Greece
c.300 COTYS-II, son of Seuthes-III, becomes king of Odryssians in Thrace until 280. 300 wikLRTD
c.300 Hieronymus of Cardia, the historian, flourishes. 301 GHH
c.300 DELPHI Phocis, independent from 346, siezed by Aetolian League. 300 OCD 323 285 rcSB3
c.300 AETOLIAN LEAGUE allies with Boeotia. 300 B76 I-117
c.300 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes leaves Pyrrhus in charge of his garrisons in Greece, and sails to Chersonese to attack Lysimachus. 300 atl4
c.300 Agathocles of Syracuse attacks Ithaca island. 300 atl4
c.300 CLEARCHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 301, ends.  HEGEMACHOS succeeds until 299. 300 wikEA
c.300 CLASSICAL GREEK language period from 750, in which few words are used, but with many prefixes and suffixes to convey meaning, fades into HELLENISTIC GREEK language period until 550, in which subject, voice, tense, and purpose are sepatated from the stem and become helping words. 300 IDB 2-480
c.300 ZENO of Citium writes  Republic , describes an ideal Λ communism. 300 Dur 2-563
c.300 Donkey-driven cereal mill known in Greece. 300 SHT 2-110
c.300 DOBROGEA (land between north turning of Danube as it approaches Black Sea, and Black Sea itself), under Lysimachus from 305, comes under the Getae tribe until 280, under chief Dromichaites until ?. 300
B76 2-615, rcEB
c.300 EPIDAMNOS becomes DYRRHACHIUM.  Dyrrhachium was originally the headland under which the city Epidamnos was located.  It now becomes the name of the city itself. 300
OCD 367
c.300 CASSANDER, LYSIMACHUS, & SELEUCUS-I make treaty confirmed by marriages.  Ptolemy's daughters Arsinoe-II marries Lysimachus (who must divorce Amastris, wife from 301).  Lysandra marries Lysimachus' son AgathoclesSeleucus marries Stratonice, age 16, dau of Demetrius-I. 300 B76 I-546, CDCC 86, DGRBM 1-366, lvD, lvPt1, wikStr     299 lvA
299/8 B76 15-181, OCD 124
c.300 CORCYRA Island, under Spartan CLEONYMOS from 302, attacked by CASSANDER, who is then attacked by AGATHOCLES of Syracuse, who takes Corcyra, which is under Syracuse until 295. 300 CAH 7.1, OCD 25, atl4     299 rcSB3
299/8 DGRBM 1-620
no date: Agθ 211
c.300 ELEUSINIAN MYSTERIES, until now privately administered, taken over by the state of Eleusis, and administered by two families, the Eumolpidae and Kerykes.  The number of initiates greatly increases.  The only requirements for membership are never having murdered, and being unable to speak Greek.  Men, women and even slaves are allowed initiation.  4 levels of hierarchy:
1.  New initiates
2.  Not new members of the society
3.  Those who have attained epopteia "contemplation", who have learned the secrets of the greatest mysteries of Demeter.
4.  Priests, priestesses, and hierophants
300 wikEM
c.300 Λ MATH:   SALAMIS TABLET  used on Salamis.  Oldest surviving counting board, a precursor to the abacus.  Thought to represent a Babylonian means of math calculations.   (See Euclid 300) 300 rurs, wikST
c.300 THEOPHRASTOS of Eresos writes  Characters .  Shows a growing interest in personality. 300
B76 8-388
c.300 ASBESTOS described by Theophrastos  On Stones .  Naming of minerals is not consistent at this time. 300 wikAsb
c.300 ALCOHOL:  After 300, Greek & Roman art & literature begin portraying gods and men of all classes drinking wine. 300
B76 1-441
by c.300 ATHENIAN DRAMA, in its high Hellenistic wooden stage period from 350, now has a stone skene, which also begins elsewhere, probably under Athenian influence.  Some stage-houses have 2 tiers of columns crowned by a pediment. by 300
CAH 7.1-381-2
c.300 TRAGEDY, until now centered at Athens, shifts its center to Alexandria. 300 CDGRA 641
c.299 PHILA-I, wife of Demetrius-I Poliorcetes 320-288, negotiates for Demetrius with her bro Cassander. 299 lvΦ1
c.299 HEGEMACHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 300, ends.  EUCTEMON succeeds until 298. 299 wikEA
c.299 EPICURUS, in Athens 306-270, writes 15th Book of  About Nature . 299 atl3
c.298  TREATY  between Demetrius-I Poliorcetes and Ptolemy-I SoterDemetrius (recently unmarried) now marries PTOLEMAIS dau of Ptolemy. 299 TAG 20, 99
298 wikPyr
c.298 PYRRHUS, former king of Epirus 307-02, sent to Alexandria as hostage until 297 in accordance with 301 treaty between Demetrius-I Poliorcetes and Ptolemy-I Soter. 300 or 299 lvG
299 CAH 7.1-106,
TAG 20, 99   298 wikPyr
c.298 EUCTEMON, eponymous archon of Athens from 299, ends.  MNESIDEMOS succeeds until 297. 298 wikEA
c.298 CASSANDER, king of Macedonia 305-297, intrigues in south Greece, attacks Athens and Elatea Phocis, which are defended by Athenian Olympiodoros and Aetolians. 298 DGRBM 1-620, 3-24
c.298 Athenian Olympiodoros sails to Aetolia, gets them to help Athens. 298 DGRBM 3-24
c.298 DEMOCHARES, neph of Demosthenes, banished from 303, recalled to Athens, repairs walls and equips Athens with provisions and ammunition until 296. 298 DGRBM 1-973, wikDmc
c.298 CASSANDER, king of Macedonia 305-297, makes peace with Athens. 298 atl3
c.298 Philippides, Athenian comedy writer, and a personal friend of Lysimachus, is sent as envoy to Lysimachus to get wheat and other aid for Athens.  He succeeds. 299/8 TAG 94 298 atl3
c.297 PYRRHUS, former king of Epirus 307-02, hostage in Egypt from 298, restored until 272 by Ptolemy-I Soter to maintain pressure on Macedonia.  Pyrrhus is co-king with NEOPTOLEMUS-II, who is again restored until 295. 298/7 B76 8-378, CAH 7.1-106,     297 Agθ 213, B76 VIII-326, MRDK, OCD 903, OHG, bk, lvG, wikPyr 296 DGRBM 2-1155, atl3
c.297 CASSANDER, king of Macedonia 305-297, attacks a fortified camp of Gauls on Mount Haemus. 297 atl3
c.297 Son of Antipater, CASSANDER dies..  King of Macedonia from 305, age 53, dies of dropsy, leaving throne to eldest son Philip-IV, who dies of consumption within 2 months.  2 bros divide Macedonia at river AxiosALEXANDER-V takes west, ANTIPATER takes east until 294. 298 LEWH 90, RAH 379, bk, lvG, wikWD     298/7 CAH 7.1
297 B76 8-378, CAH 7.1-483, CDCC 847, DGRBM 1-620, 3-279, GHH, IDB 3-216, MCAW, MRDK, OCD 210, OHG, TAG 12, TTPC, atl3, frH, wikCas     296 DGRBM 1-202, GHH
c.297 Athenian DEMOCHARES, neph of Demosthenes, sent as envoy to Philip-IV. 297 atl3
296 DGRBM 1-973
c.297 URANOPOLIS Macedonia (location unknown) founded by Alexarchus son of Antipater. 297 atl3
c.297 MNESIDEMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 298, ends.  ANTIPHATES succeeds until 296. 297 wikEA
c.297 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes, boss of some scattered islands and cities, returns with a fleet to Greece at Attica.  His fleet is wrecked. 297 CAH 7.1, DGRBM 1-963, 3-584, TTPC 296 CAH 7.1-105
c.296 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes takes Aegina and Salamis islands, regains foothold in Greece. 296 B76 8-378, DGRBM
c.296 Athenian DEMOCHARES, neph of Demosthenes, sent as envoy to Antipater bro of Cassander. 296 DGRBM 1-973
c.296 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes defeats ARCHIDAMOS-IV Eurypontid king of Sparta 305-275. 296 DGRBM 1-268
c.296 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes tries to blockade Athens, fails, rushes to the Peloponnese. 297 DGRBM, GHH
296 CAH 7.1-105, DGRBM 2-700
c.296 ANTIPHATES, eponymous archon of Athens from 297, ends.  NICIAS succeeds until 295. 296 wikEA
c.296 ATHENS, independent 307-294, under moderates from 301, LACHARES - a popular leader and friend of Cassander, makes himself supreme, then becomes an oppressive tyrant until 295. 299 atl3
296 DGRBM 2-700, wikD1M
296/5 TAG 43
295 CAH 7.1
no date: LEWH 90
c.296 Lachares, boss of Athens, makes the very mention of negotiating with Demetrius-I Poliorcetes punishable by death. 297 DGRBM 2-700
c.296 Opponents of Lachares, led by general Charias, are condemned to death by Athenians. 297 atl3
c.296 Athena ParthenosATHENA PARTHENOS statue in the Partenon from 438 is stripped of its gold plates by Lachares, to pay his troops, and replaces them with bronze.  See 165. 296
wikAθP


Drawing pub dom
c.296 DEMOCHARES, neph of Demosthenes, equiping Athens with provisions from 298, makes alliance with the Boeotians, for which he is banished by the anti-democratic party until 287. 296 DGRBM 1-973, DGRBM 2-700     296 or 5 wikDmc
c.295 BARDYLIS-II, son of Cleitos, becomes king of Dardanians until 290. 295 wikBrd2, wikLRI
c.295 NEOPTOLEMUS-II, son of Alex-I, former king of Molossia 330-13, king of Epirus from 302, with Pyrrhus from 297, killed at a banquet by PYRRHUS, who continues 297-72, now over a united Epirus. Epirus 296 CDCC 736, DGRBM 2-238 295 DGRBM 3-610, MCAW, MRDK, TAG 58, atl3, lvG, rcSB2
c.295 PYRRHUS, king of Epirus 297-72 marries LANASSA, dau of King Agathocles of Syracuse until 291.  Island of CORCYRA, under Syracuse from 300, is her dowry, and is under Pyrrhus until 291. 303 B76 8-378
297 Agθ 213
295 CAH 7.1-407, 7.2, atl3, wikPyr
c.295 THESSALONICE, widow of Cassander, mother of Antipater, murdered by son Antipater because she favored his younger bro Alexander-V, who then seeks aid of Pyrrhus and Demetrius-I against bro Antipater. 294 atl3
c.295 PYRRHUS, king of Epirus 297-72, receives a part of Molossia that had been conquered by Philip II: including Parauaia, Tymphaia, Acarnania until 283/2, Amphilochia. 295 B76 VIII-326
294 CAH 7.2, atl3, lvG
no date: OCD 903
c.295 NICIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 296, ends.  NICOSTRATOS succeeds until 294. 295 wikEA
c.295 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes with a large fleet besieges Athens where Cassander's man Lachares is in command, loses part of his fleet in a storm. 296 DGRBM, GHH
295 CAH 7.1-105, TAG 12, atl3
c.295 150 Ptolemaic ships try to break DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes siege of Athens and fail. 295 CAH 7.1-105, TAG 12, atl3
c.295 PIRAEUS, port of Athens, taken by DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes.  Its citadel Munychia is garrisoned until 287. 295 CDCC 104
c.295 ATHENS, under tyrant LACHARES from 296, taken by DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes, who now has control of nearly all Greece until 288.  Oligarchy set up until 288. 295 CDCC 267, DGRBM 1-963, GHH, LEWH 90, RAH 379, TToH, TTPC     294 B76 8-378, early CAH 7.1-105, TAG 13, atl3, wikD1M
c.295 MESSENE in Peloponnese besieged by DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes, who is injured in battle and forced to withdraw. 295 TAG 13, 68, atl3
c.295 LACHARES escapes from Athens to Thebes. no date: DGRBM 2-700
c.295 Philosopher, geographer DICHAEROS measures height of Greek mountains. 295 atl3
c.295 Megarian philosopher, dialectician STILPO is expelled from Athens after a blasphemous remark about goddess Athene. 295 atl3
c.295 Megarian philosopher, dialectician STILPO dies. 295 atl3
c.295 EPICURUS, in Athens 306-270, writes 28th Book of  About Nature . 295 atl3
c.295 THEOPHRASTOS of Eresos, head of Lyceum 322-295, writes  Natural History of Plants .  Describes over 550 plants. 300-291 TTS
c.295/4 PHAIDROS of Sphettos, Athenian oligarch, joins Demetrius-I. 295/4
TAG 94
c.295/4 PHILLIPIDES, Athenian comedy writer, moderate fence sitter, finding a moderate position no longer tenable, joins the nationalists. 295/4? TAG 95
c.294 PYRRHUS, king of Epirus 297-72, exploits Macedonian dynastic quarrel to invade Macedon, supposedly on side of younger bro Alexander-IV.  Older bro Antipater, flees to Lysimachus 295 B76 VIII-326
294 CAH 7.2, GHH, atl3, lvG
no date: OCD 903
c.294 EpirusAMBRACIA, under Macedonia from 343, ceded to Pyrrhus of Epirus, who makes it capital of Epirus until ?.  Under Epirus until 229. 295 wikPyr 294 B76 I-548, CAH 7.2, OCD 51, rcSB2
c.294 NICOSTRATOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 295, ends.  OLYMPIODOROS succeeds until 292. 294 wikEA
c.294 DEMETRIUS-I goes from Athens to Peloponnese.  During all this time Ptolemy-I has been robbing him of Cyprus, Seleucus of Cilicia, and Lysimachus of the Ionian towns he still held. 294
CAH 7.1-105, DGRBM
c.294 PTOLEMY-I intensifies his contacts with Athens. 294 lvPt1
c.294 DEMETRIUS-I defeats Spartan king Archidamus-IV near Mantinea, and attacks Sparta. 294 atl3
c.294 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes, honcho in Greece, leaves son Antigonus Gonatas in charge of Greece, and goes to Macedonia until 292, supposedly to help Alexander against his older bro Antipater.  Alexander receives Demetrius courteously, but says he no longer needs help. fall 294
CAH 7.1-105, DGRBM 3-611, GHH
c.294 ThessalyDEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes, accompanied by Alexander of Macedonia go together to Larissa Thessaly, where Alexander is murdered, and his army proclaims Demetrius king of Macedonia. 294 GHH, fall TAG 13
c.294 MACEDONIA, under ALEXANDER-V in west and ANTIPATER in east from 297, taken by DEMETRIUS-I, who has himself proclaimed king of Macedon by his army until 288.  ALEXANDER-V is murdered and ANTIPATER-II flees to Lysimachus. 294 B76 8-378, CAH 7.1-483, CDCC 267, DGRBM, IDB 3-216, LEWH 90, MCAW, MRDK, RAH 379, TAG 5, 13, atl3, bk, frH, lvG, wikA2M, wikD1M, wikWD     293 GHH 286 atl3
c.294/3 Olympiodoros is eponymos archon.  In this year an attempted union of parties miscarries, and Olympiodoros is not again active till Demetrius-I falls. 294/3 TAG 95
c.294/3 Stratokles, partisan of Demetrius-I, moves a decree in honor of another moderate oligarch, Philippides of Paiania, who had been active under the late government. 294/3 TAG 43
c.293 Demetrius-I marches from Macedonia into Thessaly. 293 TAG 37
c.293 THESSALY comes under control of Demetrius-I. 293 atl3
c.293 Demetrius-I invades Boeotia, and makes a treaty on moderate terms with the Boeotians. 293
TAG 39
c.293 CLEONYMOS, Spartan noble, marches north with army, inspires Boeotians to rebel against Demetrius-I, who then marches to face him.  Cleoymos withdraws. 293
OCD 251, TAG 40
c.293 BOEOTIA comes under control of Demetrius-I until 292, under Antigonids until 280. 293 atl3
c.293 MolossiaDEMETRIAS Magnesia, founded as an amalgamation of small towns (Nelia, Pagasae, Ormenion, Rhizos, Sepias, Olizon, Boebe, and Iolcos) by Demetrius-I.  Fortified. 293
CAH 7.1, OCD 324, atl3
290
DGRG 1-769
c.293 THEBES, encouraged by Spartan noble Cleonymos, rebels against Demetrius-I Poliorcetes. 293 atl3     292 GHH
c.292 LYSIMACHUS king of Thrace 305-281, ruler of Anatolia 301-?, and his son Agathocles, cross north over Danube, both captured by Dromichaites, chief of the Thracian Getae.  Soon released. 293 CAH 7.1     292 B76 2-615, DGRBM 1-65, 2-869, DGRG 1-742, OCD 632, TAG 40, atl3
291 DGRBM, GHH
c.292 OLYMPIODOROS, eponymous archon of Athens from 294, ends.  PHILIPPOS succeeds until 291. 292 wikEA
c.292 Hieronymus of Cardia, the historian, appointed governor of Boeotia by Demetrius-I Poliorcetes. 293 TAG 40, 245
292 DGRBM 2-458
c.292 ATHENS:  Exiles are allowed to return.  Demetrius-I , now besieging Thebes, issues a general amnesty recalling friends of Cassander, the old oligarchs who had been exiled 307.  Immediately the democrats fall away from Demetrius.  Demochares rebuffs the amnesty and remains in exile.  This leaves Demetrius nothing but Stratokles and the rump of the party.  Two new parties form:  a Nationalist party, of old democrats, and a party of king's friends, i.e. pro-Macedonians. 293/2
TAG 44, 46
292 atl3
c.292 Aetolians rebel against DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes. 292/1 CAH 7.1-105
c.292 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes, honcho in Greece, king of Macedonia 294-88, campaigning in Boeotia, learns that Lysimachus had been captured.  Hoping to seize Lysimachus's lands, Demetrius turns over forces in Boeotia to son Antigonus Gonatas until 280 and marches north. 292 wikA2G
fall 294
CAH 7.1-105
c.292 Boeotians rebel, but are defeated by Antigonus Gonatas, who bottles them up in Thebes until 291. 292 TAG 40, wikA2G
c.292 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes, marching toward Thrace, learns that Lysimachus had been released, and that Boeotia had rebelled.  Returns south to Boeotia, finds his son in control of things, joins him at the siege of Thebes. 292
TAG 40
292/1
CAH 7.1-105
c.292 Menander refuses invitations to travel to courts of Macedonia and Egypt. 292 atl3
c.292 Lynceus, bro of historian Duris, wins against Menander in a competition for comic poets. 292 atl3
c.292 PYRRHUS, king of Epirus 297-72 married to Lanassa 295-91, now marries 2 more women, a dau of Audoleon, and BIRCENNA, dau of his ally Bardylis-II king of Dardanians to increase his power in southern Illyria. 292 atl3, wikBrc
c.292 AGATHOCLES, son of Lysimachus, marries LYSANDRA, dau of Ptolemy-I and widow of Alexander-IV. 292 atl3
291 DGRBM 2-863
c.292 Athenian New Comedy dramatist MENANDER, author of more than 100 comedies, dies.  Provided a brief respite from reality, and an accurate but not detailed picture of life.  About fears and foibles of ordinary men, personal relationships, family life and social mishaps rather than politics and public life.  Only  Dyskolos , has survived almost entirely. 293/2 CAH 7.1
292 B76 VI-781, CDCC 571, atl3
291 DGRBM, GHH
290 wikMnn
c.292 DINARCHOS, Athenian speech writer, exiled in Chalcis from 307, thru intercession of Theophrastos, allowed to return to Attica, lives in the country with former associate, Proxenus, whom he soon accuses of robbing him. 292
DGRBM 1-950, GHH, OCD 344, atl3, wikDnr
c.291 While Demetrius & Antigonus besiege Thebes, PYRRHUS, king of Epirus 297-72 tries to divert them by invading Thessaly. 292/1 TAG 41
291 DGRBM
c.291 PYRRHUS in Thessaly 291, driven out by Demetrius-I PoliorcetesPyrrhus returns to Epirus.  Demetrius returns to Thebes. 291 DGRBM 3-611, GHH, TAG 41, atl3
c.291 Demetrius & Antigonus have a 9 story ironclad 8 wheel siege tower named "Taker of Cities".  Each floor has portholes for discharging missiles, these are protected by mechanically controlled ports made of leather bags stuffed with wool, impervious to stones thrown from catapults.  It is moved by 3,400 men, and took a month to travel a furlong. 291 TAG 41
c.291 DINARCHOS, Athenian speech writer, dies in Athens. 291 wikDnr
c.291 THEBES, besieged by DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes and ANTIGONUS Gonatas, from 292, falls to Demetrius-I.  He executes only 13 and banishes a few others; but Thebes is under Macedonia and strongly garrisoned. 292 DGRBM
291 atl3, wikA2G, wikD1M
290 DGRBM 1-964, 3-611, GHH
c.291 PHILIPPOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 292, ends.  CHARINOS succeeds until 290. 291 wikEA
c.291 Zeno of Citium, in Athens 313-263, sets himself up as an independent philosophy teacher. 291 atl3
c.291 LANASSA, dau of Agathocles of Syracuse, wife of PYRRHUS of Epirus from 295, leaves Pyrrhus, goes to Corcyra (which had been her dowry), and offers herself and Corcyra to Demetrius-I Poliorcetes, who accepts both but will lose Corcyra in 287. 291
CAH 7.1-408, wikD1M, wikLns 290 atl3
289 GHH
c.291/0 CORCYRA, under Pyrrhus of Epirus from 295, comes under DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes, who marries Lanassa, and continues fighting Pyrrhus until 288. 291/0 B76 8-378, CAH 7.1-106, 7.2, wikLns
289 DGRBM
c.290 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes goes to Corcyra until later 290. spring 290 TAG 48
c.290 AGATHOCLES of Syracuse, in Italy 297-89, sends his son to arrange alliance with DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes. 290 CAH 7.1,
TAG 48     289 atl3
c.290 CHARINOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 291, ends.  AMBROSIOS succeeds until 289. 290 wikEA
c.290 BARDYLIS-II, son of Cleitos, king of Dardanians from 295, ends.  MONUNIUS-I succeeds until 270. 290 wikBrd2, wikLRI
c.290 LEUCAS Island west of Acarnania, in Acarnanian League from 314, comes under Epirus until 283/2. 290 rcSB3
c.290 AETOLIAN LEAGUE, dormant from 300, revived to counter DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes.  Meetings held at shrine of Zeus Homarios outside Aegion until 255.  Exists until 146. 290 LEWH 91
280 rcSB3
279 Dur 2-560, MCAW
c.290 DELPHI, independent from 346, occupied by Aetolian League until 191.  Aetolians use their authority over Delphi to fortify the passes and exclude all adherents of Demetrius-I, including Athenians, from Pythian games of 290. 290 bk,
TAG 48, wikAL
285 rcSB3
c.290 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes in Corcyra 290, goes to Athens, brings Lanassa with him.  She wants to participate in the Eleusinian Mysteries.  They enter Athens as the divine pair Demeter and Demetrius, and are given divine honors.  Since they are banned from Delphi, Demetrius-I orders Pythian games to be celebrated in Athens. mid 290 GHH, TAG 48
c.290 EpirusDODONA Epirus, location of the temple of Zeus Naos, made religious capital by Pyrrhus, who begins a building project. 290 wikDd
c.290 PYTHIAN GAMES, normally held in Delphi, held at Athens by Demetrius-I Poliorcetes. 290 DGRBM atl3
c.290 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes in Athens 290, returns to Macedonia until 289. 290 TAG 49
c.290 THEBES, under Macedonia from 291, independent until ?, in Aetolian League until 197. 290 rcSB3
c.290 HERACLEIDES put in charge of Macedonian garrison in Athens by Demetrius-I Poliorcetes. 290 DGRBM 2-388
c.290 THEODOROS the atheist of Cyrene flourishes.  At some point he is banished from Cyrene to Greece. 340-250 CHHΦ, wikθA
c.290 TIMAEOS (Timaios), exile from Syracuse, flourishes in Athens.  Compiles a list of Olympic victors.  He is 1st historian to date events by Olympiads.  See Hippias of Elis 400. 264 DGRA 833 260 DGRA 281
no date:
CDCC 193
c.290







c.290
EPICURUS, in Athens from 306, flourishes.  Wrote  The Kyriai .  3 letters survive:  to Herodotus, to Pythocles, to Menoeceus.

METAPHYSICS:  All is material, including gods and souls.  No afterlife exists.  Endorsed Atomic theory of Democritus.

THEOLOGY:  Not quite an atheist:  "There are gods, but what the multitude believes of them is not true, because it changes."  Gods did not create, and do not control the world.  "The gods either can take away evil and will not, or be willing to do so and can not.  If they have the will to remove evil and cannot, then they are not omnipotent.  If they can, but will not, they are not benevolent."

VALUES:  Happiness, defined as absence of annoyance, is the highest good.  Chief obstacle to happiness is senseless fear of gods and death.
300
MNDQ 259, 364, 382, 468, 626, 738
no date: B76 6-915, BNTH 41
c.290 Λ FREE WILL asserted to exist by EPICURUS:  "...some things happen of necessity, others by chance, others through our own agency.  ...necessity destroys responsibility and chance is inconstant;  whereas our own actions are autonomous, and it is to them that praise and blame naturally attach." Letter to Menoeceus 133
c.289 LYSIMACHUS of Thrace marries AMASTRIS, regent of Heraclea Pontica, giving him greater power against Byzantium. 289
TAG 117
c.289 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes, honcho in Greece invades Aetolia, ravages the country almost without opposition. 289 DGRBM 3-611
c.289 Pantauchus, general of Demetrius, left in Aetolia with a large force to defend against Pyrrhus of Epirus, while Demetrius-I invades Epirus. 289 DGRBM 3-114, 611
c.289 Pantauchus, general of Demetrius-I, routed and seriously wounded in single combat by Pyrrhus of EpirusPantauchus drops out of history.. 289 DGRBM 3-114, atl3
c.289 PYRRHUS, king of Epirus 297-72, defeats forces of DEMETRIUS-I in Aetolia. 289 CAH 7.2
c.289 New Comedy dramatist POSIDIPPOS begins to exhibit dramas. 293 GHH     289 DGRBM 3-505
c.289 AMBROSIOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 290, ends.  ARISTON succeeds until 288. 289 wikEA
c.289 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes in Aetolia 290, returns to Macedonia, gets sick. 290/89
TAG 50
c.289 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes, honcho in Greece, king of Macedonia 294-88, by haughty and luxurious lifestyle, makes himself unpopular with his subjects.  He claims to be the only true king. 289 atl3
c.288 early PYRRHUS, king of Epirus 297-72, takes advantage of an illness of Demetrius-I to invade (40km west of Pella).  Pyrrhus advances as far as Edessa without opposition. 288 early DGRBM 3-611
c.288 COALITION against DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes formed by PYRRHUS, LYSIMACHUS, SELEUCUS-I, and PTOLEMY-I.  Probably the coalition is also joined by Audoleon, king of PaeoniaLysimachus is to invade Macedonia from the east and Pyrrhus from the west, while Ptolemy is to sail his fleet to Athens and try to raise GreeceSeleucus apparently has no part in the plan. 289/8 TAG 92 288 DGRBM 3-772, atl3 287 DGRBM 3-584
c.288 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes, while dangerously ill, attacked from the west by PYRRHUS of Epirus and from the east by LYSIMACHUS of Thrace, supported by fleet of Ptolemy-I & Seleucus-I. 288 B76 8-378, 15-181, CAH 7.1, LEWH 90, TTPC, bk, lvG, wikA2G, wikD1M
287 CAH 7.1
c.288 PYRRHUS, king of Epirus 297-72 driven out of Macedonia by DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes. 289 DGRBM 3-611, atl3
c.288 AMPHIPOLIS Macedonia under Demetrius' man Andragathus from ?, treacherously surrendered to Lysimachus. 288 atl3
287 DGRBM 1-170
c.288 ARISTON, eponymous archon of Athens from 289, ends.  CIMON succeeds until 287. 288 wikEA
c.288 PTOLEMAIC SHIPS appear off coast of Greece. 288 TAG 92
287 spring DGRBM 3-611
c.288 ATHENS:  At sight of Ptolemaic ships, the nationalist party overthrows the existing oligarchic government. spring 287 CAH 7.1-108
c.288 ATHENS, under oligarchy from 295, comes under nationalist democracy until 281. 288 TAG 295 287 CAH 7.1
c.288 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes, honcho of Greece from 295, king of Macedonia from 294, troops desert to Pyrrhus.  Flees from Macedonia.  PYRRHUS and LYSIMACHUS partition Macedonia.  Pyrrhus rules his part until 284. 288 B76 8-378, 15-181, CAH 7.1-483, DGRBM 3-24, LEWH 90, TAG 5, TTPC, atl3, bk, frH, lvG, wikA2G, wikD1M
287 BHS 1-65, CAH 7.1, DGRBM 1-189, 2-869, GHH
c.288 ATHENS, under Demetrius-I from 295, taken by Ptolemy-I, king of Egypt 305-283, but Demetrius-I retains the Piraeos. 288
B76 8-378
c.288 A few Athenians under Olympiodoros expel Demetrius-I's garrison from the Piraeos.  [Probably BS] 288 DGRBM 3-24
c.288 PHILA-I, dau of Antipater, widow of Craterus 321, wife of DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes from 320, mother of Stratonice-I, Antigonus-II, suicides at Cassandria. 288 lvΦ1
287 DGRBM 3-260, wikPdA
c.287 DEMOCHARES, neph of Demosthenes, exiled from 296, recalled to Athens.  Demochares is a passably honest man; one of the few democrats who had never served under any other form of government.  His sphere is finance, his policy retrenchment. 288/7 OCD 327,
TAG 93
287/6 DGRBM 1-973, wikDmc     286 atl3
c.287 CORCYRA Island, under Lanassa of Syracuse from 295, independent until 281. 287 rcSB3
c.287 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes, former king of Macedonia 294-88, with only 11,000 mercenaries and a few cav left, puts son ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas in charge of Greek holdingsSails to Miletos to attack Caria and Lydia, provinces of Lysimachus. 287 BHS 1-65, DGRBM 1-189, 964, OCD 69, 325, TAG 100, lvG, lvPt1, wikA2G, wikWD
c.287 ATHENS, now that Demetrius-I Poliorcetes is gone, sends envoys to various kings.  Philippides is sent to his friend Lysimachus, others to Audoleon of Paeonia and Spartokos of the Crimea, all to say Athens is free, and to ask help to maintain that freedom and recover Piraeus and the other forts.  Spartokos sends a little grain; Audoleon less, and some promises; Lysimachus sends his compliments, and says Philippides behaved nicely. 287
GHH, TAG 101
c.287 CIMON, eponymous archon of Athens from 288, ends.  XENOPHON succeeds until 286. 287 wikEA
c.287 HIEREISTON SOTERON, the priesthood of the divine Demetrius-I Poliorcetes from 307, is abolished. 287 DGRA 606
c.287 AGATHOCLES, son of Lysimachus, sent to Anatolia to fight Demetrius-I Poliorcetes, and recover possessions in Lydia and Caria.  Unsuccessful. 287 DGRBM 1-65
c.287 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas honcho of Greece 287-83, gets control of Demetrias, Chalcis, Corinth, Piraeus. 288/7
B76 8-378
c.287 MUNYCHIA hill fortress in Piraeus, garrisoned by Demetrius-II Poliorcetes from 295, now under Antigonus-II Gonatas until 271/0. 287 DGRG 1-307, atl3
c.287 LYSIMACHUS king of Thrace until 281 invades east Macedonia. 287 DGRBM 3-611
c.287 Northeast Macedonia annexed by LYSIMACHUS king of Thrace until 281. 287 B76 1-991, GHH
no date: B76 8-378, OCD 69
c.287 PYRRHUS king of Epirus invades south provinces of Macedonia, holds them until 285. 287 DGRBM 3-611
c.287 THEOPHRASTOS of Eresos, head of Lyceum from 322, dies.  He denied the existence of any god out of the material universe, and said every particle of matter has a plastic and seminal power, but without sensation or intelligence; and that life, sensation, and intellect, are forms and accidents of matter.  Pupil STRATO of Lampsacus succeeds to 270. 288 BNTH 49, DGRBM 3-924, Dur 2-555, EoΦ 8-99     288/7 B76 10-1093 287 B76 IX-940, CAH 7.1, CDCC 881, DGRBM, OHG, wikθΦ     287 SHWC 96     288-85 OCD 1058
286 atl3
c.287 Writings of ARISTOTLE & THEOPHRASTOS bequeathed to Neleus of Scepsis in the Troad.  Kept in a cellar until 100. 287 Dur 2-601
no date: B76 1-1165, OCD 115
c.286 ChersoneseLYSIMACHIA in northwest Chersonese, founded 308, damaged by earthquake. 287 wikLT 286 atl3 283 GHH
c.286 DEMOCHARES, neph of Demosthenes, administers Athenian finances, reduces expenditure. 287/6 DGRBM 1-973
c.286 DEMOCHARES is Athenian envoy to Lysimachus, asks for food.  Lysimachus sends 30 talents.  Demochares is sent back to ask for more.  He now extracts 100 talents from Lysimachus and 20 more from his son-in-law, Cassander's son Antipater-II. 286 TAG 101-2
c.286 ANTIPATER-II, son of Cassander dies. 287 frH
c.286 DEMOCHARES is now sent to Ptolemy and comes back with 50 more talents. 286
TAG 102
c.286 XENOPHON, eponymous archon of Athens from 287, ends.  DIOCLES succeeds until 285. 286 wikEA
c.286 LYSIMACHUS king of Thrace sends envoy to Pyrrhus asking him to break the treaty he had just made with Demetrius-I and to attack Antigonus-II. 286
TAG 102
c.286 PIRAEOS, under Antigonus-II Gonatas 287-71/0: Athenians try and fail to recover it. 286 atl3
c.286 ELEUSIS, cult center of Demeter in Attica, under Antigonus' garrison from ?, recovered by Athenian Demochares.  Defended by Olympiodoros against a Macedonian attack. 287/6
TAG 103
286 atl3
c.286 ARCESILAOS, pupil of Theophrastos from ?, defects to Platonic Academy. 286 atl3
c.286 Kingdom of PAEONIA (Vardar Valley area in north Macedonia, and west Bulgaria), vassal state of Macedonia from 358, comes under Celts until 284. 286 rcEB
c.286 AUDOLEON king of Paeonia from 315, ends.  Son ARISTON succeeds until deposed in 285. 286 wikPn
c.286 Garrisons of Demetrius-I in THESSALY are attacked by Pyrrhus of Epirus. 286 TAG 102, atl3
c.285 Ptolemy KERAUNOS, son of P-I by Eurydice, goes from Egypt to court of Lysimachus king of Thrace. 286 GHH
285 DGRBM 3-568
c.285 Possessions of ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas in THESSALY taken by PYRRHUS of Epirus.  Therefore LYSIMACHUS of Thrace breaks relations with Pyrrhus. 285
OCD 69
c.285 PYRRHUS of Epirus, ruler of south Macedonia from 288, driven out of Macedonia by Lysimachus, who rules Macedonia until 281. 287 DGRBM     286 DGRBM 1-189 285 BHS 1-69, CAH 7.1, atl3
284 lvG, wikPyr
c.285 THESSALY:  All except for Demetrias taken by LYSIMACHUS king of Thrace 305, north Macedonia 287-81. 285 B76 VIII-326, 8-382 BHS 1-69, OCD 632
283 OCD 903
c.285 Cynic philosopher CRATES of Thebes dies. 288-5 CHHΦ     285 atl3, wikCT
c.285 DIOCLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 286, ends.  DIOTIMOS succeeds until 284. 285 wikEA
c.285 Kingdom of Lysimachus reaches maximum extent with annexation of Macedonia. 285 CDCC 537
c.285 PYRRHUS now reverses policy and asks for alliance with Antigonus-II Gonatas against Lysimachus. 285
TAG 115
c.285 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas honcho of Greece 287-83, makes peace with PYRRHUS. 285 OCD 69 284 TAG 119
c.285 Aetolia, as friend of Pyrrhus, now becomes friend of Antigonus-II Gonatas. 285 TAG 211
c.285 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes, former king of Macedonia 294-88, captured in Cilicia by Seleucus-I Nicator king of Syria/Babylonia.  Detained in Apamea.  Treated well until death 283. 286 wikWD
285 B76 1-991, 8-378, 16-503, LEWH 90, wikA2G
c.285 Lysimachus sends message to Seleucus-I Nicator king of Syria/Babylonia, offers him 2,000 talents to kill Demetrius-ISeleucus declines. 285 BHS 1-69-70
Macedonia Thrace
c.285 Athens passes a decree honoring Lysimachus' friend Philippides, and, by implication, Lysimachus himself. 285
TAG 118
c.284 DARDANI, an Illyrian tribe, 1st appear as a united nation under a king. 284
OCD 313
c.284 Lysimachus spends the campaign season in Paeonia. 284 TAG 119
c.284 Kingdom of PAEONIA (Vardar Valley area in north Macedonia, and west Bulgaria), under Celts from 286, annexed by Lysimachus, under Thrace until 281.  Lysimachus brings young Ariston back to rule his kingdom as vassal until 283. 284
TAG 119, atl3
c.284 AETOLIAN LEAGUE opposes Macedonia. 284 GHH
c.284 DIOTIMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 285, ends.  ISAEOS succeeds until 283. 284 wikEA
c.284 EPIRUS invaded by Lysimachus. 284 atl3
c.284 ANTIGONUS-II sails his fleet to Piraeus and besieges.  Conflict with Athens until 282/1. 284
TAG 121
c.284 DIODOROS CRONOS, Megarian philosopher, dialectician, dies. 284 CHHΦ, OHG 425, wikDC
c.283 ARISTON, vassal king of Paeonia from 284, expelled by overlord Lysimachus, escapes to Dardanian court.  Paeonia is annexed to Thrace until 281. no date: TAG 119
c.283 Son of Antigonus-I Monophthalamus, DEMETRIUS-I POLIORCETES dies.  former king of Macedonia 294-88, prisoner of Seleucus-I from 285, dies of drink in Cilicia.  His son Antigonus-II Gonatas is in Greece. 284/3 OCD 69, TAG 122, wikWD
283 B76 III-456, 1-991, 8-378, CAH 7.1-483, DGRBM 1-189, IDB 1-815
c.283 ISAEOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 284, ends.  EUTHIOS succeeds until 282. 283 wikEA
c.283 After death of Demetrius-I, his son ANTIGONUS-II GONATAS, honcho of Greece from 287, takes title of king of Greece until 279. 283 B76 1-991, MCAW, OCD 69
c.283/2 ACARNANIA, under Pyrrhus from 295, taken by Lysimachus and freed.  Leucas island is restored to it.  Pyrrhus makes no attempt to recover either. 283/2 TAG 120
c.282 LYSIMACHUS king of Thrace 305, north Macedonia 287-1, south 284-1, persuaded by 3rd wife Arsinoe-II to execute AGATHOCLES, his son by previous wife Nicaea. 284 DGRBM 1-65, 366, GHH     283/2 CAH 7.1-427 282 lvA, wikWD
no date: B76 8-378
c.282 AGATHOCLES, son of Lysimachus & Nicaea, murdered by his father.  His widow Lysandra and bro Alexander flee to Seleucus-I in Anatolia. 284 DGRBM 1-65, 118, 366, GHH, wikAg     284-2 CAH 7.1-112     283 atl3
283/2 CAH 7.1-427   282 lvCr
c.282 LYSANDRA, widow of Agathocles son of Lysimachus, and her bro Ptolemy Keraunos (both kids of recently dead Ptolemy-I) flee to Seleucus-I, persuade him to go for Macedonia. 282 lvCr
no date: B76 8-378
c.282 DEMOCHARES, neph of Demosthenes, sent as ambassador to Lysimachus.  Gets 30 talents, later 100 talents. 282 DGRBM 1-973
c.282 EUTHIOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 283, ends.  NIKIAS succeeds until 281. 282 wikEA
c.282 Aetolians invade Peloponnese. 282 GHH
c.282 SICYON, under Demetrius Poliorcetes from 303, comes under local tyrants until 251. 300 atl4 282 rcPl
c.282 ATHENS receives 50 talents from PTOLEMY-I, king of Egypt 305-283. 282 DGRBM 1-973
c.282 Statue of Ptolemy-I Soter put up in Delphi by Athenians. 282 atl3
c.282 MUNYCHIA hill fortress in Piraeos, again taken by Antigonus-II Gonatas until 271/0. 282 atl3
c.282/1 Taras gives naval aid to Pyrrhus for recovery of Corcyra. 282/1 CAH 7.2
c.282/1 ANTIGONUS-II, in conflict with Athens from 284, makes peace. 282/1 TAG 127
c.281 CORCYRA Island, independent from 287, recovered by Pyrrhus aided by Taras, under Epirus until 255. 281 atl3, rcSB3 274 DGRG 1-671
c.281 LYSIMACHUS, king of Thrace 305-281, banishes all philosophers from his kingdom, punishes Telesphorus for an insult to his 3rd wife Arsinoe-II. 281 atl3
c.281 Lysimachus goes from Thrace to Ionia. 281 guess
c.281 LYSIMACHUS dies.  Satrap 323, king 305 of Thrace, ruler of Anatolia from 301, Macedonia from 285, defeated by SELEUCUS-I at CORUPEDIUM north of Sardis.  Killed in battle, age 80, leaving wife from 300 Arsinoe-II.  This is the last battle of 2 former officers of Alex-III. 282 B76 8-378     281 AΨΨ 99, 403, B76 16-503, Feb CAH 7.1-113, 483, CDCC 537, 804, DGRBM 1-366, 2-863, 870, 3-772, GHH, IDB 2-115, 3-733, LEWH 90, 93, MCAW, MRDK 262, OCD 632, OHG, RAH 379, Shaw 390, anan, bk, frH, lvA, lvPt1, rcSB2, lvS1, wikA2G, wikWD
c.281 ARSINOE-II, widow of Lysimachus, with sons Lysimachus Jr. and Philip, flee from Ephesus to Cassandria (formerly Potidaea Chalcidice). 281 DGRBM 1-366, 2-867, wikA2
c.281 SELEUCUS-I, king of Babylonia 305, ruler of Syria 301-281, in Anatolia from 282/1, crosses Hellespont, invades Thrace.  Main part of his army accompanies him and is stationed at Lysimachia. 282 B76 8-378
281 BHS 1-73, CAH 7.1-113, LEWH 93, lvS1
c.281 ChersoneseSELEUCUS-I dies.  King of Babylonia 305, ruler of Syria 301-281, co-king with son Antiochus from 292, stabbed to death by Ptolemy Keraunos in Lysimachia in Chersonese.
ANTIOCHUS-I Soter sole rule until 261.
282 IDB 4-267
281 B76 8-378, 16-503, BHS 1-73, CAH 7.1-413, GHH, Jud 3-73, LEWH 90, OCD 71, RAI2, RAI3, Shaw 390, atl3, bk, frH, lvA, lvS1 280 DGRBM 3-569, 772, IDB 1-149, LEWH 93, anan
c.281 GAULS under chief Cambaules raid into Thrace. 281 atl3
c.281 Italian city of TARAS, pressed by Rome, sends envoys to ask military aid from Pyrrhus of Epirus.  Taras promises him 350,000 inf and 20,000 cav.  Pyrrhus' Thessalian counsellor Cineas advises against giving aid. 281 B76 II-940, VIII-326, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-611, RAH 384, wikPyr
280 B76 8-382
c.281 PTOLEMY KERAUNOS, son of P-I Soter, bro of Lysandra, in Thrace from 285, usurps throne of Macedonia and Thrace until 279.  Only now is he named Keraunos "Thunderbolt".  Antigonus-II Gonatas also claims Macedonia. 281 B76 1-991, 8-379, CAH 7.1-483 GHH, TAG 129
280 DGRBM 3-569
c.281 PTOLEMY KERAUNOS, king of Macedonia and Thrace 281-79, to strengthen his position, solicits ½ sis ARSINOE-II for marriage.  Both of them have a claim on throne of Macedonia & Thrace  She declines.  Keraunos promises to adopt her sons, and make her queen of Macedonia, says he loves her, swears by Macedonian gods to have no wife but her.  In vain Arsinoe's eldest son Ptolemy warns her that Keraunos meant treachery. no date: TAG 134
c.281 PTOLEMY KERAUNOS, king of Macedonia and Thrace 281-79 marries ½ sis ARSINOE-II, widow of Lysimachus.  She is proclaimed queen in the presence of the army.  She opens the gates of Cassandria;  Keraunos enters and occupies the citadel. 281 wikA2
c.281 ARSINOE-II, wife of Ptolemy Keraunos, now away on a campaign, conspires against Keraunos with her sons Ptolemy, Lysimachus and Philip. 281 wikA2, wikPK
c.281 PTOLEMY KERAUNOS, king of Macedonia and Thrace 281-79, murders Lysimachus and Philip, 2 sons of sis/wife ARSINOE-II in her arms.  Her eldest son Ptolemy escapes north to the DardaniansArsinoe-II is banished to Samothrace island. 281 B76 8-379,
DGRBM 3-271, GHH
no date: AΨΨ 99, DGRBM 1-366, TAG 135, wikA2
c.281 NIKIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 282, ends.  OURIAS succeeds until 280. 281 wikEA
c.281 ATHENS, under nationalist government from 288, comes under pro-Macedonians until 2??. 281
TAG 295
c.281 AREOS-I king of Sparta 309-265, tries to free Delphi from Aetolians. 281 CDCC 74
c.281/0 PYRRHUS king of Epirus 298-72 allies with Ptolemy Keraunos, marries a dau of Ptolemy Keraunos. 281 atl3
281/0 wikPyr
c.280 A wave of Celts migrates to Balkans. 280 vrb
c.280 COTYS-II, son of Seuthes-III, king of Odryssians in Thrace from 300, ends.  Son RAIZDOS succeeds until 2??. 280 wikLRTD
c.280 ODROES and ADAEOS become kings of Odrysians in Thrace until 273. 280 frH, rcSB2
c.280 PYRRHUS king of Epirus 298-72, invited by Taras 281 to help them against Romans, gets the blessing of the oracle of Delphi, leaves son Ptolemaeos in charge of Epirus.  Supplied by Antigonus-II Gonatas with ships, by Antiochus-I with money, and by Ptolemy Keraunos with troops, Pyrrhus, 20,000 inf, 3,000 cav, 2,000 archers, 500 slingers, and 20 elephants (loaned by Ptolemy-II), sails for Taras.  He impatiently sails before the end of the stormy season, and loses most of his force.  He is in Italy until 278., and away from Epirus until 275. 280 CAH 7.1, 7.2-381, CDCC 736, DGRBM 2-372, 3-566, 612, GHH, OCD 927, OHG, atl3, bk, wikPyr
c.280 CINEAS the orator accompanies Pyrrhus. 280 GHH
c.280 EUHEMEROS, mythographer at court of Cassander flourishes.  Main work:  Sacred History .
Known for "Euhemerism", treating mythological accounts and characters historical events or persons shaped, exaggerated, or altered by retelling.
280
CAH 7.1 no date: wikEh
c.280 DOBROGEA (land between north turning of Danube as it approaches Black Sea, and Black Sea itself), under the Getae tribe from 300, comes under Thrace until 180. 280 rcEB
c.280 OURIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 281, ends.  TELECLES succeeds until 279. 280 wikEA
c.280 ATHENS, under pro-Macedonians from 281, comes under nationalist party.  Remains free and independent until 276. 280
TAG 218
c.280 DEMOCHARES, neph of Demosthenes, proposes a decree honoring Demosthenes, carefully worded so that no Antigonid is named.  It passes. 280 DGRBM 1-973 280/79 CAH 7.1, TAG 137
c.280 DEMOCHARES, neph of Demosthenes, induces Athenians to erect a STATUE of DEMOSTHENES in Athens with a suitable inscription. 280 DGRBM, GHH, OHG 457, wikDmc 279 atl3
c.280 CRATERUS-II, son of C-I, ½ bro of Antigonus-II Gonatas, appointed governor of Corinth and Peloponnese until 255 by Antigonus-II. 280 OCD 296
280/79 CAH 7.1-230
c.280 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Greece 283-39, sail with his whole fleet and his men on transports for Macedonia, but Keraunos intercepts him at sea with Lysimachus' old navy, and completely defeats Gonatas 280 OCD 69, spring TAG 131, atl3
c.280 2nd ACHAEAN LEAGUE formed around shrine of Zeus Homarios near Aegion, at instigation of Sparta, by union of Dyme, Pharai, Patrai, Tritaia.  Purpose: to free themselves of Antigonus Gonatas.  Completed 272.  Headed by 2 generals until 255. 281 OHG     280 B76 I-56, VII-800, 8-381, CAH 7.1-244, DGRBM 1-279, DGRG 1-15, GHH, LEWH 91,
OCD 3, atl3     279 MCAW
c.280 CERYNIA Achaea joins 2nd Achaean League. 280 DGRG 1-593
c.280 MACEDONIA, under Ptolemy Keraunos 281-79, invaded by Celts under BOLGIUS. 280 B76 8-379, BCoC 427,
CAH 7.1, Dur 2-555, GHH
279 OHG, TAG 147
c.280 AREOS-I king of Sparta 309-265, heading anti-Macedonian coalition, with permission of Amphictyons, instead of attacking Antigonus-II Gonatas in Boeotia, invades AETOLIA on the old religious pretext that they had occupied the Kirraean plain. 280 DGRBM 1-279, OCD 104, TAG 133
c.280 CIRRHA Phocis sacked and burnt by Areos-I king of Sparta. 280 DGRBM 1-279
c.280 Areos' Spartan army, caught scattered and plunder-laden, and defeated by Aetolians. 280
TAG 133
c.280 AETOLIAN LEAGUE allies with Antigonus-II Gonatas against Spartans. 280
B76 I-117
c.280 BOEOTIA, under Antigonus-II Gonatas from 292 rebels, regains independence. 280
TAG 132
c.280 MEGARA, under Macedonia from 338, independent until 265. 280 rcSB3
c.280 STILPO, Megarian philosopher, dies.  Interested in logic and dialectic, argued that the universal is fundamentally separated from the individual and concrete.  Teacher of Zeno of Citium. 280 CHHΦ, wikSt
c.280 CELTS under BRENNUS follow behind previous Celts under Bolgius.  Together they overrun Macedonia. 280 OCD 104
279 B76 1-191, GHH, MCAW, atl3, bk
c.279 20,000 Celts under Leonorius and Lutarius split off from main body under Brennus move into Thrace ravage land to Hellespont. 279 DGRBM 2-754, DGRG 1-927
c.279 PTOLEMY KERAUNOS, king of Macedonia and Thrace from 281, rejects an offer of help from the Dardani. 279 atl3
c.279 PTOLEMY KERAUNOS dies.  King of Macedonia and Thrace from 281, killed in battle by Celt invaders.  His head is carried on a spear to display to his troops.  Bro MELEAGER is made king by the army for 2 months. 280 BHS 1-136, CAH 7.1, DGRBM 2-1017, 3-569, DGRG 1-927
280/79 CAH 7.1-115
279 CAH 7.1-483, CDCC 541, GHH, OCD 179, LEWH 90, atl3, bk, frH
c.279 MELEAGER, king of Macedonia 2 months, deposed by his troops for incompetence.  Army now offers crown to ANTIPATER, son of Lysimachus, who succeeds 45 days. 279 DGRBM GHH, TAG 147, atl3, wikMl
c.279 AMPHISSA in Ozolian Locris, supplies 400 hoplites in the war against Brennus. 279 DGRG 1-127
c.279 ANTIPATER ETESIAS "king of the Dog-days", king of Macedonia 45 days, deposed by his troops for incompetence.  Non-royal Macedonian SOSTHENES, who proclaims himself general of Macedonians, but avoids title of king. 279 CDCC 541, DGRBM, GHH, OCD 179, LEWH 90, TAG 147, atl3, bk, wikMl
c.279 BRENNUS, chief of Celts defeats Sosthenes general of Macedonians. 279 atl3
c.279 Revolt in Macedonia under APOLLODOROS of Cassandria.  Part of the army joins in, helps the poor rob the rich. 279 DGRBM 1-233, Dur 2-559
c.279 Lachares, in Cassandria from ?, charged with trying to betray Cassandria to Antiochus-I, expelled by Apollodoros. 279 DGRBM 2-700
c.279 CASSANDRIA Chalcidice under Macedonia from 216, granted "freedom" by Eurydice. 279 atl3
c.279 TELECLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 280, ends.  ANAXICRATES succeeds until 278. 279 GHH, wikEA
c.279 Antiochus-I, king of Syria/Babylonia 281-61 supports Sparta. 279 TAG 160
c.279 Areos-I king of Sparta wants to resume war in against Aetolia, but several states refuse to follow him, partly because of his ties to Antiochus-I. 279 TAG 133, 160
c.279 BRENNUS, chief of Celts passes thru Thesaly. fall 279 TAG 148
c.279 CELTS invade Aetolia, surprise and destroy Gallium, commit atrocities. 279 DGRG 1-482
c.279 CELTS under BRENNUS invade Greece. 279 B76 1-991, BHS 1-136, CDCC 883, DGRBM 1-504, IDB 2-681, MCAW, OHG, vrb
c.279 TELESARCHOS, Syro-Macedonian with 500 men, sent by Antiochus-I to help Greeks defend Thermopylae against Celts under Brennus. 279 DGRBM 3-991
c.279 Boeotia sends 10,000 hoplites and 500 cavalry to Thermopylae. 279 TAG 69
c.279 CELTS under BRENNUS checked by Greek coalition at Thermopylae, sends a detatchment to Aetolia.  Aetolians withdraw from Thermopylae to defend.  Celts scatter Greeks at Thermopylae.  Telesarchos is killed defending a side pass over Mount Oeta.  Brennus is wounded.  Western Celt detachment is defeated by Aetolians. 280/79 CAH 7.1
279 B76 IX-949, 2-615, 8-379, BHS 1-136, DGRBM 3-991, OCD 179, RAH 386, atl3     278 wikA2G
c.279 CALLION Aetolia sacked by Celts. 279 atl3
c.279 ARGOS, SPARTA, and MEGALOPOLIS, under Antigonus-II Gonatas king of Greece 283-39, revolt. 279
B76 8-379
c.279 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas king of Greece 283-39 flees to Anatolia until 278. 279
B76 8-379
sails to Anatolia to attack Antiochus-I 279 TAG 161
c.279 DELPHI sacked by Celts.  Temple of Apollo attacked.  A combined Greek army defeats Celts near Delphi in a snowstorm.  Some devotees claim to have seen Apollo riding a whirlwind and directing the arrows of his lightning against the impious invaders.  A legend says Celts are turned back by a storm. 279 B76 2-615, 3-1074, 8-379, CAH 7.1-423, DGRG 1-763, 927, IDB 2-336, MCAW, OCD 179, 322, TAG 156, atl3
c.279 CLEANTHES of Assos arrives in Athens, becomes a pupil of Zeno of Citium, founder of Stoics. 279 atl3
c.279 Celt invasion after Delphi withdraws.  Pausanias says, "Madness from a god fell on them at night, and they attacked each other, no longer understanding one another's speech." Pausanias X:23:7
279 MOAR 312, MCAW, OHG 396
c.279 Cordistae Celts under Bathanatius split from Brennus withdraw to the Danube and settle. 279 DGRBM 1-474
c.279 CELTS routed by Aetolians, retreat north.  BRENNUS suicides to avoid capture.  Celts settle in Thrace and found the Celtic Kingdom of TILIS until 210.  Tylis is king until ?. 279 B76 II-254, 2-615, CAH 7.1-423, GHH, LEWH 90, OCD 179, OHG, atl3, frH
c.279 BYZANTIUM agrees to pay Celts under Leonorius and Lutarius yearly tribute of 3000, 5000, and 10,000 gold pieces, and at last 80 talents, on condition that their lands not be ravaged. 279 DGRG 1-658
c.278 LEON becomes king of Paeonia until 250. 278 wikPn
c.278 Antigonus-II Gonatas king of Greece 283-39, presently in Anatolia, invades Macedonia, and is defeated by Sosthenes. 278 wikSM
c.278 SOSTHENES, general of Macedonians from 279, dies.  ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas the only claimant to Macedonia, is presently in Anatolia.  2 years of anarchy ensue.  Pretenders are numerous:  Antipater, King of the Dog-Days, rules part of the country; possibly Arsinoe's son Ptolemy rules another. 279 DGRBM, GHH
278 TAG 167, atl3     277 wikSM
c.278 The SCORDISCI, a Celtic political unit, formed at the confluence of the Savus, Dravus, and Danube rivers.  They will soon be absorbed by the numerically superior natives, though the Celtic tribal name will survive. 278 wikSc
c.278 APOLLODOROS of Cassandria sets himself up as tyrant of Cassandria.  Among the most detestable of tyrants. 279 DGRBM 1-233, DGRG 1-560
278 atl3
c.278 ANAXICRATES, eponymous archon of Athens from 279, ends.  DEMOCLES succeeds until 277. 278 GHH, wikEA
c.278  PEACE SETTLEMENT  between ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas honcho of Greece, and ANTIOCHUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 281-61, who renounces claim to Macedonia.  They make a defensive agreement with against Ptolemy-III 278 CAH 7.1-256, OCD 69, 71, atl3 277 DGRBM 1-189
c.278 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas king of Greece 283-39, in Anatolia from 279, returns to Greece. 278 guess
c.278 BYZANTIUM forced to pay tribute to a band of Celts led by Comontorius. 278 GHH, atl3
c.278 Panatheneia games at Athens postponed until 274 because of Celt invasion. 278
TAG 218
c.278 PHOCIS joins Amphictiony until 222. 278 rcSB3
c.278 TROZEN in Peloponnese, under Craterus from ?, taken by Spartan noble Cleonymos, under Sparta until 272. 278 atl3
c.278 HIEROCLES placed by Antigonus-II Gonatas in command of Piraeus and Munychia. 278 DGRBM 2-452
c.277 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Greece 283-39, sails to Chersonese. Jan 277 CAH 7.1-117
c.277 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, operates in Thrace, tries to occupy it. spring 277 TAG 164
c.277 3 tribes of CELTS (Tectosagii, Trocmi, Tolistobogii) which had migrated into the Chersonese, ally with NICOMEDES-I king of Bithynia 279-50, invade Anatolia, now under Antiochus-I. 278/7 CAH 7.1-423 277 B76 8-381
c.277 DEMOCLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 278, ends.  ARISTONYMOS succeeds until 276. 277 wikEA
c.277 AEGION (Aegium) on coast of Achaea, expels Macedonian garrison. 277 DGRA 4
c.277 METRODOROS of Lampsacus, most distinguished disciple and friend of Epicurus, age 53, dies in Athens. 278/7 wikML 277 GHH, atl3
c.277 AMPHICTYONIC COUNCIL comes under control of Aetolians until ?, but continues to have its own separate meetings. 277 AΨΨ 83, CAH 7.1-230
c.277 ChersoneseANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Greece 283-39, ambushes and annihilates Celts under Cerethrius at LYSIMACHIA Chersonnese, then claims Macedonian throne, campaigns for support in Macedonia & Thessaly. 277 B76 1-991, CAH 7.1-117, 234, DGRBM 1-189, anan, atl3, bk, hifi
276 OHG
c.277 CASSANDRIA Chalcidice, under tyrant Apollodoros 278-6, besieged by Antigonus-II Gonatas until 276. 277 atl3
c.276 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Greece 283-39, at peace with Antiochus-I Soter from 278, marries PHILA, ½ dau of Stratonice-I, sis of Antiochus-I. 277 GHH     277/6 TAG 350 276 OCD 69, atl3     276/5 TAG 173     275 B76 I-423
no date: B76 1-991
c.276 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Greece 283-39, invites poets Aratus of Soli and Alexander of Aetolia to Macedonia, at time of his marriage to Phila. 276 atl3
c.276 Aetolia allies with Acarnania, a country friendly to Macedonia, which gives Aetolia the right to levy troops in Acarnania should necessity arise. 276
TAG 212
c.276 DOLOPIA region southwest of Thessaly siezed by Aetolians. 276 CAH 7.1
c.276 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Greece 283-39, master of Macedonia & Thessaly, proclaimed king of Macedonia until 239. 277 BCoC 427, CDCC 541, Dur 2-560, MCAW, atl3, frH, hifi     276 B76 1-991, 8-379, 381, BHS 1-144, IDB 3-216, LEWH 91, OCD 69, OHG 368
c.276 Poet ARATOS of Soli invited to court of Antigonus-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia, where he writes poem  Phaenomena  "Appearances".  1st half describes celestial phenomena.  2nd half is chiefly about weather lore.  Remains in Pella until 273. 276 wikArt 276/5
CAH 7.1
c.276 CASSANDRIA Chalcidice, under tyrant Apollodoros 278-6, besieged by Antigonus-II Gonatas from 277 falls.  APOLLODOROS dies. 276 atl3
c.276 ARISTONYMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 277, ends.  PHILOCRATES succeeds until 275. 276 wikEA
c.276 ZENO the Stoic invited to court of Antigonus-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia at Pella, declines because of old age, sends 2 of his students instead: Persaeus of Citium and Philonides of Thebes. 276
B76 1-992, wikPr
276 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia 276-39 still holds a few small places in the Peloponnese. 276
TAG 205
276 end ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia 276-39 has peace, except for persistent movement towards freedom in the Peloponnese. end of 276 TAG 173
c.276/5 ATHENS, under nationalist government from 280, comes under pro-Macedonians until 273/2.  Antigonus-II Gonatas is treated as a king until 273. 276/5
TAG 218

Balkan Peninsula 275-241
V