websiite source link:  rcAg

Aegean Sea Go to Europe Go to Italy Go to Balkan Peninsula Go to West Mediterranean Go to Anatolia Go to Syria - Urartu Go to Levant Go to Arabia Go to Egypt Go to North Africa Go to North Africa
c.300 CORCYRA captured by AGATHOCLES of Syracuse, remains under him until 295. 300 OCD 25
c.300 PHANIAS of Ereos (city on Lesbos), philosopher, pupil of Aristotle, friend of Theophrastus, flourishes. 300
B76 VII-926
c.300 WINGED VICTORY STATUE commissioned by Demetrius-I Poliorcetes on Samothrace to honor Nike of Samothrace.  It is not begun until c.200. 300 CDGRA 594
no date: wikWVS
c.299 Responsibility for dealing with Aegean pirates starts passing from Ptolemies to Rhodians. 299
CAH 7.1-286
c.298 Delos borrows much money from Apollo to buy protection from Rome against Etruscan pirates. 298 TAG 86
c.295 CORCYRA, under Syracuse from 300, is dowry of Lanassa, and is now under Pyrrhus until 291. 303 B76 8-378     297 Agθ 213     295 CAH 7.1-407, 7.2, atl3, wikPyr
c.295 Phila-I, wife of Demetrius-I Poliorcetes is at Salamis Cyprus, when it is besieged by Ptolemy-I. 295 DGRBM 3-260, 584, wikPdA
c.295 Salamis Cyprus besieged by Ptolemy-I. 295 DGRBM 3-260
c.294 CYPRUS, under Demetrius-I from 306, recovered by Ptolemy-I.  Under Ptolemies until 168. 295 DGRBM 3-584     295/4 BHS 1-146, CAH 7.1     294 B76 15-181, CDCC 249, cpnt, lvPt1, wikHC
c.294 SALAMIS Cyprus falls to Ptolemy-IPhila, wife of Demetrius-I Poliorcetes is well treated, and sent with her children to Macedonia. 294 DGRBM 3-260
c.294 PAPHOS Cyprus, under Cinyrad dynasty from ?, falls to Ptolemy-I. 294
B76 VII-734
c.294 Confederation of the Cyclades becomes protectorate of Ptolemy-I. 294 BHS 1-146
c.294 Demetrius-I Poliorcetes loses most of his fleet in a storm. 294 TAG 82
c.290 Rhodian School of sculpture flourishes. 290 Dur 2-555
c.288 PTOLEMY-I, king of Egypt 305-283, begins taking Aegean islands from Demetrius-I.  Has them all by 287. 288
B76 8-378
c.287 PTOLEMAIC SHIPS appear off coast of Greece. 287 spring DGRBM 3-611
c.286 LEAGUE of ISLANDERS, established 315, taken over by PTOLEMY-I. 286 B76 15-181
c.286/5 Aegean islands, under Demetrius-I from ?, taken over by PTOLEMY-I. 286/5 TAG 106
c.285 Rhodian admiral AGATHOSTRATOS defeats Ptolemaic fleet off Ephesus. 285 Shaw 398
c.281 IKARIA Island at north end of Dodecanese, under Egypt from 301, independent until 129. 281 rcAg
c.281 THASOS island under Seleucids from 301, comes under Macedonia until 275. 281 rcAg
c.281 ARSINOE-II dau of P-I Soter, ½ sis/wife of Ptolemy Keraunos, banished from Macedonia to Samothrace until 279. no date:
B76 8-379, wikA2
c.280 Ptolemy Keraunos defeats Antigonus-II in naval battle. 280 TAG 345
c.280 BEROSUS, priest of Marduk, moves from Babylon to Cos island, founds school of astrology & astronomy. 280 B76 11-990 270 BHM 162
c.280 CHARES of Lindos, Rhodian sculptor, pupil of Lysippos, flourishes.  Designer of the Colossus of Rhodes, but doesn't live to see it finished. 280 wikAet
c.280 BEROSUS composes a list of 10 pre-Flood kings ruling for 432,000 years. 280 CMoG2 116
c.280 COLOSSUS of RHODES, begun 292, completed.  Bronze reinforced with iron, over 100 ft tall.  Commemorates end of siege by Demetrius-I Poliorcetes 304.  Way over budget, causing architect CHARES to suicide out.  Destroyed 225. 288 GHH
280 B76 III-22, MCAW, TTPC 24, TTT, TTPC 278 Dur 2-555, TToH
c.279 ARSINOE-II dau of P-I Soter, on Samothrace from 281, flees to Alexandria, seeks protection from bro, Ptolemy-II Philadelphus. 279 DGRBM 1-366
no date: B76 8-379, wikA2
c.279 STRATONICE-I wife of Antiochus-I makes the first of her known offerings on Delos.  She becomes known for this sort of thing. 279
TAG 349
c.277 KYTHERA Island (south of Peloponnese), under Egypt from 310, comes under Sparta until 146. 277 rcAg
c.277 ANTIKYTHERA Island (between Kythera and Crete), under Egypt from 310 independent until 146. 277 rcAg
c.277 SAMOS Island, under Macedonia from 322, handed back and forth between Egypt, Seleucids, and others, until 129. 277 rcAg
c.276 PATMOS Island in Dodecanese, under Seleucids from 301, comes under Egypt until 205. 276 rcAg
c.275 NAXOS, in Island League from 301, comes under Egypt until 220. 275 rcAg
c.275 THASOS island under Macedonia from 281, independent until 202. 275 rcAg
c.270 Arsinoe Rotunda Arsinoe Rotunda on Samothrace Island finished by Ptolemy-II and dedicated to his wife Arsinoe-II. 270 MCAW no date: wikSTC

Photo Marsyas
c.270 ARISTARCHUS of Samos flourishes.

CALENDAR:  (computed by Callipos at 365¼ days) made more accurate by addition of 1/1623 of a day.

ASTRONOMY V:  Writes: "On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and Moon"  Has inaccurate values because of faulty observation.  Endorses heliocentric theory.  Improves the SUNDIAL by inventing a concave spherical type.
Supports heliocentric theory (still ignored in Rome).
280 CAH 7.1-339, Dur 2-555, GHH, MCAW
285-45 CAH 7.1
275 OHG 442
270 B76 15-1064
260 BHM 159
no date: B76 I-514, OCD 109
c.270 THEOCRITOS (born in Syracuse, lived on Cos & in Egypt), poet, writes in praise of Ptolemy-II.  Some poems  Idylls  commonly attributed to him have little claim to authenticity. 275 CAH 7.1, MCAW
270 CDCC 881, LEWH 88, OHG
260 Dur 2-556     no date: wikθcr
c.270 TIMOSTHENES of Rhodes flourishes.  He serves as admiral and chief pilot of Ptolemy-II.  Writes a  periplus  (book of sailing directions) in 10 books (now lost). 282 GHH
270 wikTm
c.269 PYRRHO of Elis, skeptic philosopher, caught in a storm at sea, displays no concern. 269 atl3
c.266 Admiral PATROCLUS sent by Ptolemy-II Philadelphus to help Athenians in Chremonidean War against Antigonus Gonatas. 366 DGRBM 3-140
c.261 Antigonus-II Gonatas defeats Ptolemy-II's fleet at Cos. 261 wikSW
c.260 HERODAS of Cos, poet, flourishes. 260 Dur 2-556
Parian Chronicle
 PARIAN CHRONICLE  drawn on 2 slabs of Parian marble by an unknown scholar on Paros Island.  A chronological table, covering years 1581 to 264.  Contains Flood of Deucalion, Trojan War, Voyage of the Argonauts.   [text & translation]
photo Geraki

264/3 B76 4-578, wikPC 260 CDCC 192
c.260 DURIS, tyrant of Samos, ends. 260 OCD 367
c.260 APOLLONIOS of Rhodes, poet, Homeric scholar, flourishes.  Writes  Argonautica , an epic poem about Jason and the Argonauts seeking the Golden Fleece.  ORPHEOS accompanies the Argonauts and enables them to bypass the Sirens by playing his lyre over them. 300-250 wikAR 260 OHG
240 Dur 2-556 3rd cen wikOrΦ
c.258 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia 276-39 defeats fleet of PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus off Cos island. 261 CAH 7.1     259 bk     258 RAH 385 258 or 56 AΨΨ 83, LEWH 91, 96, wikPt2
256 or 55 lvSSW
possibly during Chrem War: B76 1-991, OCD 70
c.258 CYCLADES, under Ptolemies from 314, taken by ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia until 250. 258 LEWH 91 255 RAH 385
c.258 ERASISTRATOS of Ceos, physiologist, flourishes. 260 OHG 443 258 Dur 2-556
c.258 AGATHOSTRATOS of Rhodes, defeats fleet under CHREMONIDES, Athenian working for Ptolemy-II, off Ephesus. 258
OCD 231
c.253 ANTIGONUS-II, king of Macedonia 276-39 sailing home from Anatolia with his son's bride, stops at Delos in the center of Ptolemy's sea-power, founds 2 festivals in honor of Delian Apollo and the gods of Delos.  One festival bore his own name (Antigoneia); the other the name of his sis Stratonike (Stratonikeia). 253
CAH 7.1, TAG 351
c.250 CLEARCHUS of Soli Cyprus, poet, Greek polymath, peripatetic, flourishes.  Combined Plato and Aristotle on human soul. 250 B76 II-981, OCD 248
c.250 CYCLADES, under ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas from 258, recovered by PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus until 245. 250 LEWH 96
c.250 HIERONYMUS of Rhodes, Peripatetic philosopher, opponent of Arcesilaus and Lyco of Troas, flourishes.  Says highest good is freedom from pain and trouble, denies that pleasure is to be sought for its own sake.  Fragments of his works survive. 290-30 wikHoR
250 GHH
c.250 RHODES defeats PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus off Ephesus.  Circumstances obscure. 250 B76 8-381
c.250 THEOCRITOS of Syracuse, on Cos island from ?, dies.  First of the nature poets, inventor of the bucolic mime or pastoral poetry. 250 B76 10-1093
c.249 PTOLEMY-II sends his fleet to Delos and establishes in Apollo's honor the 2nd Ptolemaia - was his proclamation that he was still lord of the sea. 249
TAG 366
c.245 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia 276-39, personally leads attack of Ptolemaic possessions in Aegean, defeats numerically superior fleet of PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus under Sophron at ANDROS, gains hegemony of Aegean. 246 CAH 7.1, OCD 70, TAG 378 245 LEWH 91, 97, Shaw 398, lvPt3, lvTSW     244 B76 1-991
P-II won: AΨΨ 83, 111
c.245 CYCLADES, under PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus from 250, recovered by ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas until ?. 245 LEWH 97, lvTSW
c.245 DELOS:  ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia 276-39 institutes the Paneia and Delphic Soteria on Delos. 245 CAH 7.1-248, TAG 380
c.244 By the beginning of 244, Ptolemy-III is no match for all his enemies at once;  he must buy off one of them.  He chooses Antigonus-II, and sends Sostratos of Knidos as envoy.  Antigonus takes Delos and the Cyclades, the Islands of the League of Islanders, and no more. 244 TAG 386-7
c.244 Ptolemy-III and Antigonus-II make peace.  Ptolemy keeps the southern limit of the Aegean, with a ring of posts at Methana, Thera, perhaps Astypalaia, and Samos.  Ptolemy is free to do what he wants in the Seleucid sphere, or any sphere not claimed by Antigonus, i.e. along the coasts of Anatolia and Thrace. 244 TAG 387
c.242 ARADOS island off north coast of Phoenicia, given rights of asylum by Seleucus Callinicus, whom they had supported against Antiochus Hierax. 242
DGRG 1-185
c.233 Illyrian pirates begin ravaging Adriatic coast. 233 DGRG 2-38
c.230 Demetrius-II allies with GORTYN Crete. 230 CAH 7.1
c.230 ROME war on ILLYRIAN PIRATES.  Clears them out of the Adriatic. 230 Dur 3-20, 47
c.230 ARISTARCHUS of Samos dies. 230 SHWC 95
c.230 PharosAGRON dies.  King of Illyria and Pharos island from ?.  Widow Teuta is regent until 222 for son Demetrius, who rules Pharos as vassal until 219. 231 MCAW, OCD 1048 230 wikDP
CONFUSION ALERT!  PHAROS island is in the Adriatic.  PAROS island is in the Cyclades.
c.229 ISSA island in Adriatic besieged by TEUTA regent of Illyria. 229 OCD 368, 1048, wikDP
c.229 ACHAEANS and AETOLIANS defeated off Paxos island south of Corcyra by IllyriansMargos of Ceryneia, general of 2nd Achaean League from ?, is killed.  This is the last joint action by Achaeans and Aetolians. 229
CAH 7.1-244, 453, 7.2
c.229 SALAMIS Island in Saronikos Gulf, under Macedonia from 318, comes under Athens until 87. 229 rcAg
c.225 ARISTON of Ceos, poet, flourishes. 225 OHG
c.225 RHODES damaged by quake.  Virtually the whole Greek world comes to aid. 227 IDB 4-78     227/6 CAH 7.1-433     225 B76 VIII-552, DGRA 1066, Dur 2-571
c.225 COLOSSUS of RHODES, finished 280, destroyed by quake.  Pieces left in place until 653CE. 227 bk     226 atl2, wikCR     225 B76 III-22     224 GHH, TTPC, TTT     106 atl2
c.221 PHILOPOEMEN, mercenary leader, sails from Greece to Crete until 210, to participate in a war between Knossos and Lyttos.  Since Knossos is supported by Aetolians, he chooses Lyttos. 221 DGRBM 3-318, wikΦlp
c.220 NAXOS Island, under Egypt from 275, independent until 86. 220 rcAg
c.220 DEMETRIUS of Pharos, with 50 ships, sails to Cyclades. 220 wikDP
c.220 DEMETRIUS of Pharos, now in Cyclades, extorts tribute from some islands, plunders others.  Chased by Rhodian warships, retreats to Cenchreae, on Aegean coast near Corinth. 220 wikDP
c.220 RHODES, aided by Prusias of Bithynia, declares war on BYZANTIUM to keep straits open.  Byzantium has been extracting tolls on all ships going thru straits.  Attalus of Pergamum sides with Byzantium.  Byzantines try to set up Tiboetes, uncle of Prusias, as rival for his throne.  Prusias seizes Byzantine Anatolian possessions, while Thracians press Byzantium from EuropeBYZANTIUM vs. RHODES + BITHYNIA War lasts until 219. 220
B76 8-381, CAH 7.1-431, OCD 893, lvA
219 RAH 383
c.220 Knossos and Gortyn on Crete begin war against Lyttos.  Troops sent by the Symmachy to help Lyttos. 220 CAH 7.1
c.219 BYZANTIUM vs. RHODES + BITHYNIA War from 220 ends. 219 DGRBM 1-656
c.219 CONSULS:  L. AEMILIUS PAULUS and M. Livius SALINATOR are sent to the Adriatic and IllyricumRomans 2nd intervention in Balkans. 220 MCAW     219 CAH 8-35, 93, CDCC 829, DGRBM 1-965, 3-153, 694
c.218 Perigenes, fleet commander for Ptolemy-IV, fights Diognetos, admiral of Antiochus-III Megas.  Indecisive. 218 DGRBM 3-201
c.218 After defeat of land forces under Nicolaos in Levant, Perigenes, fleet commander for Ptolemy-IV, retreats. 218 DGRBM 3-201
c.217 ZAKYNTHOS Island west of Greece, under democracy from 373, comes under Macedonia until 211. 217 rcSB3
c.217 POLYCRATES of Argos, governor of Cyprus, secures Cyprus for Ptolemy Epiphanes, infant son and successor of Philopator. 217 DGRG 1-730
c.216 CRETAN LEAGUE puts itself under leadership of Philip-V, king of Macedonia 221-179. 216 CAH 8-291, OCD 298
c.216 PHILIPPEIA founded on Delos. 216 CAH 8
c.215 Roman fleet guarding Calabria in Adriatic intercepts a Macedonian ship sailing east.  On board are 3 high-placed Carthaginians, Gisgo, Bostar, and Mago.  A search reveals a  treaty  between Hannibal and Philip-VThe Romans thus learn of planned co-operation between them. 215 CAH 8-96
c.215 APOLLONIOS of Rhodes, poet, dies. 215 TToH, bk
c.214 PHILIP-V launches 120 Macedonian lembi (light ships) into the Adriatic. 214 spring CAH 8-98
c.214 Praetor M. Valerius LAEVINUS becomes Roman fleet commander on Illyrian coast until 211.  His quinqueremes far outclass Philip-V's lembi. 215 LEWH 92, 100
214 B76 VI-442, Dur 2-556, 3-20, OCD 928
c.214/3 M. Valerius LAEVINUS fleet commander in Adriatic 214-11 winters at Oricum in northern Epirus. 214/3 CAH 8-98, DGRBM 2-710
c.212 M. Valerius LAEVINUS fleet commander in Adriatic 214-11 negotiates military alliance with Aetolians against IllyriaAetolians get land, Romans get most of loot. 212 CAH 8
212/1 OCD 576
211 B76 8-384
c.212/1 M. Valerius LAEVINUS fleet commander in Adriatic 214-11 negotiates military alliance with ATTALUS-I of Pergamum against IllyriaAttalus gets land, Romans get most of loot. 212 LEWH 92 212/1 OCD 576
c.211 M. Valerius LAEVINUS, fleet commander in Adriatic 214-11, drives Macedonians from Zakynthos island and from Oeniade and Nasos in Acarnania. 211 DGRBM 2-710    
c.211 ZAKYNTHOS Island west of Greece, under Macedonia from 217, no longer so. 211 rcSB3
c.211 M. Valerius LAEVINUS fleet commander in Adriatic from 214, returns to Rome.  SULPICIUS GALBA succeeds as fleet commander and commander in Greece until 206. 211 CAH 8, OCD 454
c.210 PHILOPOEMEN, mercenary leader, in Crete from 221, returns to Greece. 210 wikΦlp
c.210 ATTALUS-I, ruler of Pergamum 241-197, king 230, buys Aegina Island from Aetolians for 30 talents, supports Aetolian League with fleet & troops against Philip-V, king of Macedonia until 207. 210
CAH 8-102, OCD 144
c.209 Carthaginian admiral Bomilcar arrives at Corcyra. 209 CAH 8-102
c.209/8 SULPICIUS GALBA and ATTALUS of Pregamum both winter on Aegina island. 209/8 DGRBM 2-204 208/7 DGRBM 1-410
c.208 ZAKYNTHOS Island west of Greece, comes under Athamania until 191. 208 rcSB3
c.208 ATTALUS-I of Pergamum and SULPICIUS GALBA join fleets (60 ships), sail to Lemnos island. 208 CAH 8,
DGRBM 1-410, 2-204
c.208 ATTALUS-I of Pergamum attacks Peparethos island in the Sporades.  Then he and SULPICIUS GALBA sail for Nicaea east of Thermopylae. 208 DGRBM 2-204
c.208 ATTALUS-I of Pergamum and SULPICIUS GALBA sail from Nicaea to Euboea. 208 DGRBM 2-204
c.205 Rhodes is the only significant naval power in the Aegean.  Rhodes is concerned by a rise in the amount of piracy in the area.  A war (the Cretan War) soon breaks out between Rhodes and a group of Cretan cities led by HierapytnaPhilip-V sends 20 ships under Aetolian admiral Dicaearchus to aid the Cretans. 205
c.205 PHILIP-V, sees chance to defeat Rhodes, allies with Aetolian and Spartan pirates who begin raiding Rhodian shipsCRETAN WAR begins until 200.
Philip-V, Aetolian League, several Cretan cities (Olous and Hierapytna are most important) and Spartan pirates against Rhodes, and later Attalus-I of Pergamum, Byzantium, Cyzicus, Athens and Knossos.
205 CAH 8, DGRBM, wikCW
c.205 Spartan pirate DIKAIARCHOS receives 20 ships from Philip-V with orders to go pirating in the Aegean, raid the islands, and help the Cretans against Rhodes. 205
TAG 87
Greek language has only one term for pirate and privateer.    TAG 87
c.205 PATMOS Island in Dodecanese, under Egypt from 276, comes under Macedonia until 197. 205 rcAg
c.204/3 An associate of Philip-V, Heracleides of Tarentum, burns some Rhodian dockyards and destroys the ships in them. 204/3
CAH 8-248
c.202 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, begins operations in Aegean, takes free cities in straits and Thrace to control straits and prepare for Egyptian offensiveCities taken in Thrace: Lysimacheia, Perinthos; in Anatolia: Chalcedon, Cius, Myrleia. 202 B76 8-384, CAH 8-151, 252
no date:
c.202 THASOS island, independent from 275, taken by treachery by PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, returning from straits.  Under Macedonia until 196. 202
CAH 8-151
c.202 SAMOS island, Ptolemaic from ?, taken by PHILIP-V,, along with Egyptian ships for use against Rhodes. 202 B76 8-379, CAH 8-151 201 CAH 8-254
c.202 Ptolemaic garrisons in Aegaen Sea expelled by Philip-V, which results in a conflict with Pergamum and Rhodes. 202 lv5SW, lvPt5
c.202 RHODES, frightened by fall of Samos and expulsion of Ptolemaic garrisons, allies with former rival Attalus of Pergamum. 202 CAH 8-152, OCD 144     201 BHS 2-32, DGRBM 3-283
c.202 RHODES declares war on PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia, allies with Byzantium, Cyzicus, Chios, Cos. 202 CAH 8-152, wikCW
c.202 ATTALUS of Pergamum and the RHODIANS ask Rome for help against PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia, tell of his plans to divide Ptolemaic possessions with Antiochus-III Megas. 202 B76 8-384, 15-1093, CAH 8-158, LEWH 92
c.201 CHIOS island, besieged by Philip-V. 201 CAH 8-155
c.201 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, besieging Chios, attacked by ATTALUS and RhodesPhilip wins sea battle, but at high cost. 202 wikCW     201 CAH 8-155, 252, DGRBM 1-410, howW2M
c.201 CHIOS city on Chios island, taken by Philip-V. 201 DGRBM, DGRG 1-611
c.201 SAMOS island, taken by Philip-V, Ptolemaic inhabitants expeled. 201 BHS 2-32
c.201 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, defeats Rhodian fleet at LADE island near Miletos, drives them south, fails to pursue, turns and lands at Miletos, hurries toward Pergamum, fails to capture. 201 B76 8-384, CAH 8-154, 253, howW2M
c.201 Embasies from Attalos and Rhodes go to Rome to complain against Philip-V. 201 fall
CAH 8-254, 257
c.201 Theophiliscos of Rhodes commands a Rhodian fleet helping Attalos of Pergamum againstPhilip-V. 201 DGRBM 3-1083
c.201 NISYROS island, under Rhodes from ?, taken by Philip-V. 201 CAH 8-253
c.201 Fleets of Rhodes and Pergamum blockade Philip in the Carian gulf until 200. 201 howW2M

East Mediterranean 200-100