1-616
c.249 Consul Appius CLAUDIUS PULCHER, commander of Sicily, tries to relieve blockade of Lilybaeum by attacking Punic fleet under Adherbal at DREPANA3rd Roman fleet is seriously defeated.  93 out of 123 ships lost, 8,000 men killed, 20,000 captured.  Claudius is recalled. 249 B76 15-277, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-19, 2-276, Dur 3-45, GHH, HRRP 1-487, LEWH 99 OCD 247, SORH, bk, wikLRB
c.249 L. Junius PULLUS at Syracuse with 800 merchant ships, departs for Lilybaeum.  Carthalo watches from coast of Acragas, intercepts several convoys, drives Pullus' fleet into the reefs of Camarina, where a storm destroys it.  Carthalo takes shelter at Cape Pachynum at the southeast point of Sicily. 249 GHH, HRRP 1-487-8, SORH
c.249 3rd Roman FLEET wrecked in a storm in reefs of Camarina.  Consul L. Junius PULLUS is blamed for his neglect of religious matters.  He suicides out. 249 DGRBM 3-604, HRR, HRRP 1-487-8
c.249 Admiral Hannibal son of Hamilcar, with 30 ships, sails to Panormus, siezes Roman grain stores, carries them to Lilybaeum. 249 DGRBM 2-332
c.249 AEGITHALLUS promontory on west coast of Sicily, near Lilybaeum, occupied and fortified by consul L. Junius, but soon recovered by Hamilcar Barca. 249 DGRG 1-35
c.249 Mt. ERYX taken by Romans until 247. 249 CAH 7.2     248 GHH
c.248 L. Manlius VULSO besieging LILYBAEUM, on far west Sicily, from 250, relieved by consul P. Servilius GEMINUS. 248 DGRBM 2-239 247 HRR
c.248 DREPANA west Sicily, under Carthaginians, besieged by consul P. Servilius GEMINUS. 248 DGRBM 2-239, SORH     247 GHH, HRR
c.248 Mutiny of Punic mercenaries in Sicily suppressed. 248 CAH 7.2
c.247 Romans renew treaty with HIERO-II of Syracuse against Carthage. 248 CAH 7.2 247 MCAW
c.247 HAMILCAR BARCA invades Sicily until 241. 249 Dur 3-20, OHG
247 B76 IV-871, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-327, GHH, SORH
c.247 Mt. ERYX, under Romans from 249, taken by HAMILCAR BARCA, becomes his headquarters until 244. 247 CAH 7.2, HRRP 1-489, SORH
c.247 HAMILCAR BARCA in Sicily 247-41, based at Mt. Eryx, given supreme command of Punic army until 229. 247 B76 IV-871, Dur 3-45
247/6 B76 15-277     246 TToH
c.247 Roman privateers ravage African coast, but avoid Sicily. 247 SORH
c.246 Rome builds another fleet. 246 MCAW
c.244 HAMILCAR BARCA in Sicily 247-41, based at Mt. Eryx from 247, takes nearby town of Eryx, deports inhabitants to Drepana, moves there until 241 - though Romans still occupy the fort on its top and have an army at its foot. 244 B76 15-277, CAH 7.2,
DGRBM 2-328, SORH
c.243 Consul C. Fundanius FUNDULUS is sent from Rome to Sicily to oppose Hamilcar Barca. 243 DGRBM 2-189
c.243 Consul C. Fundanius FUNDULUS defeats Hamilcar Barca. 243 DGRBM, GHH, HRR
c.242 Rome resumes sea operations with 200 warships, mostly quinquiremes. 242 B76 15-277, BCoC 498, SORH
c.242 Consul C. LUTATIUS CATULUS, commands 2nd Roman fleet, sent to fight Carthaginians in Sicily.  Q. Valerius Falto 2nd in command. 242 DGRBM 2-135, SORH
c.242 DREPANA west Sicily, under Carthaginians, besieged by consul Lutatius Catulus until 241. 242 DGRG 1-788, SORH
c.242 Roman fleet occupies harbors of Lilybaeum and Drepana 242 DGRBM 2-135, SORH
c.242 HANNO with a heavily freighted fleet, sails to rescue Drepana, touches down at Hiera island, southernmost of the Eolie Islands off northeast Sicily. 242 DGRG 1-788 241 LdHR 1-316
c.242 MALTA, under Carthage from ?, taken by Romans until ?. 242 GHH
c.241 Proconsul C. LUTATIUS CATULUS, commanding 200 Roman ships learns of Punic fleet under Hanno at Hiera island, sails to intercept it, sinks 5, captures 70 Punic ships off Aegates Islands west of Sicily.  Cuts off Punic supplies in Sicily.  Romans now control the sea. 242 SORH, bk, wikLRB
241 B76 15-278, 1091, BCoC 498, DGRA 1167, DGRBM 2-328, 343, DGRG 1-32, 788, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-495, MCAW, OCD 217, OHG, lvS
c.241 Carthaginians main power in west Mediterranean from 500, main power in whole Mediterranean from 300, lose place to Romans until ?. 241 B76 12-886
c.241 DREPANA west Sicily, under Carthaginians from ?, besieged by consul Lutatius Catulus from 242, surrenders. 241 DGRG 1-853
c.241 LILYBAEUM, Punic city from 396, on west coast of Sicily, besieged by Romans from 249, breaks siege. 241 LdHR 1-316, OCD 610
c.241 1st PUNIC WAR from 264 ends.  Catulus of Rome negotiates  peace treaty  with Hamilcar BarcaLutatius demands surrender of Punic troops at Eryx; Hamilcar refuses; Lutatius withdraws demand.  Carthage to EVACUATE SICILY and islands between Sicily and Italy, agree to keep warships out of Roman waters, 440 talents annual indemnity for 10 years, drop restrictions on Roman trade.  Hiero retains his lands and independence.  Rest of Sicily is under Romans. 241 B76 15-1091,
BCoC 498, DGRBM 2-328, DGRG 1-542, Dur 3-20, 45, HRR, LdHR 1-302, LEWH 99, MCAW, OHG, SHWC 107, SORH, TToH, bk, lvG
c.241 QUINQUEREMES LOST in 1st Punic War:  Carthage 500, Rome 700, estimated by Polybius.  One quinquereme carried 120 soldiers and 300 rowers. no date:
DGRG 1-542
c.241 HAMILCAR BARCA in Sicily from 247, at Eryx from 244, marches his men to Lilybaeum, resigns in disgust, leaves Gisco at Lilybaeum in charge of conveying troops from there to Carthage. 241 B76 IV-871, DGRBM 2-269, 328, GHH
c.241 WESTERN SICILY, under Carthage from ?, taken by Rome, becomes Romes 1st province (except for kingdom of Hiero-II).  Governed by a praetor. 241 B76 15-1091, CDGRA 517, DGRA 964, Dur 3-20, LEWH 102, OCD 928
c.241 All SICILY comes under Rome, except kingdom of Hiero-II, who becomes a perpetual ally. 241 DGRBM 2-456,
IDB 2-478, MWΦ 200, bk
c.240 Rome stations a full legion on Sicily, treats Sicily lika a conquered country, exports most of its grain to Rome. 240 MCAW
c.240 Low class Helenistic culture and values are imported to puritannical Rome via Sicily. 240 MCAW
c.240 SARDINIA:  Punic garrison (almost totally mercenaries) mutinys, kills generals Bostar and Hanno, terrorizes Carthaginians, invites Romans to occupy Sardinia.  Rome declines.  Punic garrison is expelled by Sardinians. 241 Dur 3-20, SORH
240 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-501, 2-343, GHH, MWΦ 210, SORH
c.240  Lex Hieronica Frumentaria :  Adaption of traditional law by king Hiero of Syracuse, regulates Roman taxation (including grain) of Sicily. 240 invf, wikLRL
c.240 SYRACUSE, under tyrant HIERO-II 270-215, divided with GELON-II until 216. 240 rcSI
c.239 Native Sardinians react against mutinous Carthaginian garrison, force the mercenaries to flee to Italy. 239 CAH 7.2 MCAW
c.239 Hanno sent by Carthage to Sardinia to deal with mutiny.  As soon as he lands, his army defects to the mutineers, and crucifies him. 239 DGRBM 2-343
c.238 Consuls P. Valerius FALTO and Ti.(1) Sempronius GRACCHUS, both sent to Corsica and Sardinia. 238 DGRBM 2-287
c.238 Consul Ti.(1) Sempronius GRACCHUS occupies Sardinia. 238 GHH, SORH
c.238 CORSICA, under Carthage from ?, surrenders to Rome until 395CE. 239 Dur 3-20     238 B76 15-1091, CDCC 238, DGRG 1-542, GHH, HRR, LEWH 99, MWΦ 210, OCD 298, bk     237 OHG
c.238 SARDINIA, under Carthage from 500, surrenders to Rome until 395CE.  Many Sards are brought to Rome and sold as slaves. 239 Dur 3-20     238 B76 13-149, 15-278, 1091, 16-245, CAH 7.2, 8-44, DGRA 715, DGRG 1-542, GHH, HRR, LEWH 99, MWΦ 210, OCD 298, TToH, bk, rcSI     237 OHG
c.238 CORSICA/SARDINIA, becomes Romes 2nd province. 238 B76 15-1091, LEWH 99, MWΦ 210, OCD 298     235 DGRA 964
c.238 LEONTINI, under Syracuse ruled by local tyrants from 422, comes under Rome until 214. 238 rcSI
c.237 Rome, with no pretense of justification, forces Carthage to surrender SARDINIA, and pay an extra 1,200 talents indemnity. 237 CAH 8-27, Dur 3-46
c.236 Consul C. Licinius VARUS is sent to Corsica.  M. Claudius Glicia is his legate.  Rome campaigns in Corsica until 231. 236 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-616, DGRBM 2-276, GHH
c.235 SARDINIA, under Rome from 237, at instigation of the Carthaginians, rebels. 236 CAH 7.2, SORH 235 DGRBM
c.235 Consul T. Manlius TORQUATUS comes to Sardinia, conquers the Sardinians. 235 DGRBM 3-1164, GHH
c.234 Consul Sp. Carvilius MAXIMUS sent from Rome to Corsica. 234 DGRBM 2-987
c.233 Consuls Q. Fabius Maximus VERRUCOSUS and Manius Pomponius MATHO are sent to Sardinia.  They gain a triumph, but Sardinia remains unconquered. 233 DGRBM 2-972
c.233 Illyrian pirates begin ravaging Adriatic coast. 233 DGRG 2-38
c.232 Consuls M. Aemilius LEPIDUS and M. Publicius MALLEOLUS sent from Rome to Sardinia. 232 DGRBM
c.231 War in CORSICA/SARDINIA. 231 SORH
c.231 Consul Papirius Maso subdues CORSICA/SARDINIA and returns to Rome. 231 DGRBM, DGRG 1-690, GHH, HRR
c.230 ARCHIMEDES of Syracuse builds a huge pleasure boat 1 stadium long (407 ft.) for Hiero-II.  It has a sport deck, a garden deck, and a marble bath. 237 MCAW
c.230 ARCHIMEDES of Syracuse flourishes.

GEOMETRY:  Writes  On the Sphere & Cylinder :  Ratio of the volume of a sphere to a circumscribed cylinder is 2/3.
 Measurement of the Circle :  Calculates pi to 3 1/7th to 3 10/71 by inscribing and circumscribing polygons of 96 sides on a circle.
 On Conoids & Spheroids :  Concerning solids created by revolution of a circle, elipse, parabola, hyberbola on their axes.
 On Spirals :  On tangential properties of a curve.  Shows how to express area of any figure made by a curve & straight line.
 On the Equilibrium of Planes or Centers of Gravity of Planes :  Foundation of theoretical mechanics.  How to determine center of gravity of geometric figures.
 Quadrature of the Parabola :  Area of a parabola = 4/3 that of its inscribed triangle.
 The Sand Reconer :  Calculates how many grains of sand can be contained in a sphere the size of the "known" universe. The Method :  Explains how he found areas & volumes of geometric figures by weighing volumes of them.

Λ PHYSICS:  Writes  On the Floating Bodies :  Positions of rest and stability of a bullet shaped paraboloid floating in liquid.  Boats are lighter in water relative to the weight of water displaced.

MECHANICS:  Invented the WATER SCREW still used for irrigating fields.
265 TTPC 247
Dur 2-556 260-12 OHG
226 GHH
no date: B76 1-1088
c.230 A votive crown of allegedly pure gold is given to Hiero-II of Syracuse.  Hiero suspects that it's not pure gold.  He could easily determine its purity by melting it down and comparing its weight to pure gold of the same volume.  But he doesn't want to damage it.  Hiero asks ARCHIMEDES to determine its purity.  While bathing, Archimedes notices that his volume displaces an equal volume of water, and that therefore the crown can be submerged in water, and its volume determined.  If the same volume of pure gold weighs the same as the crown, then the crown is pure gold.  Archimedes runs thru the streets naked, crying "Eureka!".  The crown is proven to not be pure gold. no date: wikAr
c.230 ROME War on ILLYRIAN PIRATES.  Clears them out of the Adriatic. 230 Dur 3-20, 47
c.229 ISSA island in Adriatic besieged by TEUTA regent of Illyria. 230 LdHR 1-324
229 OCD 368, 1048, wikDP
c.227 C. FLAMINIUS becomes Rome's 1st praetor of Sicily until ?.  He is popular with Sicilians. 227 CAH 7.2, CDCC 351, DGRBM 2-167, OCD 441     220 OCD 441
c.227 SICILY becomes Roman province until ?.  But Syracuse and Messana remain independent states. 227 CAH 8-61, OHG
c.227 SARDINIA & CORSICA are combined into 1 Roman province under 1 praetor until ?. 227 CAH 7.2, 8-61,
CDCC 238, HRRP 1-506, MCAW, OHG
c.225 SARDINIANS, rebel.  Consul C. Atilius REGULUS is sent, quickly subdues them, and is recalled to Rome to fight Gauls. 225 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-645
c.224 PLANETARIUM built by Archimedes. 224 GHH, HRR
c.222 Romans, grateful for past services of Hiero-II, give him a portion of spoils taken from Gauls. 222 DGRBM 2-456
c.221 DEMETRIUS of Pharos island, chieftain of Illyria, former ally of Rome, and Illyrian commander SCERDILAIDAS, engage in piracy, violating 229 agreement with Rome. 221 B76 8-383
220 OCD 325
219 B76 15-1091
c.220 DEMETRIUS of Pharos and Illyrian commander Scerdilaidas assault Pylos in Peloponnese, fail, separate their forces.  Demetrius plunders the Cyclades.  Scerdilaidas returns north. 220 wikDP
c.220 DEMETRIUS of Pharos, chieftain of Illyria, breaks treaty with Rome by sailing past Lissus Illyria to attack Aegean islands. 220 OCD 325
no date: B76 15-1091
c.219 2nd PUNIC WAR begins until 201. 219 Dur 3-20, lvG, TToH     218 TTPC, lvS
c.219 PharosDEMETRIUS of Pharos, chieftain of Illyria, easily defeated on Pharos by consul L. Aemilius Paullus, flees to court of Philip-V, advocates anti-Roman policy. 219 B76 III-457, 8-383-4,
CAH 7-848, 8-32,
DGRBM 3-153, OCD 325, 928, atl3, bk
218 wikDΦ
c.219 PHAROS Island comes under Rome until ?. 219 Jun CAH 8-36, DGRBM 3-153
c.218 Punic fleet sailing for Lilybaeum and Italy is scattered by a storm.  3 ships are captured by HIERO-II of Syracuse, who warns praetor M. Aemilius that a further 35 ships are on their way to take Lilybaeum. 218 CAH 8-61 217 CAH 8-66
c.218 Roman fleet under praetor M. Aemilius defeats Punic fleet off Lilybaeum. 218 CAH 8, wikLRB 217 CAH 8-66
c.218 Consul T. SEMPRONIUS LONGUS with 2 legions goes to Sicily. 218 CAH 8-33
c.218 M. Aemilius Lepidus is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 218 DGRBM 2-763
c.218 Consul T. SEMPRONIUS LONGUS sails from Sicily to MALTA. 218 MWΦ 190
c.218 MALTA, under a Punic garrison of 2,000 from ?, under HAMILCAR, son of Gisco from ?, taken by T. SEMPRONIUS LONGUS.  Under Rome until ?. 218 B76 11-391,
DGRBM 2-330, MWΦ 190
217 CAH 8-66
c.218 Roman sea dominance makes it impossible for Hannibal to transport his army by sea. 218 CAH 8-65
c.218 MALTA, under Carthage from 528, taken by consul T. SEMPRONIUS LONGUS, under Rome until 395CE. 218 MWΦ 190, rcSI     201 MCAW
c.218 Consul T. SEMPRONIUS LONGUS is recalled to Rome because of Hannibal. 218 SORH
c.217 Consul Gn. Servilius Geminus demands hostages in Sardinia. 217 CAH 8-62
217
Feb 11
Partial SOLAR ECLIPSE in Sardinia
"In Sicily several of the soldiers' darts were covered with flames;  in Sardinia the same thing happened to the staff in the hand of an officer who was going his rounds to inspect the sentinels on the wall;  the shores had been lit up by numerous fires;  a couple of shields had sweated blood; some soldiers had been struck by lightning;  an eclipse of the sun had been observed;  at Praeneste there had been a shower of red-hot stones;  at Arpi shields had been seen in the sky and the sun had appeared to be fighting with the moon;  at Capena two moons were visible in the daytime."   (Livy: From the Founding of the City 22-1-8)
217
Feb 11
hbar
c.217 After Roman victory in naval battle of the Ebro, a Punic fleet tries to contact the land army near Pisa and captures some Roman transport ships off Cosa.  They are deterred from further actions by a Roman fleet under consul Gn. Servilius Geminus. 217 CAH 8-66
c.217 Consul Gn. Servilius GEMINUS with 120 ships sails from Rome to Sardinia and Corsica, takes many Carthaginian prisoners, ravages Meninx island, spares Cercina for 10 talents, sails to Africa. 217 DGRBM 2-239
c.217 Propraetor A. Cornelius Mammula sent to Sardinia.  He is denied sufficient grain and pay for his troops. 217 DGRBM 2-913
c.217 T. Otacilius Crassus becomes commander of Roman fleet based at Lilybaeum until his death in 211. 217 CAH 8-66     216 OCD 763 215 DGRBM 3-64
c.217 Consul Gn. Servilius Geminus loses 1,000 men in Africa, sails to Sicily, turns over his fleet to P. Sura, recalled by dictator Q. Fabius Maximus, returns to Italy. 217 DGRBM 2-239
c.216 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, operates in Adriatic until 214, vexed by Roman ships. 216 CAH 8
c.216 Decius Magius prisoner of Hannibal, sails on a ship bound for Carthage.  Driven by a storm to Cyrene. 216 DGRBM 2-899
c.216 Propraetor A. Cornelius Mammula is sent from Rome to Sardinia. 216 DGRBM 2-913
c.216 GELON-II co-tyrant of Syracuse with Hiero-II from 240, ends. 216 rcSI
c.216 A Punic fleet ravages Syracusan territory.  Another stands off the Aegates Isles, to move on Lilybaeum if T. Otacilius Crassus sails to assist Syracuse. 216
CAH 8-61, 66
c.216 HIERO-II, tyrant of Syracuse 270-15, provides grain, money, and light-armed troops to Romans, whom he urges to invade Africa. 216
CAH 8-61
c.215 HIERO-II dies.  Tyrant of Syracuse from 270, client of Rome from 263.  Grandson, age 15, HIERONYMUS succeeds until 214. 216 CDCC 853, DGRBM 2-458, Dur 2-555, GHH, HRR, SORH     216/5 B76 V-32     215 B76 8-382, 15-279, 17-919, CAH 8-61, HRRP 1-638, MRDK, OHG, RAH 384, bk, lvS, rcSI
c.215 HIERONYMUS, tyrant of Syracuse 215-14, sends envoy Philodemus to Hannibal to propose alliance.  Hannibal sends Hippocrates and Epicydes, Carthaginian citizens of Syracusan origin, to make alliance. 215 CAH 8-61, DGRBM 3-304
c.215 Praetor P. Claudius PULCHER sent to Sicily until 214. 215 DGRBM 1-768
c.215 HIERONYMUS, tyrant of Syracuse 215-14, in streets of Leontini, attacked by conspirators under Deiniocrates, beaten, rescued by bodyguards. 215 DGRBM 2-459, DGRG 2-159
c.215 SYRACUSE, client of Rome from 263, now under Hieronymus, defects to Carthage until 211. 216 Dur 2-555,     215 B76 8-382, 15-1093, 17-919, MRDK, OHG, SORH 215/4 CAH 8-61     214 SORH
213 LEWH 100
c.215 SARDINIA, under Rome from 237, natives rebel under Hampsichoras, secretly ask Carthage to reconquer. 215 MWΦ 211
no date: DGRBM 2-331
c.215 Praetor Q. Mucius Scaevola sent to Sardinia until 212. 215 DGRBM 3-729
c.215 HASDRUBAL Calvus (the Bald) tries to recover Sardinia 215
CAH 8-62, DGRBM 2-357
but his fleet is wrecked by a storm off the Balearic Islands.  He has to stop for repairs.
c.215 Hiostus, son of Hampsichoras, foolishly attacks T. Manlius Torquatus and is routed. 215 DGRBM 2-331
c.215 Sardinian rebel HAMPSICHORAS defeated by T. Manlius Torquatus at Cornus on west coast, and suicides out.  Sardinian rebellion quelled. 215 CAH 8-62, DGRG 1-687, GHH, HRR, MWΦ 211, SORH
c.215 HASDRUBAL the Bald with remnant of his fleet arrives in Sardinia, but combined Carthaginian and Sardinian forces are defeated by Manlius Torquatus. 215 CAH 8-62, DGRBM, SORH
c.215 Praetor P. Claudius PULCHER is sent from Rome to Sicily until 214.  He tries to detatch Hieronymus from the Carthaginians unsuccessfully. 215 DGRBM 1-768
c.215 T. Otacilius Crassus, commander of Roman fleet based at Lilybaeum 217-11, raids Africa, captures 7 Punic ships. 215
CAH 8-66
c.215 Carthaginians, Gisco, Bostar and Mago are sent by Hannibal on a Macedonian ship to Philip-V with a proposed treaty.  Roman fleet guarding Calabria in Adriatic intercepts the ship sailing east, finds the treaty.  The Romans thus learn of planned co-operation between them.  Gisco, Bostar and Mago are sent prisoners to Rome. 215
CAH 8-96, DGRBM 1-501 2-269
c.215 5 Roman ships under L. Valerius Antias are sent to convey Carthaginians, Gisco, Bostar and Mago back from Rome to Carthage. 215 DGRBM 1-184
c.214 M. Valerius LAEVINUS becomes fleet commander on Illyrian coast until 211 to oppose Philip-V. 215 LEWH 92, 100     214 B76 VI-442, Dur 2-556, 3-20, OCD 928
c.214 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, operating in Adriatic from 216, driven out by M. Valerius Laevinus. 214 CAH 8
c.214 Consul M. Claudius MARCELLUS sails from Nola to Sicily as commander until 211. 214 CAH 8-61, DGRBM 2-928, LdHR 1-371, LEWH 100, OCD 646, 665
c.214 Hippocrates defeated by M. Claudius Marcellus at Acrillae, goes to Acrae. 214 DGRG 1-21
c.214 MEGARA destroyed by M. Claudius MARCELLUS. 214 OCD 665
c.214 55 ships under Bomilcar arrive at Syracuse to help against Romans, outnumbered by Roman fleet, return to Africa. 214 DGRBM 1-499
c.214 P. Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus is praetor in Sicily until 212. 214 DGRBM 2-729
c.214 HELORUM east Sicily, allied with Carthaginians from ?, taken by M. Claudius MARCELLUS. 214 DGRG 1-1039
c.214 HIERONYMUS dies.  Tyrant of Syracuse from 215, murdered by bodyguards Sosis and Theodotus at Leontini, who hurry to Syracuse, where they rouse the people to arms, and gain control of the city, except for the citadel, where Adranodorus, the governor left there by Hieronymus, had fortified himself.  The next day an assembly of the people choses Sosis and Theodotus among the generals or praetors.  Adranodorus soon surrenders the citadel.  ADRANODOROS succeeds until 212, independently until 213. 215
DGRBM 1-952, 2-351, 3-883, DGRG 2-159, OCD 596, SORH
214 CAH 8-61, DGRBM 3-1073, MRDK, rcSI
c.214 M. Claudius MARCELLUS sends envoys to negotiate with Syracuse.  They are well received, and get Syracusans to condemn Hippocrates and Epicydes, presently at Leontini. no date: DGRBM 2-929
c.214 LEONTINI, under Rome from 238, under Hippocrates and Epicydes, declares independence from Rome and Syracuse. 214
LdHR 1-371
c.214 LEONTINI, under Hippocrates and Epicydes, besieged by M. Claudius MARCELLUS. 214 HRRP 1-639, LdHR 1-371
c.214 LEONTINI, under Hippocrates and Epicydes, stormed and sacked by M. Claudius MARCELLUS, who spares the inhabitants, but executes 2,000 Roman desertersHippocrates and Epicydes escape to Herbessus. 214 B76 VI-153, CAH 8
213 OCD 646
no date: DGRBM 2-928, LEWH 100
c.214 Syracusans Sosius and Deinomenes appointed to command the army sent to relieve Leontini.  Finding it already fallen, they turn their arms against traitors Hippocrates and Epicydes, who had escaped to Herbessus. no date: DGRBM 3-884
c.214 HIMILCO with 25,000 inf and 3,000 cav, arrives at Heraclea Minoa, quickly takes and occupies Acragas. 214 DGRBM 2-475, SORH     213 CAH 8-61
c.214 Syracusan army under Sosius and Deinomenes mutinies, and defects to newly arrived Carthaginians, who now take over Syracuse. no date:
DGRBM 3-884
c.214 Inland towns generally join Carthaginians. 214 SORH
c.213 Hippocrates and Epicydes go from Herbessus to Syracuse, become co-tyrants of Syracuse with Adranodoros until 212. 213 rcSI
no date: DGRBM 2-929
c.213 SYRACUSE, now under Carthaginians, besieged by M. Claudius MARCELLUS until 211. 214 DGRG 1-828, GHH, HRR, SORH 213 CAH 8-61, CDCC 853, MCAW, OCD 646, OHG, bk     no date: LEWH 100
c.213 Sosius escapes from Syracuse to camp of Marcellus.  He helps Marcellus militarily and in negotiations. no date:
DGRBM 3-884
c.213 L. Pinarius, Roman governor of Enna, fears pro-Carthaginian insurrection, uses the Roman garrison to surprise attack the citizens assembled in the theatre, and kills them all, after which he gives the city to be plundered by his soldiers. 214 DGRBM 3-367,
DGRG 1-828
no date:
DGRBM 2-929
c.213 Punic fleet under Bomilcar enters Syracuse harbor several times until 212. 213 CAH 8-66
c.213 Hippocrates joins Himilco at Acragas. 213 CAH 8-61
c.212 100 ships under Bomilcar arrive at Syracuse again to help against Romans. 212 DGRBM 1-499
c.212 M. Valerius LAEVINUS fleet commander in Adriatic 214-11 negotiates military alliance with Aetolians against IllyriaAetolians get land, Romans get most of loot. 212 CAH 8
212/11 OCD 576
211 B76 8-384
c.212 MERCURIUS, Spanish mercenary leader working for M. Valerius LAEVINUS, now besieging Syracuse, captures the citadel. 212 DGRBM 2-1047
c.212 M. Valerius LAEVINUS negotiates military alliance with Aetolians against Philip-V. 212 CAH 8
c.212 EPIPOLAE plateau north of Syracuse stormed and taken by M. Claudius Marcellus.  Under Rome until ?.  Romans now have ⅗ of Syracuse territory. 212
DGRBM 2-475, OCD 646, SORH
c.212 EURYLAUS fort on top of Epipolae plateau taken by M. Claudius Marcellus.  Under Rome until ?. 212 SORH
c.212 Philodemus governor of Eurylaus fort on top of Epipolae, surrenders to M. Claudius Marcellus on condition that he and his garrison be allowed to depart to join Epicydes in Achradina. 212 DGRBM 3-304
c.212 Achradina, commercial and administrative district of Syracuse, surrenders. 212 SORH
c.212 SYRACUSE, under co-tyrants Adranodoros, Hippocrates and Epicydes from 213, besieged by M. Claudius Marcellus from 213, taken and sacked by Marcellus.  Guerilla war follows.  Under Rome until 396CE. 212 B76 15-279, BCoC 506, CAH 8-61, DGRBM, Dur 2-556, 3-20, 52, GHH, HRR, IDB 4-496, LdHR 1-374, TToH, rcSI     211 B76 8-627, 15-279, 1093, 17-919, CAH 8, CDCC 853, LEWH 100, OCD 646, SORH, bk
c.212 Punic land troops under Himilco and Hippocrates hit by plague.  Bomilcar sails to Carthage with the news, and returns with 130 ships, but is prevented from reaching Syracuse by MarcellusBomilcar then goes to Tarentum to cut off Roman supplies. 212 DGRBM 1-499
c.212 M. Claudius MARCELLUS defeats Hippocrates near Acrae. no date: DGRBM 2-929
c.212 Carthaginian HIPPOCRATES dies. 212 SORH
c.212 HIMILCO dies. 212 SORH
c.212 M. Claudius MARCELLUS at Himera river defeats Carthaginians under Hanno and Epicydes of Syracuse, who flee to ACRAGAS. 212 DGRG 1-1068
CONFUSION ALERT!  The ancients appear to call 2 rivers Himera, and even assert that they joined in the middle of the island!   DGRG 1-1068
c.212 M. Claudius MARCELLUS defeats Hanno at ACRAGAS. 212 SORH
c.212 ARCHIMEDES of Syracuse, age 75, tries to prove identity by drawing geometric figures on ground, killed by a Roman soldier. 212 B76 1-1088, CAH 7.1, DGRBM, Dur 2-556, GHH, HRR, OCD 98, SHWC 95, TToH
212/11 CDCC 68     211 MCAW, bk
c.212 T. Otacilius Crassus, commander of Roman fleet based at Lilybaeum 217-11, raids Africa, captures many grain transports. 212
CAH 8-67
c.212 African Mutines joins Hanno and Epicydes of Syracuse at Acragas.  Mutines is made commander of Numidian cavalry. late 212
DGRBM 2-1128
c.212 A quinquereme is reported to carry 400 rowers.  Their arrangement is unstated.  But probably like medieval quinqueremes, they were rowed by 5 men on each bench pulling 5 oars thru one rowlock-port. 212
CGS 584
c.212/1 M. Claudius MARCELLUS, in Sicily 214-11, fights Mutinies and his Numidian cavalry, who thwart him at the Himera river. 212/1
DGRBM 2-1128
c.211 M. Valerius LAEVINUS fleet commander in Adriatic from 214, returns to Rome.  SULPICIUS GALBA succeeds as fleet commander and commander in Greece until 206. 211 CAH 8, OCD 454, SORH
c.211 L. Cornelius Lentulus is praetor in Sardinia until ?. 211 DGRBM 2-729
c.211 T. Otacilius Crassus, commander of Roman fleet based at Lilybaeum from 217, dies in Sicily.  M. Valerius LAEVINUS succeeds. 211 CAH 8-66, 67, DGRBM 3-64, OCD 763
c.211 M. Claudius MARCELLUS, in Sicily 214-11, routs Hanno and Epicydes of Syracuse at Himera, secures all Sicily under Roman control. 212 HRR
211 LdHR 1-374, OCD 646
c.211 M. Claudius MARCELLUS, in Sicily from 214, returns with much Greek art to Rome to claim a triumph. 211 B76 VI-601, LdHR 1-374, OCD 646     210 GHH, HRR
c.210 Praetor P. Manlius Vulso is sent from Rome to Sardinia. 210 DGRBM 3-1285
c.210 Roman fleet defeated off Tarentum by Tarentines, but the garrison under Livius continues to hold out in the citadel. 210
CAH 8-54
c.210 Consul M. Valerius LAEVINUS comes from Rome to Sicily, becomes governor, then continues as proconsul until 207. 210 DGRBM 2-711, LdHR 1-375, OCD 576
c.210 Roman fleet under prefect Manius Valerius Messalla ravages coast of Utica, gathers booty and prisoners, returns 14 days later to Lilybaeum. 210 DGRBM 2-1050
c.210 Consul M. Valerius LAEVINUS disarms Sicilians, rewards partians of Rome, punishes partians of Carthage, requires all to grow food for Rome. 210 HRRP 1-645
c.210 Manius Valerius Messalla becomes prefect of Roman fleet in Sicily.  He is ordered by Laevinus to arrange a landing in Africa. 210 DGRBM 2-1050
c.210 AGATHYRNA Sicily, an independent den of thieves, taken by M. Valerius Laevinus, who transports 4,000 of them to Rhegium. 210
DGRG 1-72
c.210 ACRAGAS Sicily, under Carthaginians from 213, abandoned by Mutines, falls to M. Valerius Laevinus.  Leading citizens are killed, the rest enslaved.  Renamed AGRIGENTUM, fortified.  Under Rome until 395CE. 210 B76 I-146, 15-279, CAH 8-62, DGRBM, DGRG 1-76, Dur 3-52, LEWH 100, OCD 576, SORH, rcSI
c.210 All SICILY becomes Roman province.  Its 68 communities stand in various relations to Rome.
1.  Civitates federatae:  Messana, Tauromenium, Neetum are only liable to service in war.
2.  Civitates liberae et immunes:  Centuripidae, Alesa, Segesta, Panormus, Halicyae
3.  Civitates decumanae:  pay a tenth of their annual produce
4.  Perpaucae civitates bello subactae:  Leontini, whose land becomes public and is leased by the censors
211 CDCC 819     210 Dur 2-556, SORH
c.210 Praetor L. CINICIUS ALIMENTUS with 2 legions arrives in Sicily until 209. 210 OCD 241, SORH 209 DGRBM 1-131
c.210 SARDINIA, under Romans 215-?, raided by 40 Carthaginian ships under Hamilcar. 210 CAH 8-62, DGRBM 2-330
c.209 Praetor C. AURUNCULEINUS put in charge of Sardinia until ?. 209 DGRBM 1-444
c.209 MAGO-II sails to Balearic Islands to recruit more troops for Spain. 209 DGRBM 2-903
c.209 Carthaginian admiral Bomilcar arrives at Corcyra. 209 CAH 8-102
c.208 Rumor of a Punic naval assault on Sicily and Italy lead to more Roman ship building, but the alarm proves false. 208
CAH 8-67
c.208 Roman maritime colonies not normally tapped for military service are compelled to provide soldiers. 208
CAH 8-75
c.208 BALEARIC ISLANDS, under Carthage from ?, come under Rome by  treaty , but not pacified until 122. 208
OCD 160
c.208 Praetor C. Mamilius Vitulus sent from Rome to Sicily. 208 DGRBM 3-1279
c.208 M. Valerius LAEVINUS, governor of Sicily 210-07, sails 100 galleys to Africa, ravages Clupea. 208 DGRBM 2-711
c.208 M. Valerius LAEVINUS, governor of Sicily 210-07, defeats Punic fleet, returns with loot to Lilybaeum.  He does more of the same in 207. 208 CAH 8-67, DGRBM 2-711, OCD 576
c.208 Praetor Sextus Julius Caesar is sent from Rome to Sicily. 208 DGRBM 1-537
c.207 M. Valerius LAEVINUS governor of Sicily from 210, returns to Italy. 207 OCD 576
206 DGRBM 2-711
c.206 Praetors Ti. Claudius ASELLUS and Gn. Octavius Rufus are sent from Rome to Sardinia. 206 DGRBM 1-385, 3-6
c.206 Praetor Gn. Octavius Rufus captures 80 Punic cargo ships off Sardinia. 206 DGRBM 3-6 205 CAH 8-67
c.206 Roman fleet under C. Laelius defeats Punic fleet under Adherbal off Carteia in Spain near Gibraltar. 206 DGRBM 1-19, DGRG 1-527, wikLRB
c.206 Praetor C. Servilius is sent from Rome to Sicily. 206 DGRBM 3-793
c.206 MAGO-II, youngest bro of Hannibal, in Spain from ?, with 60 ships consisting largely of transports, sails to Minorca, in Balearic Islands until 205. 206 CAH 8-66, DGRBM 2-346, 903, LEWH 100
c.206/5 Praetor Gn. Octavius Rufus hands over Sardinia to Ti. Claudius, and gets his imperium extended to patrol the coasts with 40 ships until the end of 203. 206/5 DGRBM 3-6
c.205 Praetor L. Aemilius Papus is sent from Rome to Sicily. 205 DGRBM 3-121
c.205 MAGO-II, youngest bro of Hannibal, in Balearic Islands from 206, prepares to return to Africa, receives orders from Carthage to sail his army to Liguria on northwest coast of Italy.  He does so. 206 SORH     205 B76 15-279, CAH 8-56, DGRBM 2-904, OCD 640
c.204 P. Cornelius SCIPIO Jr. put in charge of Sicily, but not in charge of its legion.  Scipio recruits his own army, finds survivors from Cannae sent there in disgrace. 205/4 MCAW
c.204 Senatorial envoys arrive in Sicily to investigate charges against Scipio. 204 early DGRBM 3-745
c.204 20 war ships under C. Laelius convoys transports from Lilybaeum to the Fair Promontory north of Carthage. 204 DGRBM 2-705
c.204 M. Porcius CATO the Elder is quaestor under Scipio Africanus in Sicily. 204 B76 II-645, CDCC 172
c.204 Praetor M. Pomponius MATHO is sent from Rome to Sicily until 202. 204 DGRBM 2-973
c.204 P. Cornelius SCIPIO Jr. now proconsul, with 25-35,000 men, sails from Lilybaeum and lands in Africa, near Utica. 204 B76 8-627, 13-149, 15-280, 1093, CAH 8-63, CDCC 796, 916, DGRBM 2-358, 968, 3-745, HRRP 1-686, LEWH 100, OCD 962, OHG     202 B76 16-397
c.203 MAGO-II, youngest bro of Hannibal, sails from Genoa for Africa, dies enroute near Sardinia. 203 B76 VI-495, CAH 8-56, DGRBM 2-904, 3-1230, DGRG 1-943, HRRP 1-691, OCD 640
c.203 A Roman squadron based at Sardinia intercepts some of Mago's transports returning to Africa. 203
CAH 8-67
c.203 Praetor L. Villius Tappulus is sent from Rome to Sicily. 203 DGRBM 3-975
c.203 Praetor Gn. Octavius Rufus with 200 transport ships and 30 warships, surprised off Africa by a storm, loses most of his fleet, finds shelter at promontory of Apollo. 203
DGRBM 3-6
c.203 Admiral HAMILCAR suddenly attacks Roman fleet at Utica, but is only able to capture 6 ships. 203 DGRBM 2-330
c.203 HANNIBAL, in Italy from 218, recalled to Africa, sails for Africa with his whole armyRoman fleet is either unaware of it, or so happy to see him go, that they don't mess with him. 205 Dur 3-94,     203 B76 8-627, 13-149, 15-279, CAH 8-66, CDCC 414, Dur 3-20, IDB 4-104, MCAW
c.203 Consul Gn. Servilius CAEPIO sails from Rome to Sicily intending to cross to Africa, but is prevented by the senate. 203
CAH 8-73
c.202 Praetor Gn. Tremellius Flaccus is sent from Rome to Sicily. 202 DGRBM 3-1171
c.202 Punic fleet attacks Scipio's fleet too late to matter. 202 CAH 8-66
c.202 Punic fleet attacks Roman supply ships. 202 CAH 8
c.201 2nd PUNIC WAR from 219 ends in Rome / Carthage treaty:  permits Carthage only 10 triremes, puts Carthage in a vulnerable position by prescribing that Massinissa is entitled to any land or cities that had ever belonged to him or to his ancestors within boundaries to be assigned in the future. 202 CAH 7.1, 8, TTPC 201 CAH 8-145, 149, DGRG 1-547, Dur 3-20, MCAW, OHG, TToH, lvG
c.201 PUNIC FLEET is delivered to Romans. 201 GHH
c.201 Praetor P. Aelius Tubero is sent from Rome to Sicily. 201 DGRBM 3-1179
c.201 Kingdom of Syracuse is merged into Province of Sicily. 201 SORH
c.201 M. Fabius BUTEO is made praetor and sent to Sardinia. 201 DGRBM 1-519
c.201 Praetor Gn. Octavius Rufus with part of the fleet, returns to Italy. 201 DGRBM 3-6

West Mediterranean 200-100
V