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c.300





c.300





c.300





c.300
EUCLID, mathematician, flourishes at Alexandria.

Λ MATH AXIOMS:
Things equal to the same thing are equal.
If equals are added to equals, the sums are equal.
If equals are subtracted from equals, the remainders are equal.
Things that coincide with one another are equal.
The whole is greater than a part.
(See Thymaridas 375, Eudoxos 360, Salamis Tablet 300)

Λ GEOMETRIC AXIOMS:
Given any 2 points, there is an interval that joins them.
An interval can be prolonged indefinitely.
A circle can be constructed when its center and a point on it are given.

All right angles are equal.
If a straight line falling on 2 straight lines makes the interior angles on the same side less than 2 right angles, the 2 straight lines, if protracted indefinitely, meet on that side on which the angles are less than the 2 right angles.

Writes  ELEMENTS  books 1-6 on plane geometry,  books 7-9 on theory of numbers,  book 10 on irrationals,  books 11-13 on solid geometry.
(See Theaetetos 380,  Menaechmos 350,  Aristaeos 320,  Autolicos 320)
323 TToH
300 CAH 7.1, Dur 2-555, GHH, OCD 413
300-291 TTS
no date:
B76 7-1100
c.300 Lighthouse on Pharos island at Alexandria begun until 250 by Cretan architect Sostratos of Knidos.  Completed 250. 300 LEWH 81     284 GHH 283 MCAW, TTS, TTT
275 TToH
c.300 Museum at Alexandria built on advice of Demetrius of Phalerum. 300 OHG
297 CAH 7.1
c.300 CASSANDER, LYSIMACHUS, & SELEUCUS make treaty confirmed by marriages.  Ptolemy's daughter Arsinoe-II marries Lysimachus (who must divorce Amastris).  Lysandra marries Lysimachus' son Agathocles. 300 CDCC 86, DGRBM 1-366, lvD, lvPt1     299 lvA
299/8 B76 15-181, OCD 124
c.300 PTOLEMY-I, king of Egypt 305-285, establishes an efficient bureauocracy run mostly by Greeks, with commerce run mostly by Jews, patronizes science and literature. 300
MCAW 183
c.300 INDIGO dye, used in India from ?, becomes common in Egypt. 300 SHT 1-247
c.300 PAPYRUS becomes an export item. 300 SHT 2-188
c.300 HECATAEUS of Abdera, Greek historian, philosopher in Egypt, flourishes.  Wrote  On the Hyperboreans , fragments remain;  On the Poetry of Homer and Hesiod , not preserved; and  History of Egypt , fragments remain, records Egyptian customs, beliefs, and geography, an original philosophical Utopia, describes a harmonious state headed by a benevolent king and priests who guard wise laws.  Hecataeus says all ancient culture began in Egypt.  Regarding his authorship of a work on the Jews (a flattering account utilized by Josephus, Contra Apion), it is conjectured that portions of the Aegyptiaca are revised by a Hellenistic Jew (pseudo-Hecataeus) from his point of view and published. 4-300 wikHA 300 CHJ 2-136, 330-260 fdHA
290 B76 10-313
c.298 PYRRHUS of Epirus, age 19, arrives at Alexandria as hostage until 297, stays in Alexandria, becomes friend of Ptolemy-I. 300 or 299 lvG
299 CAH 7.1-106,
TAG 20, 99   298 wikPyr
c.297 ZENODOTUS of Ephesus, first librarian at Alexandria from 306, suspended.  DEMETRIUS of PHALERON, peripatetic philosopher, succeeds until 284. 297 OCD 325, CAH 7.1
c.297 PYRRHUS, former king of Epirus 307-02, marries Antigone, dau of Ptolemy-I and mistress Berenice. 296 atl3
c.297 PYRRHUS, former king of Epirus 307-02, hostage in Egypt from 298, restored until 272 by Ptolemy-I Soter to maintain pressure on Macedonia. 298/7 B76 8-378, CAH 7.1-106,     297 Agθ 213, B76 VIII-326, MRDK, OCD 903, OHG, bk, lvG, wikPyr     296 atl3
c.296 DEMETRIUS-I POLIORCETES, boss of some scattered islands and cities, and parts of Greece, makes alliance with PTOLEMY-I Soter king of Egypt.  Marries P-I's dau PTOLEMAIS. 296
B76 15-181
Ptolemy-I family
c.294 PTOLEMY-I, king of Egypt 305-285 seizes Cyprus, Pamphylia, Lycia, and Phoenician cities Tyre and Sidon.  Also intensifies his contacts with Athens. 295/4 wikPt1     294 lvPt1
c.294 DEMETRIUS of PHALERON, librarian at Alexandria 296-84, organizes museum in Alexandria. 294 bk
c.293 1st Egyptian embassy to Rome. 293 atl3
c.290 EUCLID, asked by Ptolemy-I Soter if there is any shorter way in geometry than that expressed in "Elements".  Replies: "There is no royal road to geometry." no date:
B76 6-1020
c.290 BERENICE-I, 3rd wife of Ptolemy-I Soter from 317, made queen by P-I until 285. 290 B76 5-181 299/8 OCD 896
c.290 A cult of Alexander exists in Egypt possibly at this time. by 290 CAH 7.1-97
c.290 Alexandrian LIBRARY built. 290 TAWH 17
c.290 Portable CLEPSYDRA (water clock), used by Hellenistic physician Herophilos on house calls in Alexandria for measuring patients' pulse-beats. 300-275 wikWC
c.290 JEWS of the Diaspora, especially in Egypt, want a Greek translation of their Scriptures, because only a minority of Diaspora Jews can still read and understand Hebrew. soon after 300 CHJ 2-385
c.289 PTOLEMY-I Soter, king of Egypt 305-283, makes son by Berenice-I PTOLEMY-II co-king. 289 wikPt1
285 GHH, lvPt1
c.288 PTOLEMY-I Soter, king of Egypt 305-285, takes Athens from Demetrius-IGoes on to take all Aegean islands by 287. 288
B76 8-378
c.288 COALITION against DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes formed by PYRRHUS, LYSIMACHUS, SELEUCUS-I, and PTOLEMY-ILysimachus is to invade Macedonia from the east and Pyrrhus from the west, while Ptolemy is to sail his fleet to Athens and try to raise GreeceSeleucus apparently has no part in the plan. 289/8 TAG 92 288 DGRBM 3-772, atl3 287 DGRBM 3-584
c.287 EURYDICE, wife of Ptolemy-I, and son, and dau Ptolemais leave Egypt, go to Miletos Caria. 287
CDCC 133
c.285 PTOLEMY Philadelphus, son of Ptolemy-I Soter, king of Egypt 305-285, marries 1st wife ARSINOE-I, dau of Lysimachus and Nicaea, until 279. 289/8 OCD 124     289-81 wikA1 285 DGRBM 1-367, lvPt2
284-1 tnd     282 B76 I-546
c.285 PTOLEMY-I Soter ends.  King of Egypt from 305, age 82, abdicates to son by Berenice.  PTOLEMY-II PHILADELPHUS succeeds, has a great coronation festival and rules until 246.  Claims of his elder son by Eurydice, Ptolemy CERAUNUS are ignored. 285 B76 15-181, spring CAH 7.1, DGRBM 3-568, 584, DMoN, Dur 2-555, FLAP 66, GEoP, GHH, IDB 1-113, MCAW, Murn, Shaw, TToH, TTPC, frH, phou, rcE, treg, wikP, wikPt2     284 pic, tig,
c.285 Brothers Ptolemy CERAUNUS and MELEAGER, sons of P-I by Eurydice, go to Thrace, to court of Lysimachus king of Thrace. 285 DGRBM 3-568
c.285 BERENICE-I, Macedonian 3rd wife of Ptolemy-I Soter from 317, mother of P-II, queen from 290, dies. 285 GEoP, wikP
c.285 HEROPHILUS of Chalcedon, anatomist, flourishes in Alexandria.  Performed public disections of human cadavers.  Disects human eyes and brains, determines the brain as the seat of thought. 285 Dur 2-555, MCAW
270 OHG 443
c.285 EUCLID dies. 285 SHWC 95
c.284 DEMETRIUS of PHALERON, librarian of Alexandria from 297, having favored Keraunos over Philadelphus, exiled.  ZENODOTUS of Ephesus resumes until 260. 284 AΨΨ 95, OCD 1146 283 CAH 7.1-138
270 Dur 2-555
c.284 DIODOROS CRONOS, philosopher and dialectician connected to the Megarian school, dies.  Most known for logic innovations, including his master argument in response to Aristotle's work on future contingents.  Teacher of Philo the Dialectician and Zeno of Citium. 284 wikDC
c.283 Museum at Alexandria, built 300, enlarged by Ptolemy-II, who comissions gramarian Zenodotus to collect and edit works of all Greek poets. 283 MCAW
c.283/2 Son of Lagos & Arsinoe, PTOLEMY-I Soter dies.  Former king of Egypt 305-285, husband of Artakama, Eurydice-I, Berenice-I, dies peacefully in bed.  Son Ptolemy-II consecrates him as "Savior God". 283 B76 8-386, CAH 7.1-97, 110, DGRBM 3-584, GHH, IDB 3-964, MCAW, OHG, RAH 379, frH, ktut, wikPt1, wikPt2 283/2 CDCC 732, OCD 896     282 B76 6-482, Clay, DMoN, JIAE, Murn, ae, lveg, lvA, lvG, lvPt1, nar, rcE, scar, wikWD
c.282 PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus king of Egypt 285-46, crowned as pharaoh, but counts his regnal years from 285. 282 lvPt2, nar
c.280 PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus king of Egypt 285-46, foments rebellion in Apamea Syria against Antiochus-I Soter.  Hostilities until 279. 280 B76 8-380, LEWH 93
c.280 1st SYRO / EGYPT WAR begins until 279.  Ptolemy-II Philadelphus conducts a brief successful war against Antiochus-I Soter mostly in Anatolia, but also in Levant 280 CAH 7.1-415, CHJ 2, lvFSW, lvPt2
c.280 CALLIMACHUS of Cyrene moves to Alexandria. 280 CDCC 484
c.280 CANAL from Nile to Red Sea, completed 510 by Darius-I but silted up, reopened by Ptolemy-II. 283 MCAW 280 TTT
c.280 CAMEL introduced to Egypt by Ptolemy-II. 280 MCAW
c.280 Demetrius of Phalerum in upper Egypt from ?, dies of asp bite. 283 AΨΨ 95, DGRBM 1-970, GHH 280 wikDΦ
c.279 1st SYRO / EGYPT WAR from 280 suspended until 275.  Ptolemy-II Philadelphus keeps Anatolian possessions: Ionia, Caria, Lycia, Pamphylia, and parts of Cilicia. 279 B76 8-379, lvA1, lvFSW
c.279 ARSINOE-II dau of P-I Soter, on Samothrace from 281, flees to Alexandria, seeks protection from bro, Ptolemy-II Philadelphus. 279 B76 I-546, DGRBM 1-366
no date: B76 8-379, wikA2
c.279 ARSINOE-I, wife of Ptolemy-II Philadelphus from 285, accused of plotting to murder him.  Banished to Coptos in Upper Egypt until 274.  Ptolemy-III becomes officially regarded as son of his sis Arsinoe-II. 279
OCD 124, lvPt2
c.279 BERENICE-I, Macedonian widow of P-I 321-282, mother of P-II & Arsinoe-II, dies. 279 CAH 7.1-97, CDCC 133 277 lvBrn1     275 B76 I-994
c.279/8 PTOLEMY-II proclaims PTOLEMY-I a god with a cult as Saviour (Soter).
PTOLEMAIEIA, a 4-yearly festival to honor Ptolemy-I and his dynasty, instituted by Ptolemy-II at Alexandria.  Declares it to be equal to the Olympic games, sends out invitations to the Greek world.
280 CAH 7.1-97, TAG 135
279 CAH 7.1 279/8 Shaw 401 275/4 lvPt2
c.278 PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus king of Egypt 285-46 expands into Arabia until 274. 278 lvPt2
c.276 PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus king of Egypt 285-46, marries 2nd wife & full sister ARSINOE-II until 270.  She is widow of Lysimachus, and estranged from Ptolemy Keraunos 281. 278 AΨΨ     277 B76 I-546 276 CDCC 87, LEWH 96, TTPC     276/5 OCD 124, 896 275 bk     275/4 TAG 257
c.276 ILIAD & ODYSSEY, existing in many conflicting manuscripts, collated by Zenodotus of Ephesus, librarian 284-60.  Eliminates spurious verses, marks some verses doubtful, transposes verse order to make better sense.  (See 188) pre-274
MTNT 149
c.275 1st SYRO / EGYPT WAR, suspended 279, resumes until 271.  PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus invades southern Syria.  Defeated by ANTIOCHUS-I. 276 LEWH 93, OCD 896
275 RAH 382, bihi, wikA1
274 B76 8-380, 15-182, CAH 7.1-416, OCD 71, OHG, lvA1, wikSW
c.275 PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus king of Egypt 285-46, sends expedition down Red Sea to Nubia and Arabia. 280 B76 8-389 275 lvPt2
c.275 Alexandrian MUSEUM founded by PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus.  Maintains & supports scholars from all over, encourages scientific research, becomes leading Greek university. 275
TTPC 24
c.275 MAGAS, governor of Cyrene 298-58, allies with Seleucid king Antiochus-I Soter, attacks Egypt.  Bad relations until 252. 275 CAH 7.1, lvFSW
c.275 BERENICE Troglodytica, city on Red Sea built at the head of a gulf, the Sinus Immundus, as a trade port by Ptolemy-II Philadelphus, and named for his mom Berenice-I.  Also erects 4 public inns or watering places between Berenice and Coptos, for caravans on their 12 days journey thru the desert. 275 oeB
266
DGRG 1-666
no date: wikBT
c.275 MANETHO, high priest of Heliopolis under Ptolemy-II, flourishes.  Writes  History of Egypt  in Greek. 300 B76 VI-561 275 TToH
250 Dur 2-556
c.274 MAGAS, governor of Cyrene 298-58, invades Egypt, and is expelled.  Bad relations until 252. 274 CAH 7.1, TAG 263, lvFSW, wikPt2
c.274 ARSINOE-I, dau of Lysimachus, wife of P-II Philadelphus 285-79, mother of P-III Euergetes, exiled at Coptos from 279, dies. 274 GEoP, wikP
after 248 wikA1
c.273 Rome sends 3 ambassadors including Q. Ogulnius, Fabius Pictor to PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus, who sends an embassy back to RomeRome / Egypt  friendship treaty  results. 276 DGRBM 3-364
273 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-20, GHH, LdHR 2-3, MCAW, OCD 927, Shaw 412, SORH, lvPt2
c.273 Earliest surviving  loan contract  in Egypt. 273 CAH 7.1-154
c.272 Capital of Egypt: ALEXANDRIA from 323, moved to MEMPHIS until ?. 272 GHH
c.272/1 Ptolemy-II Philadelphus expands his 279 Ptolemaic cult to include himself and sis/wife Arsinoe-II under the name Brother-Sister Gods (theoi adelphoi). 272/1
CAH 7.1-97
c.271 1st SYRO / EGYPT WAR from 275 ends.  Ptolemy-II reconquers territories.  2nd 266. 272 LEWH 93, lvFSW, wikSW
272/1 CHJ 2     271 B76 8-380, CAH 7.1-416, OCD 71, OHG, lvA1
270 B76 15-182
c.270 ARSINOE-II, dau of P-I Soter & Berenice-I, wife of Lysimachus 300-282, wife of ½ bro Ptolemy Keraunos 281, sis/wife of P-II Philadelphus from 276, dies.  Consecrated by P-II as "brother loving goddess". 272 nar     270 AΨΨ 83, B76 I-546, 6-482, 8-386, July CAH 7.1, GEoP, OCD 124, Shaw, ae, lveg, scar, wikP, wikPt2     270 or 68 CDCC 87 270-60 wikA2
c.270 CALLIMACHUS of Cyrene, elitist and erudite poet, critic and scholar, flourishes at Alexandria.  Writes  Atia , an eliagic poem describing origins of various rites and customs.  Writes 6 hymns showing poetic expetrise, but no religion. 270 Dur 2-555, OHG 260 B76 10-1093, LEWH 88     256 GHH
c.270 CALLIMACHUS of Cyrene, writes  Aetia  "Causes", a narrative elegy in 4 books explaining legendary origines of obscure customs, festivals, and names. 270
B76 II-464
c.270 CTESIBIUS of Alexandria, Greek mathematician, inventor, engineer, flourishes in Alexandria.  Wrote  On Pneumatics , 1st treatise on compressed air and its uses in pumps (and even a cannon).  He improves organs and makes water-clocks. 270 CAH 7.1, OHG 285-72 wikCts     175 MCAW
c.270 TIMOSTHENES of Rhodes flourishes.  He serves as admiral and chief pilot of Ptolemy-II.  Writes a periplus (book of sailing directions) in 10 books (now lost). 282 GHH
270 wikTm
c.270 THEOCRITUS (born in Syracuse, lived on Cos), poet, goes to Alexandria, works at court of Ptolemy-II and writes in praise of him.  Some poems  Idylls  commonly attributed to him have little claim to authenticity. 282 GHH
275 CAH 7.1, MCAW
270 CDCC 881, LEWH 88, OHG
260 Dur 2-556
no date: wikθcr
c.270 PHILETAS of Cos, poet, tutor of Ptolemy-II and Theocritos, in Egypt from ?, dies. 270
B76 VII-939
c.269/8 CALLICRATES of Samos appointed high priest of new cult of Arsinoe-Aphrodite. 269/8 CDCC 484
c.268/7 PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus king of Egypt 285-46, makes son Ptolemy Euergetes co-king. 268/7 lvPt2
c.267 PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus king of Egypt 285-46, supports Athens and Sparta in Chremonidian War against Macedonian king Antigonus-II Gonatas 266-61. 267 lvPt2
c.267  LETTER of ARISTEAS to PHILOCRATES  (aka Pseudo-Aristeas):  Aristeas tells how Demetrius, head of the library in Alexandria, persuaded Ptolemy-II to send a delegation to High Priest Eleazar in Jerusalem with a letter requesting that Eleazar appoint 6 elders from each of the 12 tribes, skillful in the Law and bilingual, to translate the Torah into Greek.  a possibly fictional account of a banquet at the court of Ptolemy-II.  Describes Greek translation of Hebrew Law by 72 interpreters sent from Jerusalem to Egypt at request of Demetrius, librarian of Alexandria, resulting in the Septuagint translation 250. 267
CAH 7.1-73 no date: wikLA
200 CHJ 2-498, 536
c.266 2nd SYRO / EGYPT WAR begins until 254/3.
ANTIOCHUS-I Soter, king of Syria 281-61 war with PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus until 261.
266 B76 8-380 263 OCD 71
c.262 Reclamation work in the FAYUM. 262 CAH 7.1
c.262 CHREMONIDES, Athenian nationalist statesman responsible for getting Athens into war, flees, with associate Glaucon, to Egypt, protected by Ptolemy-II. 262 OCD 231, DGRBM 2-274
c.262/1 PTOLEMAEOS son of Lysimachus & Arsinoe-II, in Egypt from ?, sent to Miletos Caria by P-II. 262/1 wikP1E
c.261 2nd SYRO / EGYPT WAR 266-54/3, won by PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus in 1st half, suspended because of death of ANTIOCHUS-I Soter until 260. 261
B76 8-380
c.261 PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus king of Egypt 285-46, issues decree forbidding enslavement of free members of the native population except for non-payment of debts to the state. 262-60
CAH 7.1-442
c.261 ZENO of Caunus Ionia arrives in Egypt, goes to Philadelphia, becomes private secretary to Apollonius. 261
CAH 7.1-142
c.261 A praise hymn by a Hellenic Jew glorifies an Egyptian god who cured the author. 261 E2LM 78
c.260 2nd SYRO / EGYPT WAR 266-54/3 suspended from 261, resumed by ANTIOCHUS-II Theos until 254/3 to regain land lost by father.  Attacks Ptolemaic outposts in Anatolia. 260 B76 15-182, CAH 7.1, CDCC 857, CHJ 2, LEWH 93, 96, MCAW, OHG, lvA, lvPt2, lvSSW, wikSW
c.260 ZENODOTUS of Ephesus, librarian of Alexandria from 284, ends.  APOLLONIUS Rhodius succeeds to 246. 265 CDCC 58     261 CAH 7.1 260 B76 I-449, CAH 7.1,
OCD 84
Confused data causes some (DGRBM 1-571) to think Callimachus of Cyrene succeeds, but he was never librarian. OCD 195
c.260 CALLIMACHUS of Cyrene, poet, gramarian, catalogs library of Alexandria, but is never chief librarian. 260 MCAW 256 GHH
c.260 ERASISTRATUS of Cos?, Ceos?, or Chios?, physician at Alexandria, flourishes.  Founds an anatomy school.

ANATOMY:  Abandons 4 humors theory.  Says heart is center of both arterial and veinous systems, but thinks air enters lungs and heart, and that arteries carry air and veins carry blood.
Correctly describes function of epiglottis and heart valves.
Notes difference between sensory and motor nerves, but thinks nerves are hollow tubes containing fluid.
Endorses PNEUMATISM:  Life is associated with a subtle vapor called pneuma.
260 CAH 7.1 258 GHH
250
B76 III-936
no date: OCD 59-60, 404
c.259 APOLLONIOS Rhodius writes on the organization of cultivation and taxation of the major oil crops: sesame, castor-oil kolokynthos (gourds), safflower and flax. 259
CAH 7.1-366
c.259 ZENO, Greek son of Agreophontos, agent of Apollonios Rhodius, sent on a trade mission to Levant. 259
1&2BM 4
c.259 Ptolemy the Son revolts. 259 lvSSW
c.259/8 New fiscal laws in Egypt. 259 CAH 7.1
259/8 CAH 7.1-159, lvSSW, lvPt2
c.258 Λ MONEY V:  Merchants in Alexandria are required to surrender their gold coins for reminting in the royal mint. 258
CAH 7.1-159
c.258  KARNAK OSTRAKON , a demotic translation of an original Greek text, orders a land survey, census, and inventory of resources for all 36 nomes from the Meiterranean to south Egypt and temple of Amun at Thebes, all for tax purposes. 258
CAH 7.1-127, 159
c.257 CALLICRATES of Samos, Admiral of Ptolemaic fleet from ?, ends. 257 CDCC 484
c.257 Greek catoecic CAVALRYMEN appear in Egypt. 257 CAH 7.1-173
c.257 Heliopolitan peasants, newly settled in the Fayum, complain to Apollonius that "a large number of mistakes have been made in the "Ten Thousand Arouras" since there is no one experienced in agriculture". 257 CAH 7.1-367
c.256 PANACESTOR, in charge of the "Ten Thousand Arouras" in the Fayum from ? dismissed by Apollonius. 256
CAH 7.1-159
c.256 ZENO of Caunus, after an illness, is put in charge of the "Ten Thousand Arouras" in the Fayum until 246. 256
CAH 7.1-142
c.256 5 Egyptian brick-makers are imported from other nomes by Zeno to Philadelphia.  They swear to remain till their construction task is finished. 256
CAH 7.1-142
c.254 Peace between Egypt and Macedonia. 254 lvSSW
c.254/3 2nd SYRO / EGYPT WAR from 266, resumed from 260, ends until 246.  ANTIOCHUS-II Theos, having regained most of Anatolian coastland, but not Pergamum, Caria, Lycia, south Syria, quits fighting.  Treaty 252. 255 LEWH 96
255-3 B76 8-380
253 B76 15-182, CAH 7.1, CDCC 857, CHJ 2, MCAW, OCD 72, 896, OHG, lvA, lvA2, lvSSW, wikSW
c.254/3 PAERISADES-II, Spartocid king of Bosporus 284-45, sends an embassy to Ptolemy-II Philadelphus. 254/3
CAH 6-504
c.252 SYRO / EGYPT  TREATY  between ANTIOCHUS-II Theos and PTOLEMY-II PhiladelphusAntiochus-II divorces wife Laodice-I and marries BERENICE Phernephorus, dau of Ptolemy-II until 246.  Wedding happens in Phoenicia. 253 B76 15-182, CHJ 2-60, CAH 7.1, lvPt2
252 Jud 5-1282-3, bk     250 IDB 1-149
c.251 ARATOS boss of Sicyon, visits Egypt until 250, gets promise of subsidy for Achaea. 251 CAH 7.1, wikAS
c.250 HERO of Alexandria flourishes.  Invents automatic door opener, a steam engine. 275 MCAW
250 Dur 2-556
c.250 LYCOPHRON of Chalcis, tragic poet, grammarian, commentator on comedy, flourishes in Alexandria. 280 CAH 7.1     285-47 wikLc     259 GHH     250 Dur 2-556
c.250 LIGHTHOUSE on Pharos island at Alexandria begun 300 by architect Sostratos of Knidos, completed.  600 ft tall.  A fire at the top is visible from almost 100 miles.  It remains 1,500 years. 283 GHH 250 TTPC
c.250 ZENO of Caunus, in charge of the "Ten Thousand Arouras" in the Fayum 256-46,suffers crippling financial embarrassments until 248. 250
CAH 7.1-159
c.250 ARAMAIC has been the language of all papyrii written by the Jewish community in Egypt until the 3rd century BCE.    After that all (except the Nash Papyrus) are in Greek. 300-200
B76 10-312
c.250 Alexandrian Jews, encouraged by Ptolemy-II to translate their scriptures into Greek, begin with  PENTATEUCH .  Becomes 1st part of  SEPTUAGINT .  (See 150) 284 GHH     260 WBH 21 255 TToH     250 IDB 1-506, 510, 4-273, Jud 4-825, MCAW, bivu
c.246 PTOLEMY Euergetes, son of P-II Philadelphus king of Egypt, marries BERENICE, dau of Magas of Cyrene, thereby bringing Cyrenaica back under Egypt. 247 OCD 165     246 lvPt3     245 B76 I-994, VIII-280,     244/3 wikPt3
c.246 Ptolemaic expedition into Nubia reaches Axum. 246 GHH
c.246 PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus dies.  King of Egypt from 285, age 63.  Son, age 36, by Arsinoe-I PTOLEMY-III Euergetes-I succeeds until 222. 247 AΨΨ 83, 111, DGRBM 3-588, GHH, IDB 3-965, Murn, OCD 84, frH     246 B76 6-482, 8-380, 15-182, CAH 7.1-482, CDCC 731, CHJ 2-53, 60, Clay, DMoN, Dur 2-587, FLAP 66, GEoP, IDB 1-113, JIAE, LEWH 96, MCAW, OCD 896, OHG, Shaw, TTPC, ae, bk, phou, pic, lveg, lvG, ktut, lvPt2, lvPt3, nar, rcE, scar, treg, wikP, wikPt3
c.246 SYRO / EGYPT WAR, dormant from 254/3, resumes (3rd) until 241 (called Laodicean War after A-II's first wife, Laodice).  PTOLEMY-III Euergetes attacks SELEUCUS-II and HIERAX in Levant for murder of sis Berenice. 247 TAWH 78     246 B76 I-424, CAH 7.1-208, 420, CDCC 857, CHJ 2-60, GHH, Jud 5-1283, LEWH 96, OCD 72, OHG, lvA, lvPt3, lvS2, lvTSW, wikSW
c.246 ZENO of Caunus, in charge of the "Ten Thousand Arouras" in the Fayum from 256, is dismissed by Apollonius, remains at Philadelphia without benefit of higher protection, devotes himself to viticulture in the area till at least 234. 248/7
CAH 7.1-367
246
CAH 7.1-142
c.246 APOLLONIUS Rhodius librarian of Alexandria from 260, retires, goes to RhodesERATOSTHENES, now in Athens, is invited to succeed.  He succeeds to 195/4. 255 B76 III-937
247 B76 I-449, OCD 84 246 CAH 7.1, CDCC 58 236 wikErt
246 late PTOLEMY III Euergetes goes to Babylon.  Away from Egypt until 243. Dec. 246 lvPt3, lvS2
c.245 PTOLEMY-III Euergetes forced to return from Babylon to Syria because Antigonus-II Gonatas is intervening in Egypt's Aegean possessions. 245 bihi, lvPt3
c.245 CONON of Samos, astronomer, mathematician, flourishes in Alexandria. 245 B76 III-88
c.244 By the beginning of 244, Ptolemy-III is no match for all his enemies at once;  he must buy off one of them.  He chooses Antigonus-II, and sends Sostratos of Knidos as envoy. 244
TAG 386
c.243 Queen Berenice-II swears to Aphrodite that she will cut off her long blond hair if Ptolemy-III returns safely from battle against the Seleucids. 243 wikCBrn
c.243 PTOLEMY-III Euergetes-I, away from Egypt from 246, recalled from Syria by revolt in Egypt. 243 DGRBM 3-588, TTPC
c.243 Queen Berenice-II fulfills her vow by cutting off her hair.  It is put in the temple of Aphrodite, but is missing next morning.  To appease Ptolemy-III, court astronomer Conon of Samos says the offering so pleased the goddess that she put it in the sky - a constellation that has since been called "Coma Berenices" (Berenice's Hair). 243 wikCBrn
c.243 CALLIMACHUS of Cyrene, poet, gramarian, at library of Alexandria, writes a poem  Berenice's Braid . 246
CAH 7.1
c.243 ARATOS of Sicyon, general of 2nd Achaean League 251-13, allies with PTOLEMY-III Euergetes against ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia 276-39. 243 lvPt3
c.242/1 Unsuccesful Seleucid attack on Egypt. 242 Sdl 5-234     242/1 lvPt3
c.241 3rd SYRO / EGYPT WAR, resumed from 246, ends in peace settlement until 221, because HIERAX troops from Anatolia prevent Egyptian aggressionPtolemies have gained Syrian coast but lost some Aegean possessionsAntiochus HIERAX, and PTOLEMY-III Euergetes sign treaty in Coele-Syria. 241 B76 I-424, CAH 7.1-208, 420, CDCC 857, CHJ 2, LEWH 96, OHG, RAH 382, bk, lvA, lvPt3, lvS2, wikSW
c.240 SELEUCUS-II Callinicus invades Egypt. 242 lvS2     240 bihi
c.240 ERATOSTHENES calculates Earth circumference, using knowledge of the angle of elevation of the sun at noon on summer solstice in Alexandria and on Elephantine Island. 240 wikErt
c.240 CALLIMACHUS of Cyrene, poet, gramarian, dies. 240 B76 II-464, MCAW, wikCl
c.240 NILE FLOOD, inadequate in 245, is now disastrously inadequate. 240
CAH 7.1-158
c.239 LEAP YEAR introduced into Egyptian calendar. 239 TToH
c.238 Rome makes overtures to Ptolemy-III Euergetes, natural allies against Macedonia and Syria. 238 SORH
c.239 SELEUCUS-II Callinicus, Seleucid king of Syria/Babylonia 246-26, makes 10 year truce with PTOLEMY-III Euergetes-I. 239 DGRBM 3-773
c.238  CANOPUS DECREE , inscription on stone in 2 languages, and 3 scripts: hieroglyphic, Demotic, and Greek, honoring Ptolemy-III Euergetes, his wife Berenice, and Princess Berenice.  Contents: military campaigns, famine relief, religion and government organization.  Mentions the king's donations to temples, support for the Apis and Mnevis cults, and return of divine statues which had been carried off by Cambyses.  Extols king's quelling rebellions of native Egyptians.  Most accurate solar calendar known to the ancient world, with 365 days per year.' Declares dead princess Berenice a goddess and creates a cult for her.  3 copies survive. 238
B76 II-517,
CAH 7.1-82, 97, 161, wikDC, wikPt3
c.237 Temple of HORUS at EDFU:  The rear part of the complex, the temple proper, is begun until 212 on the site of an earlier, smaller temple also dedicated to Horus.  It initially consists of a pillared hall, two transverse halls, and a barque sanctuary surrounded by chapels. 237 plnt, wikTE     230 TToH
c.235 APOLLONIOS Rhodius former librarian of Alexandria 260-46, dies. 235 CDCC 58
c.235 ERATOSTHENES becomes librarian at Alexandria until 195. 246 OHG     235 Dur 2-556
c.235 Wind organ MUSIC:  Wind powered ORGAN with bronze pipes invented by Hero of Alexandria. 240-31 MCAW 201
no date: wikAT


Photo {{PD-US}}
c.230 APOLLONIUS of Pergaeus, geometer, pupil of Euclid, flourishes. 230 MCAW
c.230 SERAPEIUM built and dedicated to god Serapis by Ptolemy-III Euergetes-I at Alexandria.  Serapis is a syncretic Hellenistic-Egyptian god who was made protector of Alexandria.  He combined aspects of Osiris and Apis in a humanized form acceptable by Ptolemaic Greeks.  Stands until 391CE. 246-22 wikSrp
c.229/8 PTOLEMY-III Euergetes-I supports Greeks in their war against Macedonia until 222, but is unable to keep out of internal quarrels of Greeks. 229/8 lvPt3
c.226 A Ptolemaic court judges an assault case between 2 Jews according to Greek law. 226 E2LM 80
c.225 PHILO of Byzantium, engineer, flourishes mostly in Alexandria.  Designs a chain drive to repeat-load a catapult, advocates bronze springs in catapults.  Experiments on expanding air by means of heat. 280-20 wikPB 260-41 TTS
225 CAH 7.1-359 200 CDCC 674, OHG 443
c.225 CATAPULT design improved by Philo of Byzantium.
2 types:  euthytone (stretched-straight),  palintone (stretched-back).
225 CAH 7.1-358 description: lgn24
c.225 RHIANOS of Crete, poet, grammarian, flourishes probably in Alexandria.
Writes a new recension of the Iliad and Odyssey.  Known as a writer of epics (mythological and ethnographical), chiefly "Messeniaca" on the 2nd Messenian War.
225 CAH 7.1 275-195 wikRh
c.225/4 PTOLEMY-III Euergetes-I tours Egypt.  Helenistic Jew DOSITHEOS, son of Drimylos, accompanies. 225/4 CHJ 2-194
c.222 CLEOMENES-III, Agiad king of Sparta from 235, flees to Egypt until death 220.  Granted asylum by P-III. 222 B76 II-989, VIII-280, 8-382-3, LEWH 92, OCD 70, 250, OHG, lvG, wikKS     221 MRDK, OCD 1007
c.222 Son of P-II + Arsinoe, PTOLEMY-III Euergetes-I dies.  King of Egypt from 246, age 61, murdered by son Ptolemy Philopator, age 23.  PTOLEMY-IV Philopator succeeds until 205. 222 B76 6-482, 8-380, CHJ 2-64, Clay, DMoN, JIAE, GEoP, GHH, Murn, Shaw, ae, frH, ktut, lvG, lvPt3, lveg, nar, rcE, scar, tig, treg, wikP
221 B76 VIII-280, CAH 7.1-435, CDCC 731, CHJ 2-387, Dur 2-556, IDB 3-965, MCAW, OCD 896, Shaw, TToH, TTPC, bk, phou, pic
c.222 Counsellor SOSIBIUS has the most influence over Ptolemy-IV Philopator.  He manages the state while P-IV gives himself up to debauchery. 222 DGRBM 3-880
221 wikSs
c.222 Helenistic Jew DOSITHEOS, son of Drimylos, appears in Fayum documents as chief priest of a cult of the apotheosized Alexander and deified Ptolemaic kings. 222 CHJ 2-139, 194
c.222 SPHAEROS of Borysthenes, Stoic philosopher, in Greece from 265, accompanies Cleomenes-III to Egypt until 210. 222 CHHΦ, wikSΦ
c.222 ATARGATIS (Derceto) chief goddess of north Sytia has a shrine built to her by a Macedonian soldier in an Egyptian village. 222 E2LM 83
c.221 BERENICE-II, dau of Magas of Cyrene, widow of P-III Euergetes, murdered by stepson Ptolemy-IV Philopator. 222 GEoP, wikP, nar 221 B76 I-994, OCD 165, Shaw, ae, lveg
c.221 CLEOMENES-III, Agiad former king of Sparta 235-22, imprisoned until 220 by Ptolemy-IV Philopator. 221
OCD 250
c.221 CLEOMENES-III, Agiad former king of Sparta 235-22, imprisoned from 221, breaks out. 221 OCD 250     220 TToH 219 B76 II-989, CAH 7.1, CDCC 489
c.221 From 221 to 210 the government pretends there is no inflation.  Wages are paid at the old rates but taxes collected at the depreciated level dictated by freely rising prices, estimated at 400% in this decade. 221 CAH 7.1-164, OCD 250     220 TToH 219 CAH 7.1,
CDCC 489
c.220 Ptolemy son of Chrysermus, officer under Ptolemy-IV, accidentally tips off Cleomenes-III that Ptolemy-IV plans to betray him. 220 DGRBM 3-566
c.220 CLEOMENES-III, Agiad former king of Sparta 235-22, tries to organize revolt against Ptolemy-IV Philopator. 221 OCD 250     221/0 DGRBM 1-795     219 B76 II-989, CAH 7.1-476, CDCC 489
c.220 Ptolemy son of Chrysermus, officer under Ptolemy-IV, attacked and killed by friends of Cleomenes-III. 220 DGRBM 3-566
c.220 CLEOMENES-III, Agiad former king of Sparta 235-22, revolt fails, suicides out. 221 OCD 250     221/0 DGRBM 1-795     220 GHH, TToH
219 B76 II-989, CAH 7.1-476, CDCC 489
c.220 A Samaritan settlement in Egypt receives a gymnasium built by a Cilician. 220 E2LM 104
c.219 SYRO / EGYPT WAR, dormant from 241, resumes (4th) until 217.  Antiochus-III Megas takes personal command against Ptolemaic possessions in Levant. 221 CAH 7.1-431, 434, LEWH 93, 97, bihi     219 B76 1-993, 8-380, CAH 7.1, CDCC 857, CHJ 2-64, MCAW, OCD 72, OHG, RAH 383, lv4SW, lvA, lvA3, lvG, wikSW
c.219 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas, king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 in Levant 219, invades Egypt until 218. 219 bihi
c.219/8 ANTIOCHUS-III and PTOLEMY-IV make 4 month truce, negotiated by counsellor Sosibius and bodyguard Agathocles. 219 B76 VIII-280, CHJ 2-65
219/8 CAH 7.1-436
c.218 Perigenes becomes fleet commander for Ptolemy-IV. 218 DGRBM 3-201, 590
c.218 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas resumes advance, overruns Egyptian forward defenses. 218
B76 VIII-280
c.218 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas in Egypt from 219, returns to Coele-Syria. 218 guess
c.217 POLYCRATES son of Mnasiades arrives in Egypt to help Ptolemy-IV against Antiochus-III. 217 DGRBM 3-459
c.217 PTOLEMY-IV Philopator, king of Egypt 222-05, personally leads 70,000 inf and 5,000 cav, 73 African elephants, mercenary Polycrates, plus much help from native Egyptians, north from Pelusium against Antiochus-IIISosibius accompanies. 218 DGRBM 3-881
217
CAH 7.1-436, DGRBM 3-590
c.217 4th SYRO / EGYPT WAR in Levant from 219, ends.  Antiochus-III cedes Coele-Syria.  5th 202. 217 CAH 7.1-431, CDCC 857, CHJ 2, LEWH 93, 97, MCAW, OHG, bihi, lvA, lvPt4, wikSW     216 B76 1-993, 8-380
c.217 PTOLEMY-IV Philopator, king of Egypt 222-05, marries sis ARSINOE-III. 220 lv4SW, lvPt4
217 OCD 124, 896
c.217  DECREE of MEMPHIS  issued by Ptolemy-IV, recorded on Pithom Stele, inscribed in Egyptian and Greek language, written in hieroglyphs, Demotic and Greek script. 218 wlDM, wikPt3 217 Nov 15 CAH 7.1     216 wikPD
c.217 ANDREAS, physician of Ptolemy-IV Philopator dies. 217 OCD 63
c.217 Elephants are deliberately turned on some Jews by Ptolemy-IV Philopator.  They are resued miraculously according to  3 Maccabees Josephus will tell a similar story about Ptolemy-IX. 217 1&2BM 13
c.216 Decius Magius former prisoner of Hannibal, escapes to Egypt, where Ptolemy-IV grants him total freedom.  He can't go back to Rome because he would be considered a deserter.  He stays in Egypt. 216 DGRBM 2-899
c.216 Native Egyptians, pacified under Ptolemies from 323, feeling nationalistic because of victory at Raphia, begin rebellions, mainly in upper Egypt, weakening Egypt until 183. 217 CAH 8 206 OHG
c.215 Roman embassy asks Ptolemy-IV to sell them grain. 215 B76 VIII-280 211/0 Shaw 420
c.212 Temple of HorusTemple of HORUS at EDFU, begun 237, finished.  The decoration of the walls with reliefs and inscriptions, interrupted during the reign of Epiphanes, will be resumed by 176. 212 plnt


Photo Ad Meskens
c.210 Ptolemy-IV Philopator and sis/wife Arsinoe-III have son who will be PTOLEMY-V. 210 lvPt4
210-9 CAH 8-143
c.210 Λ MONEY:  Copper becomes the official inland currency, and is cut loose from silver, no longer in adequate supply. 210
CAH 7.1-164
c.210 Revolt of Horwennefer / Ankhwennefer. 210 lvPt4
c.210 DEMETRIUS, first Hellenistic Jewish writer whose work, though preserved only in fragments, illuminates their increasing assimilation to Hellenistic language and culture. 221-05 CHJ 2-200 no date: CHJ 2-137
c.210 SPHAEROS of Borysthenes, Stoic philosopher, in Egypt from 222, dies. 210 wikSΦ
c.207/6 Ptolemy-IV Philopator, dominated by favorite Agathocles, his sis Agathocleia, and their mother Oenathe, dumps sis/wife Arsinoe-III, which causes insurrections. 207/6
CAH 8-143
c.207/6 Upper Egypt rebels against Ptolemy-IV Philopator.  Remains independent 20 years under Nubian kings. 207 CHJ 2-68     207/6 CAH 8-438
c.206 An Egyptian named Harmachis seizes the temple at Edfu, and then marches north, drives Greeks out of Thebes and occupies it.  There he is crowned "Harmachis who lives for ever, beloved of Isis, beloved of Amonrasonter the great god".  Harmachis reigns 6 years. 206
CAH 7.1-163
c.205 PTOLEMY-IV Philopator king of Egypt 222-05, makes infant son Ptolemy Epiphanes co-king. 205 lvPt4
c.205 Son of P-III, PTOLEMY-IV Philopator dies.  King of Egypt from 222, dies age 35 under mysterious circumstances, leaving toddler son PTOLEMY-V Epiphanes.  Death is kept secret.  Sosibius & Agathocles usurp control until 203.  Their chief adversary, Tlepolemus, is out of Alexandria at the time, but public indignation errupts into violence. 205 B76 VIII-280, 6-482, CAH 8-149, Clay, DGRBM 3-590, DMoN, GHH, JIAE, Murn, OCD 896, Shaw, ae, frH, lveg, phou, rcE, scar, treg     205/4 BHS 2-30, CHJ 2-70     204 B76 8-382, CAH 7.1-480, 8-251, CDCC 731, CHJ 2-387, GEoP, IDB 1-150, MCAW, OHG, bk, ktut, lv5SW, lvG, lvPt4, lvPt5, nar, pic, tig, wikP, wikPt5
203 Dur 2-556, IDB 3-965
c.205 SOSIBIUS gets possession of young Ptolemy-IV, and the royal signet ring, but is compelled to yield both to Tlepolemus, who assumes control of affairs. 205 DGRBM 3-591
c.205 ARSINOE-III, sis/widow of Ptolemy-IV, and now legal regent, secretly murdered by Sosibius and Agathocles. 205 CAH 8-149, lvPt5, wikP
206-3 OCD 124
204 B76 I-546, GEoP, lv5SW, wikPt5
c.205 HORUNNEFER appoints himself a pharaoh of Upper Egypt in the Thebaid until 199. 205 Shaw 411, nar, lv5SW
c.204 SCOPAS, having botched the reform legislation of the Aetolian League, moves from Greece to Alexandria.  He is well received by the ministers of young Ptolemy-V. 204 DGRBM 3-754
c.204 SOSIBIUS & AGATHOCLES, usurpers of Egypt, forge will of Ptolemy-IV appointing them guardians of Ptolemy-V Epiphanes. 204
CAH 8-149
c.203 Alarmed at the  Treaty of Partition  between Philip-V and Antiochus-III, Egyptian ministers send envoys to Rome, asking the senate to intervene.  They offer to put Ptolemy-V under the protection of the republic. no date: DGRBM 3-591, LdHR 2-17
c.203 Rome/Egypt alliance begins until ?. 203 GHH
c.204 Co-usurper of Egypt from 205, SOSIBIUS is murdered by co -usurper.  AGATHOCLES is in charge until 202. 204 CAH 8-149
no date: DGRBM 3-881
retires 202 B76 VIII-280
c.203 AGATHOCLES, usurper of Egypt 205-2, summons palace guard and military leaders, announces death of Ptolemy-IV & wife Arsinoe-III, reads forged will appointing him guardian of PTOLEMY-V Epiphanes, age 5, who now becomes king of Egypt, but under regent until 197. 203 CAH 8-149, bk
c.203 AGATHOCLES, usurper of Egypt 205-2, sends embassy to Philip-V of Macedon, announces death of Ptolemy-IV & wife Arsinoe-III, and his guardianship of Ptolemy-V Epiphanes. 203 CAH 8
c.203 THEBES comes under Nubians until 187. 203 bk
c.202 TLEPOLEMUS, commander of the garrison at Pelusium, leads military and popular revolt against Agathocles in delta until 200. 203 CAH 8-251
202 LEWH 97, wikPt5
no date: CAH 8-152
c.202 Usurper of Egypt from 205, AGATHOCLES ends, wiped out by Pelusium revolt.  Son of P-III, and rightful king, PTOLEMY-V Epiphanes rules until 181.  TLEPOLEMUS, governor of Pelusium, becomes chief minister. 203 CAH 8
202 lv5SW, lvPt5
202/1 CAH 8-152
c.202 Aetolian SCOPAS, in Egypt from 204, appointed to command the army in Coele-Syria against Antiochus-III Megas. no date: DGRBM 3-754
c.202 SYRO / EGYPT WAR, dormant from 217, resumes (5th) until 195.  Antiochus-III Megas invades Coele-Syria. 203 OHG     202 CAH 7.1-435, CDCC 857, CHJ 2-70, lv5SW, lvA, lvA3, lvG, lvPt5, wikSW     201 LEWH 93, 97, bihi
c.202/1 SCOPAS, Egyptian commander, defeated in Coele-Syria, flees to Egypt, where he still has high favor. no date:
DGRBM 3-754
c.201 3 Roman envoys:  Manius Aemilius Lepidus, C. Claudius Nero, P. Sempronius Tuditanus sent to Egypt, now an ally, to announce defeat of Hannibal, and confirm 273 friendship treaty with Ptolemy-V. 201 DGRBM 2-763, 1161, 3-1181
200 B76 VI-158
c.201/0 Aetolian SCOPAS, is sent with much money to Greece, to raise mercenaries for Ptolemy-V. 200 DGRBM 3-754
c.201/0 While Antiochus-III is stalled at Gaza, Aetolian SCOPAS, returns from Greece with over 6,000 young Aetolian mercenaries to Alexandria for Ptolemy-V. 201 CAH 153 200 DGRBM 3-754

Egypt 200-100
V