Asia Go to Balkans Go to Europe Go to Anatolia Go to Syria - Armenia Go to Mesopotamia Go to Persia Go to India Go to East Asia
c.300 West Ukraine (later Ruthenia), under proto-Dacians from 680, comes under La Tene Gauls until 200. 300 rcU
c.285 CASPIAN SEA explored by Patrocles, Seleucid governor of Babylon 312-?, who learns of Indian trade down the Oxus river, and thinks the Oxus & Jaxartes flowed into the Caspian.  Never reaches the north end.  Assumes that it flowed into a northern sea which linked with India. 285
OCD 210 790
c.285 Seleucid provinces MARGIANA and ARIA are invaded by nomads, who are then repelled beyond the Jaxartes. 290-80
B76 9-840
c.285 Scythians invade Crimea. 285 GHH
c.284 SPARTOCUS-III, Spartocid king of Panticapaeum in Crimea from 304/3, ends.  Son PAERISADES-III succeeds until 245. 284 DGRG 1-422, MRDK, OCD 1008, rcCrm
284/3 CAH 6-501, 503
c.280 Area presently called MOLDAVIA, northwest of Black Sea, under Scythians from 700, comes under La Tene Celts until 200. 280 rcEB
c.260 GANDAHAR, under Seleucids from 312, comes under Mauryans until 240. 260 rcCAS
c.260  ROCK EDICTS  of ASOKA at Kandahar written in Greek and Aramaic. 260 CAH 7.1
CONFUSION ALERT!  KANDAHAR is in Arachosia.  GANDAHAR is in Gandara.
Both western and Indian sources cite only 8 or 9 Greek kings of Bactria, but their coins bear at least 31 names of kings and 2 of queens.  Historians conclude that some names represent more than one king, thus increasing their number to 40 or more.  They cover a time-span of about 200 years with territories extending, at one time or another, from Sogdiana to the Punjab.  The only way the time and space can be rationalized is by assuming simultaneous rule of more than one king, not always belonging to the same family, sharing roles of power. CAH 8-394
c.256 BACTRIA, under Seleucids from 306, practically independent, but still nominally under Seleucids, until 250. soon after 261
CAH 8-393
256 rcCAS, rcCAW
c.256 OSHRUSANA, region in Transoxiana northeast of Markanda and south of Syr Darya river, comes under Bactria until 130. 256 rcCAW
c.256 SOGDIANA, under Seleucids from 301, comes under Bactria until 130. 256 rcCAW
c.256 MARKANDA, under Seleucids from 301, comes under Bactria until 130. 256 rcCAS
c.256 ARIA, under Seleucids from 301, comes under Bactria until 130. 256 rcCAS
c.256 DIODOTUS-I becomes Seleucid satrap of Bactria until 250. 256 CAH 8-420, frH, hifiB, rcCAS
c.256 HERAT, city and fertile region in northwest Afghanistan, under Seleucids from 301, comes under Bactria until 167. 256 rcCAS
c.254/3 PAERISADES-II, Spartocid king of Bosporus 284-45, sends an embassy to Ptolemy-II Philadelphus king of Egypt 285-46. 254/3
CAH 6-504
c.250 GEORGIAN SCRIPT created by PARNAVAZ-I ruler of Kartli 302-237. no date: wikΦ1
c.250 SOGDIANA, independence recognized by ANTIOCHUS-II Theos, Seleucid king of Syria/Babylonia 261-47. 250 B76 9-353, Dur 2-578
c.250 BACTRIA, under Seleucids from 309, nominally only from 256, under satrap Diodotus from 256, becomes independent Greek kingdom until 237.  DIODOTUS-I becomes king until 248.  Independence recognized by ANTIOCHUS-II Theos, Seleucid king of Syria/Babylonia 261-47, who is now busy with Ptolemy-II. 256 CAH 8-394, DGRG 1-365, MRDK, OHG 367, RPar 45, hifiB, rcCAS
256/5 B76 III-558, OCD 347
255 or 46 wikD1
250 B76 1-173, 9-353, CAH 7.1, DGRBM 1-196, Dur 2-578, GHH, LEWH 93, 96, vrb, wikGB, wikHCA     245 wikSE
c.250 PARNI, a tribe of Scythians, under brothers Arsaces & Tiridates, migrate from Sogdiana south across Oxus River into Bactria.  Parni remain independent until 245. 256-50 CAH 7.1
pre-250 CAH 9-575
250 RAI2 350, RAI3 418
c.250 DIODOTUS-I king of Bactria, tries to bring PARNI tribe, under his rule. 250
CAH 9-575
c.250 ARSACES becomes chief of PARNI tribe until 248. 255 TToH     pre-250 CAH 9-613, RAI2, RAI3, hifiE     247 TAWH 17
c.248 ARSACES, chief of the Parni from 250, ends.  Bro TIRIDATES-I succeeds as ARSACES-II until 211, independent until 245. 248 CAH 9-613, RAI2, RAI3 RPar 50     247 OCD 123, TAWH 70     217-11 B76 9-841
c.248 DIODOTUS-I dies.  King of Bactria from 256, dies.  Son DIODOTUS-II succeeds until 235. 248 CAH 8-420, CDCC 17, MRDK, OCD 347, frH, hifiB     243 GHH     240 wikGB     235 rcCAS
c.245 PAERISADES-II, son of Spartocus-III, 2nd Spartocid king of Bosporus from 284, ends.  Son SPARTOCUS-IV succeeds until 240. 245 CAH 6-503, MRDK, OCD 1008, rcCrm
c.245 ANDRAGORAS, Seleucid satrap of Hyrcania 2??-38, rebels. 245 B76 9-840, livB
c.244 Hyrcania siezed by Tiridates-I, chief of the Parni 248-11. 244 GHH
c.243 SELEUCUS-II Callinicus king of Syria/Babylonia 246-26 withdraws troops from eastern provinces. 243
RPar 53
c.240 SPARTOCUS-IV, 3rd Spartocid king of Bosporus from 245, killed by bro LEUCON-II, who succeeds until 220. 240 CAH 6-503, MRDK, rcCrm 215 OCD 1008
c.240 GANDAHAR, under Mauryans from 260, back under Seleucids until 200. 240 rcCAS
c.239 DIODOTUS-II, king of Bactria 248-34, rebels against SELEUCUS-II Callinicus, Seleucid king of Syria/Babylonia.  Sets up independent kingdom including Bactria, Margiana, Sogdiana, some of it lasting until 130. 239 B76 VII-767, 8-380, 9-840, CAH 7.1, OHG
c.238 TIRIDATES-I, chief of the Parni 248-11, migrates west from Bactria into Hyrcania. 238 B76 8-380, 9-840, OHG 367
c.238 ANDRAGORAS-I, Seleucid satrap of Hyrcania, killed by TIRIDATES-I, chief of the Parni 248-11, who becomes king.
ARSACID DYNASTY of PARTHIA begins in southeast Hyrcania until 224CE
.
240 Jud 4-37, PW 17 238 B76 8-380, 9-840, OHG 367
c.237 SELEUCUS-II Callinicus king of Syria/Babylonia 246-26, goes from Persia to invade Parthia. 238 GHH     237 wkbEA
c.237 DIODOTUS-II, king of Bactria 248-34, now threatened by Tiridates-I, re-submits to SELEUCUS-II Callinicus until 234. 237 CAH 7.1
no date: B76 9-841
c.237 PARNAVAZ-I ruler of Kartli (Georgia, east of Black Sea) from 302, dies.  Son SAURMAG-I succeeds until 162. 237 rcCau, wikΦ1 234 wikS1
c.235 DIODOTUS-II, king of Bactria 248-34, back under SELEUCUS-II Callinicus from 238, reverses policy.  Allies with Tiridates-I. 235 CDCC 17 234 B76 9-841
c.235 DIODOTUS-II dies.  King of Bactria from 248, killed by Seleucid satrap (possibly of Sogdiana) Euthydemos, EUTHYDEMOS succeeds until 223. 235 CAH 8-420, MRDK, OCD 158, 347, frH, hifiB, rcCAS     234 B76 9-841     230 wikGB     221 GHH
c.232/1 SELEUCUS-II Callinicus, Seleucid king of Syria/Babylonia 246-26, goes from Hyrcania to BACTRIA, quells remainder of Diodotus-II rebellion, in Asia until 230. 232/1
B76 9-841
c.232/1 TIRIDATES-I, chief of the Parni 248-11, in Hyrcania from 238, retreats north from Seleucus-II across Jaxartes River.  Hyrcania under Seleucus-II until 228. 232/1
B76 9-841
c.231 SELEUCUS-II pursues Tiridates-I beyond Jaxartes River.  Suffers losses.  Makes peace with T-I, who accepts him as sovereign. 231
B76 9-841
A chronology problem exists in the Seleucid withdrawal from Bactria and more westerly Parthia.  A "high" chronology, places at least the initial stage of the separation in the reign of Antiochus-II, and a "low" chronology, transfers these events to the period of the "War of the Brothers" between Seleucus-II and Hierax, 240/39-237. CAH7.1-213
c.230 SELEUCUS-II in Asia from 232/1, returns to Parthia. 230 guess
c.227 HYRCANIA, under Seleucus-II from 232/1 recovered by the Parni. 230-27 lvS2
c.225 KUNALA, son of Asoka, Mauryan emperor of west from 232, ends.  Son SAMPRATI succeeds in west until ?. 225 MRDK
c.223 EUTHYDEMOS, Seleucid satrap of Bactria from 235, rebels, sets up independent kingdom, rules until 200. 223 wikGB
212 CMoG2 296
c.220 LEUCON-II, son of Paerisades-II, 4th Spartocid king of Bosporus from 240, murdered by wife Alcathoe.  HYGIAENON succeeds until 200. 220 CAH 6-503, MRDK, rcCrm 215 OCD 1008
c.220 1st known contacts between China and the West.  Greek historian Strabo writes:  "they extended their empire even as far as the Seres (Chinese) and the Phryni". 220 hifiB, wikGB
c.210 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 chases Arsaces-II into Hyrcania. 212 GHH, HCIP 2-104
210 DGRBM 1-1020
c.210 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas defeats Arsaces-II and forces him to join against Euthydemos of Bactria. 211 GHH
c.209 Cretan mercenaries under Polyxedidas working for Antiochus-III Megas accompany him into Hyrcania. 209 DGRBM 3-471
c.208 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 marches east from Hyrcania 210 wikGB
209 wikA3
208 B76 III-1006, 1-993, 8-380, 9-841, BHS 2-21, CAH 8-141, HCIP 2-104, RAH 409, hifiB     207 GHH 206 livB
into Bactria, where Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemos-I had supplanted the original rebel.  They meet at the Arius riverAntiochus loses several teeth and a horse, but Euthydemos loses the battle and retreats to his capital, Bactra.  Antiochus besieges Bactra until 206.
c.206 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 besieging king EUTHYDEMOS in Bactra from 208, gets tired of siege, negotiates a peace.  Euthydemos gets to remain king, recognizes Seleucid suzerainty, cedes his war elephants and furnishes Antiochus' army with supplies.  Antiochus promises Demetrius, son of Euthydemos one of his own daughters in marriage. 207 B76 9-841, BHS 2-21, GHH
206 B76 8-380, CAH 8-142, frH, hifiB, wikGB
c.206 Sources mixed up Demetrius I, son of Euthydemus I, who was old enough in 206 to have been offered a Seleucid princess in marriage by Antiochus-III, and Demetrius II, the rex Indorum. 206
CAH 8-399
c.206 HYRCANIA is left under Parthia. no date: RPar 61
c.206 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 marches from Bactria southeast, crosses the Hindu-Kush into Cabul valley, renews friendship treaty (originated by Seleucus with Chandragupta) with hindu rajah SOPHAGASENOSAntiochus receives elephants & treasure. 206
B76 1-993, BHS 2-23, CAH 8-142, GHH, HCIP 2-102
A chronology problem exists in the Seleucid withdrawal from Bactria and more westerly Parthia.  A "high" chronology, places at least the initial stage of the separation in the reign of Antiochus-II, and a "low" chronology, transfers these events to the period of the "War of the Brothers" between Seleucus-II and Hierax, 240/39-237. CAH7.1-213
c.206 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 marches west from Cabul valley thru south part of his empire: Arachosia, Drangiana, Carmania, where he winters. 206 B76 1-993, BHS 2-23, CAH 8-142, RPar 61
c.205 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 marches west from Carmania into Persia. 205
B76 1-993, CAH 8-142

Asia 200-100
V