Ionia Go to Balkan Peninsula Go to Asia Go to Syria-Armenia Go to Mesopotamia Go to Levant Go to Mediterranean
ANATOLIA is now called ASIA (not Asia Minor) by Macedonians.  It is still called ANATOLIA here to avoid confusion with greater Asia.
c.300 CAPPADOCIA, under Antigonus-I from 332, comes under satrap ARIARATHES-II until 280, and under Seleucids until 260. 301 frH, rcT
post-301 OCD 107, 203
c.300 ARIARATHES-II, exiled from 322, recovers (possibly with Armenian help) Cappadocia, now separated from Pontus.  Ariarathes holds Cappadocia until 280, nominally under Seleucus-I. 301 rcT
post-301
OCD 107, 203
c.300 SELEUCIA TRACHEA on Calycadnus River in Cilicia founded by Seleucus Nicator. 300
IDB 4-263, lvA
CONFUSION ALERT!  There are 3 SELEUCIAs:  Trachea in Cilicia, Pieria on the Orontes, and on the Tigris.
c.300 LUWIAN LANGUAGE of Lycia, 1st attested 500, no longer attested. 300 wikLc
c.300 3rd Temple of Artemis3rd TEMPLE of ARTEMIS at Ephesus, begun 323, and bigger than the 2nd, finished.  137m long by 69m wide, and 18m high, with more than 127 columns.  This reconstruction survives for 600 years. 300 Dur 2-618



Photo of model: GNU FDL
c.300 Demetrius-I as ally of Ephesus makes war on Priene until 297. 300 CAH 7.1
c.300 Temple of Apollo at Didyma Ionia begun.  Remains incomplete 700 years later. 300 OHG 450
c.300 CASSANDER, LYSIMACHUS, & SELEUCUS make treaty confirmed by marriages.  Ptolemy's daughter Arsinoe-II marries Lysimachus (who must divorce Amastris, wife from 301).  Lysandra marries Lysimachus' son AgathoclesSeleucus marries Stratonice, age 16, dau of Demetrius-I. 300 CDCC 86, DGRBM 1-366, lvD, lvPt1, wikStr
299 GHH, lvA
299/8 B76 15-181, OCD 124
c.300 AMASTRIS, dau of Oxyartes, wife of Lysimachus from 302, divorced. 300 DGRBM 1-366
no date: DGRBM 1-137
c.299 CILICIA, under Pleistarchos from 301, taken almost without opposition by Demetrius-I, under him until 295Pleistarchos returns to bro Cassander and drops out of history. 300 DGRBM 3-412
299 BHS 1-232, LEWH 90     298 rcT
c.298/7 ZIPOETES (Ziboetes), prince of Bithynia from 327, declares self king of Bithynia until 279, but apparently remains vassal of Seleucus until 280.   Bithynia was never conquered by Alex-III. 298 OCD 734     298/7 B76 8-381, frH     297 BHS 1-98, CAH 7.1-63, anan, bk, wikLRB
297/6 CAH 7.1-425
c.297/6 Beginning of the Bithynian era.  Pontic era will be subsequently back-dated to this year. 297/6 CAH 7.1-425
c.296/5 CARIA, under Macedonia from 334, under Demetrius-I from 299, acquired by PTOLEMY-I until 272. 296/5 LEWH 96 294 rcT
c.296/5 EPHESUS, under DEMETRIUS-I ?, comes under LYSIMACHUS until 281.  Replanned, renamed ARSINOEA after his 2nd wife Arsinoe-II until 281. 296/5 OCD 387
c.295 LYCIA, under Macedonia from 334, under Demetrius-I from ?, siezed by PTOLEMY-I, dependency of Egypt until 272 or 240. 296/5 LEWH 96
295 rcT     294 lvPt1
c.295 PAMPHYLIA, under ?????? from 301, siezed by PTOLEMY-I, under Ptolemies until 272. 295 rcT 294 lvPt1
c.295 CILICIA, under DEMETRIUS-I from 299, taken by SELEUCUS-I, under him until 273/2. 296/5 LEWH 93     295 LEWH 90, anan     294 B76 8-378
c.295 Most of Ionia taken by Lysimachus until 281. 295 anan
c.292 SELEUCUS, king of Babylonia 305, ruler of Syria 301-281, makes son ANTIOCHUS-I co-king and gives him the eastern empire from the Euphrates to the Indian Ocean plus his own wife Stratonice-I, on whom Antiochus had developed a crush.  Seleucus takes evetything west of the Euphrates. 294 CAH 7.1, GHH
294/3 lvA1
293 DGRBM 3-772, MCAW 293/2 CDCC 804, OCD 71 292 lvS1
c.292 Lebedos and Colophon destroyed by Lysimachus.  Inhabitants relocated to Ephesus. 292 wikEΦ
c.290 EPHESUS under Lysimachus 296/5-281, (now called Arsinoea):  As the Cayster river silted up the harbor, resulting marshes caused the people of Ephesus to move to a new settlement 2km up river to Coressos and Pion. 290 wikEΦ
286-81
B76 6-905
c.290 TIMOCRATES of Lampsacus, elder bro of Metrodoros, best friend and most loyal follower of Epicurus, denies that pleasure is the supreme good of life, breaks from Epicureans. 290 wikEΦ
290 CHHΦ, wikTL
c.290 SAMES-I, becomes satrap of Commagene until 260. 290 frH, wikLrC
c.289 AMASTRIS, regent of Heraclea Pontica 305-284, marries LYSIMACHUS of Thrace. 289 TAG 117
c.287 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes, former king of Macedonia 294-88, with only a small mercenary force left, puts son ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas in charge of Greek holdings.  Sails to Miletos to attack Caria and Lydia, provinces of Lysimachus. 287 BHS 1-65, DGRBM 1-189, OCD 69, 325, lvG, lvPt1, lvG, lvPt1, wikA2G, wikWD
c.287 SARDIS taken by Demetrius-I Poliorcetes. 287 BHS 1-65
c.287 EURYDICE, wife of Ptolemy-I, and son, and dau Ptolemais leave Egypt, go to Miletos Caria. 287 CDCC 133
c.287 EURYDICE, dau of Antipater, wife of Ptolemy-I, but supplanted by Berenice-I, welcomes Demetrius-I Poliorcetes at Miletos.  Gives him her dau, Ptolemais (who had been promised him in 301) in marriage, though it will offend Ptolemy-I. 287 DGRBM 1-964, 2-110
c.287 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes, boss of some scattered islands and cities, and parts of Greece, makes alliance with PTOLEMY-I Soter king of Egypt 305-285.  Marries P-I's dau PTOLEMAIS. 296 B76 15-181 287 DGRBM 1-964, lvErd
c.287 COALITION against DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes formed by PYRRHUS, LYSIMACHUS, SELEUCUS-I, and PTOLEMY-I 288 DGRBM 3-772, atl3
287 DGRBM 3-584
c.287 AGATHOCLES, son of Lysimachus, sent to Anatolia to fight Demetrius-I Poliorcetes, and recover possessions in Lydia and Caria.  Unsuccessful. 287 DGRBM 1-65, 964
c.287 Writings of ARISTOTLE & THEOPHRASTOS bequeathed to Neleus of Scepsis in the Troad.  Kept in a cellar until 100. 287 Dur 2-601
no date: B76 1-1165, OCD 115
c.286 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes, in Anatolia from 287, attacks possessions of LYSIMACHUS of Thrace, then disease breaks out.  His army is now reduced by 8,000.  He gives up on Lysimachus. 286 B76 8-378 no date:
BHS 1-66
c.286 DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes, now with only 3,000 men, attacks Seleucid possessions. 286 B76 8-378 no date:
BHS 1-66
c.286 ZIPOETES, king of Bithynia 298/7-79, begins war with Lysimachus of Thrace. 286 GHH
c.286 MILETOS under Demetrius-I from ?, opens gates to a general of Lysimachus. 286 TAG 105
c.286 SOSIGENES is among the few still loyal to Demetrius-I Poliorcetes.  He gives Demetrius-I 400 gold pieces, with which he tries to reach the coast. 286 DGRBM 3-882
c.286 LYSIAS, general under Seleucus-I, sent to occupy passes of Mt. Amanos to prevent escape of Demetrius-I Poliorcetes. 286 DGRBM 2-864
c.285 DEMETRIUS-I POLIORCETES, former king of Macedonia 294-88, wants to march east, but troops refuse to follow, goes to Cilicia.  He writes to Seleucus asking for help, then gets sick.  Deserted by troops, heads west, captured by Seleucus-I Nicator king of Syria/BabyloniaDetained in Apamea Syria.  Treated well until death 283. 286 CAH 7.1-108, DGRBM 1-964, 3-772, GHH, MCAW
285 B76 1-991, 8-378, 16-503, LEWH 90, OHG, TTPC, anan, hifi, wikWD
c.285 Lysimachus sends message to Seleucus-I Nicator king of Syria/Babylonia, offers him 2,000 talents to kill Demetrius-ISeleucus is so miffed that he announces intent to restore Demetrius-I to the throne of Macedonia. 285 BHS 1-69-70
c.285 Rhodian admiral AGATHOSTRATOS defeats Ptolemaic fleet off Ephesus. 285 Shaw 398
c.284 AMASTRIS, dau of Oxyartes, regent of Heraclea Pontica from 305 for sons OXYATHRES and CLEARCHOS, murdered by them. 288 DGRBM 1-137, 366     284 wikOH
c.284 OXYATHRES and CLEARCHOS, tyrants of Heraclea Pontica from 305, both executed by Lysimachus, who makes himself master of Heraclea until 283. 286 DGRBM 2-869 285 DGRBM 3-75 284 wikOH
c.283 Heraclea Pontica, under Lysimachus from 284, given to his wife, Arsinoe-II until 281. no date: DGRBM 2-869
c.283 Son of Antigonus-I Monophthalamus, DEMETRIUS-I POLIORCETES dies.  Former king of Macedonia 294-88, prisoner of Seleucus-I from 285, age 55, dies of drink in Cilicia.  Remains sent to his son Antigonus-II Gonatas is in Greece. 284 GHH     284/3 OCD 69, wikWD     283 B76 III-456, 1-991, 8-378, CAH 7.1-108, 8, DGRBM 1-964, MCAW, OHG, frH, wikD1M
Macedonia Thrace
c.282 PHILETAEROS, gov of Pergamum 301-263, under Lysimachus 302-282, entrusted by Lysimachus with 9,000 talents. 283 IDB 3-733 282 Dur 2-578
c.282 ANATOLIA, under LYSIMACHUS of Thrace from 301, invaded by SELEUCUS-I Nicator, king of Babylonia 305, Syria 301-281, co-king with son Antiochus-I from 292. 282 B76 8-378, lvA 282/1 CAH 7.1-113
c.282 LYSANDRA, widow of Agathocles, and her bro Ptolemy Keraunos (both kids of recently dead Ptolemy-I) flee to Seleucus-I, persuade him to attack Lysimachus' Ionian possessions and then go for Macedonia. 282 lvA, wikA2G
no date:
B76 8-378
c.282 SMYRNA, under Lysimachos from 323, comes under Pergamum until 133. 282 rcT
c.282 PHILETAEROS, treasurer and gov of Pergamum 301-263, under Lysimachus from 301, defects to SELEUCUS-I, comes under Seleucids until death 263.  Pergamum comes under Seleucids until 263/2 282 B76 VII-939, 8-378, GHH, MCAW, OCD 814, anan, frH, hifi, rcT     281 CAH 7.1-208
c.281 Lysimachus goes from Thrace to Ionia. 281 guess
c.281 LYSIMACHUS dies.  Satrap 323, king 305 of Thrace, ruler of Anatolia from 301, Macedonia from 285, defeated by SELEUCUS-I at CORUPEDIUM north of Sardis.  Lysimachus is killed in battle, age 80, leaving wife from 300 Arsinoe-II.  This is the last battle of 2 former officers of Alex-III. 282 B76 8-378     281 AΨΨ 99, 403, B76 VI-420, 16-503, Feb CAH 7.1-113, 483, CDCC 537, 804, DGRBM 1-366, 2-863, 870, 3-772, GHH, IDB 2-115, 3-733, LEWH 90, 93, MCAW, MRDK 262, OCD 632, OHG, RAH 379, Shaw 390, TAG 128, anan, bk, lvA, lvPt1, lvS1, wikA2G, wikWD
c.281 ARSINOE-II, widow of Lysimachus, flees to Ephesus. 281 DGRBM 1-366
c.281 ARSINOE-II, widow of Lysimachus, flees from Ephesus to Cassandreia (formerly Potidaea Chalcidice). 281 DGRBM 1-366, wikA2
c.281 Most of ANATOLIA, under LYSIMACHUS from 301, taken by SELEUCUS-I, comes under SELEUCIDS until 189. 282 B76 8-378 281 LEWH 93
c.281 Bithynia and Pisidia still defy external control. 281 BHS 1-100
c.281 NICAEA Bithynia, under Lysimachus from 301, comes under Seleucids until ?. 281 guess
c.281 LYDIA, under Lysimachus from 301, comes under Seleucids until 190. 281 lvA
c.281 ANTOGNEIA TROAS under Lysimachus from 301, refounded as ALEXANDRIA TROAS until ?. 281 atl3
c.281 EPHESUS, under LYSIMACHUS from 296/5, and named ARSINOEA from 290, comes under SELEUCIDS until 263.  Renamed Ephesus. 282 rcT     281 B76 6-905, IDB 2-115, wikEΦ
c.281 HALICARNASSUS, under Lysimachus from 301, comes under Ptolemies until 197. 281 B76 IV-852
c.281 SELEUCUS-I, crosses Hellespont from Anatolia to Thrace. 282 B76 8-378     281 BHS 1-73, CAH 7.1-113, LEWH 93, lvPt1
c.281 SELEUCUS-I dies.  King of Babylonia 305, ruler of Syria 301-281, co-king with son Antiochus from 292, stabbed to death by Ptolemy Keraunos in Lysimacheia in Thracian Chersonese.
ANTIOCHUS-I sole rule until 261.
282 IDB 4-267     281 B76 8-378, 16-503, CAH 7.1, Jud 3-73,
LEWH 90, OCD 71, RAI2, RAI3, Shaw 390, lvA, wikA1     280 DGRBM 3-569, 772, GHH, IDB 1-149, LEWH 93, anan
c.281 PONTUS, under Mithridates-I from 301, as vassal of Seleucus-I from ?, sets up its own monarchy.  MITHRIDATES-I is king of Pontus until 266.  It comprises eastern Paphlagonia and northern Cappadocia. 296 or 81 CAH 7.1-63 281 CAH 7.1-426
281/0 BHS 1-153, CAH 9-131     280 Dur 2-578
c.281 Heraclea Pontica under Arsinoe-II from 283, recovers independence.  Allies with Byzantium and Chalcedon to maintain their independence. 281 TAG 130-1
c.281 Anti-Seleucid NORTHERN LEAGUE formed:  Byzantium, Tieium, Heraclea, Chalcedon Cierus, and others. no date: TAG 162
c.281 MITHRIDATES-I king of Pontus, allies with Heraclea to protect it from Seleucus-I .  Heraclea lends Mithridates its fleet. 281 DGRBM 2-1095, TAG 131
c.281 ANTIOCHUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 281-61, renounces all ambitions west of Dardanelles straits. 281
OCD 71
c.280 HEROPHILUS of Chalcedon, anatomist mostly in Alexandria, dies in Bithynia.  Performed public disections of human cadavers. 280
B76 V-6
c.280 PATROCLES made commander of army in Anatolia by Antiochus-I. 280 DGRBM 3-139
c.280 ZIPOETES, king of Bithynia 298/7-79, vassal of Seleucids from 298/7, goes independent. 280 Dur 2-578, anan
c.280 SINOPE on Black Sea, under tyrant Scydrothemis from 301, becomes independent republic until 183. 280 rcT
c.280 Ariarathes-II and Orontes-III of Armenia defeat Seleucid army. 280 lvA
c.280 PHILETAEROS, gov of fortress of Pergamum 301-263, under Seleucids from 282, uses political disorder to establish himself in virtual independence.  He gets the body of Seleucus-I from Ptolemy Keraunos, and buries it with honors, thus ingratiating himself to Antiochus-I. 280 DGRBM 3-266
c.280 Son of Ariarathes-I, ARIARATHES-II ends.  Nominally Seleucid satrap of Cappadocia from 300.  1st son ARIARAMNES-II succeeds as king until 230, but still token vassal of Seleucids until 255. 284 GHH
280 Dur 2-578,
OCD 107, anan, awCap, frH, rcT     275 lvA
c.280 LYCAONIA, a district of central Anatolia, comes under Seleucids until 189. 280 IDB 3-194
c.280 1st SYRO / EGYPT WAR begins until 279.  Ptolemy-II Philadelphus conducts a brief successful war against Antiochus-I mostly in Anatolia, but also in Levant. 280 CAH 7.1-145, lvFSW, lvPt2
c.279 ZIPOETES dies age 76, king of Bithynia from 298/7, leaves 4 kids.  1st son NICOMEDES-I succeeds until 250.  He murders 2 brothers, but a third, Zipoetes, escapes. 280 frH     279 CAH 7.1-425, 9, IDB 1-443, OCD 734, anan, bk, rcT     278 B76 VII-332, DGRBM 2-1196, 3-1329, DGRG 1-404, GHH, wikLRB, wikZ1
c.279 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas king of Greece 283-39 flees to Anatolia until 278. 279
B76 8-379
sails to Anatolia at invitation of Northern League to attack Antiochus-I 279 TAG 161-2
c.279 AMASTRIS, coastal city on western border of Paphlagonia, is acquired for Mithridates-I of Pontus by his son from its ruler Eumenes.  Pontus now reaches to the Sangarius River in the west. 279 CAH 9-131
c.279 MILETOS Caria, under Lysimachus from 281, taken by PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus until 257. 279 LEWH 93, rcT 272 TTPC
c.279 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas honcho of Greece, and ANTIOCHUS-I, king of Syria/Babylonia 281-61, suspend their brief hostilities in Anatolia, possibly to each send a small force to Thermopylae. fall 279 TAG 161
c.279 1st SYRO / EGYPT WAR from 280 suspended until 275.  Ptolemy-II Philadelphus keeps Anatolian possessions:  Ionia, Caria, Lycia, Pamphylia, and parts of Cilicia. 279 B76 8-379, lvA1, lvFSW
c.278  PEACE SETTLEMENT  in Anatolia made between ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas honcho of Greece, and ANTIOCHUS-I, king of Syria/Babylonia 281-61, who renounces claim to Macedonia.  They make a defensive agreement with against Ptolemy-III 278
CAH 7.1-256, OCD 69, 71, atl3
c.278 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas king of Greece 283-39, in Anatolia from 279, returns to Greece. 278 guess
c.278 PHILETAEROS, gov of Pergamum 301-263, under Seleucids 282-63 defends against Galatian invaders intil 276. 278 frH
c.278 ZIPOETES, bro of Nicomedes-I king of Bithynia, maintains independence in a part of Bithynia.  Bithynian civil war begins until 277. 278 B76 IV-383, wikLRB
no date: DGRBM 2-1196
c.278 NICOMEDES-I king of Bithynia 279-50, is threatened with invasion by Antiochus-I.  Nicomedes therefore allies with the Northern League, and becomes its leader, then with Antigonus-II Gonatas.  The invasion doesn't happen. no date: DGRBM 2-1196
c.278 Liutarios and Leonnarios become chiefs in Galatia. 278 frH
c.278/7 METHODOROS of Lampsacus, younger bro of Timocrates, Epicurean, dies. 290 wikEΦ
278/7 CHHΦ, wikML
c.277 NICOMEDES-I king of Bithynia 279-50 allies with 3 tribes of Celts (Tectosagii, Trocmi, Tolistobogii) which had migrated to southeastern Thrace.  He invites them to invade Anatolia, now under Antiochus-I. 278 B76 1-824, DGRBM 2-754, DGRG 1-404, 928, GHH, IDB 2-336     277 B76 8-381
c.277 3 tribes of CELTS (Tectosagii, Trocmi, Tolistobogii, under Lutarius and Leonnorius) in Chersonese, cross Dardanelles into Anatolia, now under Antiochus-I.  They attack Cyzicus, Erythrae, Didyma. 278 CDCC 272, GHH, MCAW, anan, wikA1
278/7 CAH 7.1-415
277 B76 8-381, Dur 2-555
c.277 PAUSANIAS describes Celt invasion of Anatolia:  "They butchered all the males and likewise old women, and babes at their mothers breasts; they drank the blood and feasted on the flesh of infants that were fat.  High spirited women, and maidens in their flower committed suicide ... those that survived were subject to every kind of outrage.  ... Some of the women rushed upon the swords of the Gauls, and voluntarily courted death.  To others death came from absence of food or sleep, as these merciless barbarians ravished them in turn, and wreaked their lusts upon them whether dying or dead." Pausanias X-22
no date:
Dur 2-559
c.277 CELTS in Anatolia extract 2,000 talents annually from Seleucids. 278 MCAW
c.277 ZIPOETES dies.  Independent ruler in Bithynia, defeated and killed by bro Nicomedes-I king of Bithynia 279-50 allied with Celts. no date:
DGRBM 2-1196
c.277 ANCYRA Galatia settled by Tectosages. 278 DGRG 1-134
c.277 ANTIOCHUS-I, king of Syria/Babylonia 281-61 and vassal PHILATAERUS of Pergamum are occupied with CELTS until 275. 277 B76 8-380, OCD 814
c.276 PHILETAEROS, gov of Pergamum 301-263, under Seleucids 282-63 fighting Galatian invaders from 278, defeats them. 276 frH
c.276 PAPHLAGONIA, under Pontus from 301, comes under Galatia until ?, but semi-independent until mid 180s. 276 wikLPΦ

Anatolia 275-201
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