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c.300 Λ COTTON, already reported by HerodotusMegasthenes reports to Seleucus-I "there being trees on which wool grows in Indica". no date: wikCot
c.300 3 Tamil empires begin in south India:
CHERA Empire begins until 1200CE.
CHOLA Empire begins until 1279CE.
PANDYA Empire begins until 1345CE.
300 wikSI
c.300 Pancharatra Vaishnava sect is prominent.  All later Vaishnava sects are based on the Pancharatra beliefs. 300 ht
c.300 Pandya kingdomPANDYA kingdom of south India is founded.  Capital is Madurai. 300 ht
c.300  KATHA UPANISHAD  written.  The word "Purusha" occurs 1st time.  Purusha means the Self which pervades the universe. 400-200 stnm
c.300  JATAKA TALES  begun until 400CE.  Moralistic anecdotes and fables written in Pali language about Buddha. 350 bk 300 pit
Maurya StatuettesMaurya Statuettes   GNU FDL
c.297 CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA ends.  (Greek Sandracottos) 1st emperor of Mauryan India from 321, 1st to consolidate India, at Pataliputra, either fasts to death during a 12 year famine, or abdicates to son.  BINDUSARA succeeds until 265. 300 MRDK
297 B76 3-406, 9-351, CHI 223, 472, 641, KIH 80, LEWH 55, MCAW
293 CMoG 3-227
291 HCAI 38     290 HCAI 2     288 DGRBM 2-1008
c.292 SELEUCUS, king of Babylonia 305, ruler of Syria 301-281, makes son ANTIOCHUS-I co-king and gives him the eastern empire from the Euphrates to the Indian Ocean plus his own wife Stratonice-I, on whom Antiochus had developed a crush.  Seleucus takes evetything west of the Euphrates. 294 CAH 7.1     294/3 lvA1 293 DGRBM 3-772, MCAW 293/2 CDCC 804, OCD 71 292 lvS1
c.290 ASOKA, son of Bindusara emperor of India 297-65, sent with troops as viceroy to TAXILA, which opens to him. no date: HCIP 2-70
c.290 TAXILA, under locals from 325, submits to Asoka.  Under Mauryans until 185. no date: HCIP 2-70
c.283 CHANAKYA (Kautilya, Vishnu Gupta), scholar at Takshashila, teacher and chief advisor of Chandragupta and Bindusara, dies.  Pioneer of political realism in India 296 B76 9-323 283 wikArθ, wikChn
c.280 STHAVIRA BUDDHISM 340-244, splits.  PUDGALAVADINS secede.  Sthaviras remain intact until 244. 280
CSHB 28
c.271 Satavahana kingdomSATAVAHANA (aka Andhra), feudatories to the Mauryas, Dynasty of MAHARASHTRA begins until 174CE.  SIMUKA is raja until 248. 271 MRDK
c.267 DEVANAMPIYA TISSA, raja of Anuradhapura in Ceylon from 307, dies.  Bro UTTIYA succeeds until 257. 267 wikDTA, wikLSLM, wikUA     210 wikAK, wikHSL     207 HCIP 2-237
c.265 Son of Chandragupta, BINDUSARA ends.  2nd Mauryan emperor at Pataliputra from 297.  Son ASOKA succeeds until 232. 273 B76 3-378, CHI 223, HCIP 2-69, MRDK, bk     273 or 65 HCIP 2-88
272 B76 9-351, KIH 80, MCAW, wikME 269 B76 4-2, OHG, WNHI 61
268 B76 9-351     265 B76 I-586, 2-205     260 HCAI 2, 38
c.262 ASOKA, Mauryan emperor at Pataliputra 265-32, campaigns against KALINGA. 262 CHI 28, 641, LEWH 55
260 B76 9-351     yr 8 B76 2-205
c.260 Kalinga kingdomKALINGA conquered by Mauryan emperor ASOKA.  100,000 Kalingans die, 150,000 driven from their home.  More die from disease and starvation in the aftermath. 262 CHI 315, 534, 602, LEWH 55
260 KIH 91, MCAW, apwh
yr. 8 HCIP 2-78
c.260 Mauryan emperor ASOKA feels remorse over conquest of Kalinga, turns Buddhist, specifically THAVIRA BUDDHIST. 261 bk     260 TTPC 25     259 TTT 258 MCAW
c.260  ROCK EDICTS  of ASOKA at Kandahar written in Greek and Aramaic. 260
CAH 7.1
CONFUSION ALERT!  KANDAHAR is in Arachosia.  GANDAHAR is in Gandara.
Stupa of Sanchi
Stupa of Sanchi   Nagarjun
c.258 Buddhist STUPA monument at SANCHI in Madhya Pradesh begun by Mauryan emperor ASOKA.  A hemispherical brick structure (height: 12.28m, diameter: 32.32m) built over the relics of the Buddha, crowned by the chatra, a parasol-like structure symbolising high rank, intended to honor and shelter the relics.  The gateway and balustrade will be built 180-160BCE.  Now the oldest stone structure in India. 258 MCAW 3rd cen.: wikSn
c.257 UTTIYA, raja of Anuradhapura in Ceylon from 267, ends.  Bro MAHASIVA succeeds until 247. 257 wikLSLM, wikMA, wikUA
c.256 Mauryan emperor ASOKA evangelizes Buddhism to Andhras in south. no date:
B76 1-861
c.256 Mauryan emperor ASOKA makes diplomatic contacts with Nepal and Ceylon. 256 MCAW
c.256 Mauryan emperor ASOKA builds hospitals and herb gardens, encourages education of women, all under Buddhist control in opposition to Brahmins. 260 TTPC 256 MCAW
c.255 Pillars of Asoka PILLARS of ASOKA:  A series of columns dispersed thruout India, inscribed with edicts by Asoka.  Originally, there must have been many pillars but only 19 survive with inscriptions, and only 6 with animal capitals.  Many are now fragmentary.  Averaging 12m-15m high, and weighing up to 50 tons each, they are dragged, sometimes hundreds of miles, to where they are erected. no date: wikPlAs



map PHGCOM
c.252  ROCK EDICT #13  of ASOKA, a column 40 ft high inscribed with laws.  Mentions exchanging diplomatic missions with Antiochus-II, Ptolemy-III, Antigonus-II. yr 13 HCIP 2-88
256 HCIP 2-88, MCAW 250 TToH
c.250 ASOKA empire at Pataliputra peaks. 250 B76 9-350, PW 16
c.250 BRAHMIN ALPHABET developed in India. 250 PW 16
c.250 Lomas Rishi GrottoeMauryan architecture in Barabar Mounts.  Grottoe of Lomas Rishi.  Cunningham Asokan pillarAsokan pillar at Vaishali, Bihar, built by Emperor Asoka.  Pebble101 3rd cen. wikMrA
c.250 3rd BUDDHIST COUNCIL at Pataliputra called by Asoka in his 17th year.  Declares Theraveda school orthodox.  Sends missionaries to various countries: Egypt, Cyrene, Macedon, Epirus, Ceylon, Indonesia.  Those to the Greeks leave no trace.  BUDDHIST CANON completed. 256 OHG
253 CHI 641
250 B76 3-406, 9-354, CSHB 38, PW 16
247 B76 III-189     247/6 B76 3-1083
c.250 MOGGALIPUTTA, president of 3rd BUDDHIST COUNCIL at Pataliputra completes ABHIDHAMMA (higher dharma treatise), aka KATHAVATTHU (points of controversy). 250
B76 3-406
c.250 "ARABIC" NUMBERS (1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9): Earliest examples found on stone columns of Asoka. 250
EIHM 513
c.250 BUDDHIST MONUMENTS begin in India.  STUPAS (stone columns & wheels).  Some at Anuradhapura. 250
PW 16
c.250 Rishi Jaimini writes Purva MIMAMSA SUTRAS.  Rules for interpreting Vedas and philosophical justifications for observance of Vedic rituals, by offering meaning and significance of Vedic rituals to attain Moksha. 350 bk
3-200 wikPMS
c.248 SIMUKA, 1st Satavahana raja of Maharashtra from 271, ends.  KRISHNA succeeds to 230. 248 MRDK
c.247 MAHASIVA, raja of Anuradhapura in Ceylon from 257, ends.  Uncle SURATISSA succeeds until 237. 247 wikAK, wikLSLM, wikMA, wikSA     187 HCIP 2-237
Mutasiva 247 LEWH 144, CHI 641, bk
Devanampiya succeeds 247-07. CHI 608
c.247 Killing animals for sport forbidden by Asoka. 247 bk
c.246 BUDDHISM reaches Ceylon.  Mahinda son of Asoka, with monks Itthiya, Uttiya, Sambala, Bhaddasala, and the novice Sumana, son of his sister Sanghamitta go to Mahindatala Ceylon, where they evangelize raja SURATISSA, and convert him and his people.  Suratissa invites missionaries.  Buddhism becomes state religion. 250 PW 16
247 wikAHSL, wikHSL 246 CHI 604, 608, 642, HCIP 2-234
240 CSHB 39
reign of Asoka: B76 IX-944
Devanampiya instead of Suratissa. CHI 608
c.244 STHAVIRA BUDDHISM, intact from 280 at Mathura, splits.  SARVASTIVADINS, VIBHAJYAVADINS. 250 B76 3-403 244 CSHB 28
c.244 ASOKA, Mauryan emperor at Pataliputra 265-32, Buddhist from 260, sides with VIBHAJYAVADINS. no date:
CSHB 36
c.240 SARVASTIVADIN BUDDHISTS, rejected by Asoka, go north from Mathura, convert Kashmir. no date:
CSHB 36
c.240 VIBHAJYAVADIN BUDDHISTS:  Those in south India become known as THERAVADINS.  They migrate to Ceylon. no date:
B76 IX-944
c.237 SURATISSA, Vijaya raja of Anuradhapura in Ceylon from 247, defeated and killed in battle by 2 Tamil horse dealers from south India, SENA and GUTTIKA, who rule until 215. 237 wikAK, wikSA, wikLSLM, wikS&G 236 vrb
177 HCIP 2-237
c.232 Son of Bindusara, ASOKA dies.  3rd Mauryan emperor at Pataliputra from 265Son KUNALA succeeds in west until 225.  Son DASARATHA succeeds in east until 225.  Empire declines quickly. 238 or 32 B76 I-586, 3-406, 8-911     237/6 CHI 503     236 CHI 223, conze 17, bk     232 B76 3-378, 4-2, CMoG2 249, MCAW, MRDK, TAWH 73, 82, WNHI 61, wikME, wikSI
231 KIH 101     222 HCAI 38
c.230 KRISHNA, 2nd Satavahana raja of Maharashtra from 248, ends.  SATAKARNI-I succeeds until 220. 230 MRDK
c.230 Satavahana kingdomSATAVAHANA (aka Andhara Andhra), feudatories to the Mauryas, go independent.  Satavahana Dynasty of MAHARASHTRA begins until 174CE. 230 wikI, wikSd
225 CHI 642
c.225 Son of Asoka, KUNALA ends.  Mauryan emperor of west from 232.  Son SAMPRATI succeeds in west until ?. 225 MRDK
c.225 Son of Asoka, DASARATHA ends.  Mauryan emperor of east from 232, ends.  SAMPRATI succeeds until 215. 225 MRDK 224 wikME
c.220 Kalinga kingdomKALINGA becomes kingdom.  CHETA dynasty. 220
CHI 642
c.220 SATAKARNI-I raja of Maharashtra from 230, ends.  PURNOTSANGA succeeds to 202. 220 MRDK
c.215 SAMPRATI ends.  Mauryan emperor of east from 225.  SALISUKA succeeds until 202. 215 wikME
c.215 SENA and GUTTIKA, rulers of Anuradhapura in Ceylon from 237, defeated in battle and deposed by ASELA, youngest son of Mutasiva, who revives the Vijaya dynasty until 205. 215 wikAK, wikAA, wikLSLM, wikS&G
c.209 KHARAVELA becomes king of Kalinga.  KHARAVELA Empire begins until 170. 209 wikSI 193 wikKr
c.207 DEVANAMPIYA TISSA, Vijaya raja of Ceylon from 247, dies.  UTTAYA succeeds to 197. 210 wikAHSL     207 B76 3-411, CHI 608, 641, LEWH 144, bk
c.206 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 marches southeast from Bactria, crosses the Hindu-Kush into Cabul valley, to get elephants, renews friendship treaty (originated by Seleucus with Chandragupta) with hindu rajah SOPHAGASENOSAntiochus receives 150 elephants & treasure. 206 B76 1-993, BHS 2-23, CAH 8-142, CHI 512, GHH, HCIP 2-102
c.205 CEYLON invaded by a Tamil prince ELARA of the Chola dynasty. 205 wikAA, wikE
c.205 ASELA, Vijaya raja of Anuradhapura in Ceylon from 215, killed.  VIJAYA dynasty from 543 suspended until 77.  ELARA, succeeds as raja in Ruhuna (Rajarata) until 161.  TAMIL dynasty begins until 77. 205 wikAK, wikAA, wikE, wikHSL, wikLSLM
145 HCIP 2-237
c.202 PURNOTSANGA, Satavahana raja of Maharashtra from 220, ends.  SKANDA STAMBHI succeeds to 184. 202 MRDK
totally different names & dates wikSD
c.202 SALISUKA ends.  Mauryan emperor of east from 215, ends.  DEVAVARMAN succeeds until 195. 202 wikME

India 200-100
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