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c.2000 ELAM, under Simash dynasty 2180-1830, invaded by Indo-Europeans. 2000 CWH     1800 WNHI 24
c.2000 Earliest representations of equids drawing vehicles with SPOKED WHEELS found on Cylinder seals from Hissar in northeast Persia.   (See Cappadocia 1900) 2000 B76 19-521
2000 +/- 200 SHT 1-721
2000-1951 TTS
c.2000 CHARIOT WHEELS found at Susa have copper tires. 2000 SHT 1-208
c.2000 ALFALFA cultivated in Persia. 2000 TTT
c.1850 INDATTU-TEMTI, last king of Simash dyn of Elam from ?, ends. 1970 hifiE, wikE
1928 wapP
1850 RAI3
1830 LEWH 52
SIMASH dynasty of ELAM from 2180, ends.
EPARTI Dynasty begins until 1500.

EPARTI-I becomes king until 1830.
c.1830 EPARTI, king of Elam from ?, dies.  SHILKHAKHA succeeds to 1800. 1850 CAH 2.1-260-61
c.1800 SHILKHAKHA, king of Elam from 1830, dies.  SHIRUKDUK succeeds to 1764. 1800 CAH 2.1-262
c.1800 KASSITES settle in western Persia at Hamadan-Kermanshah. 1800 B76 11-979
c.1764 SHIRUKDUK, king of Eparti dynasty of Elam from ?, in lower Mesopotamia, crushed by Hammurabi.  Ends.  SIMUT-WARTASH succeeds to 1763. 1772 KoP, taP     1770 CAH I-1-264
1764 B76 9-831, CAH 2.1-264
Simut-Wartash 1763 hifiE     1762 frM
c.1763 SIMUT-WARTASH, king of Eparti dynasty of Elam from 1764, ends.  SIWE-PALAR-KHUPPAK, son of Shirukduk, succeeds to 1745. 1770 KoP, taP     1768 CAH 2.1-264
1763 hifiE     no date: abasP, wapP
c.1746 GUNDASH becomes 1st king of KASSITES until 1705. 1746 RAI2     1730 hifi
c.1745 SIWE-PALAR-KHUPPAK, son of Shirukduk, king of Eparti dynasty of Elam from 1746, ends.  Bro KUDUZULUSH succeeds to 1730. fl. 1765 abasP, wapP
1745 hifiE     omit: taP
c.1740 GUNDASH, 1st king of Kassites, 1746-31, invades southern Mesopotamia, ravages Ur & Uruk. Samu-Iluna yr 9 Wiki
no date: Sag1 73
c.1735 KASSITES under GUNDASH move into north Mesopotamia.   Mesopotamia becomes their center of activity until 1157. guess
c.1730 KUDUZULUSH, son of Shirukduk, king of Eparti dynasty of Elam from 1745, ends.  Son KUTIR-NAHUNTE-I succeeds to 1700. 1730 CAH 2.1-266, hifiE
no date: abasP, wapP
omit: taP
c.1700 KUTIR-NAHUNTE-I, son of Kuduzulush-I, king of Eparti dynasty of Elam from 1730, ends.  Bro LILA-IRTASH succeeds to 1698. 1700 hifiE
no date: abasP, wapP
omit: taP
c.1698 LILA-IRTASH, son of Kuduzulush-I, king of Eparti dynasty of Elam from 1700, ends.  TEMTI-AGUN-I, son of Kutir-Nahhunte-I, succeeds to 1690. 1698 hifiE
no date: abasP, wapP
omit: taP
c.1690 TEMTI-AGUN-I, son of Kutir-Nahhunte-I, king of Eparti dynasty of Elam from 1698, ends.  TAN-ULI succeeds to 1655. 1690 hifiE
no date: abasP, wapP
omit: taP
c.1655 TAN-ULI, king of Eparti dynasty of Elam from 1690, ends.  Son TEMTI-KHALKI succeeds to 1650. 1655 hifiE
no date: abasP, wapP
omit: taP
c.1650 TEMTI-KHALKI, son of Tan-Uli, king of Eparti dynasty of Elam from 1655, ends.  Bro KUK-NASHUR-II succeeds to 1635. 1650 hifiE
no date: abasP, wapP
c.1635 KUK-NASHUR-II, son of Tan-Uli, king of Eparti dynasty of Elam from 1650, ends.  KUTIR-SHILKHAKHA-II succeeds to 1625. fl. 1646 wapP     1635 hifiE
no date: abasP, wapP
omit: taP
c.1625 KUTIR-SHILKHAKHA-II, king of Eparti dynasty of Elam from 1635, ends.  TEMTI-RAPTASH succeeds to 1605 1625 hifiE
omit: taP
c.1605 TEMTI-RAPTASH, king of Eparti dynasty of Elam from 1625, ends.  KUDUZULUSH-II succeeds to 1600 1605 hifiE
omit: taP
c.1600 KUDUZULUSH-II, king of Eparti dynasty of Elam from 1605, ends.  TATA succeeds to 1580. 1600 RAI3, hifiE
omit: taP
c.1580 TATA, king of Eparti dyn of Elam from 1600, ends.  ATTA-MERRA-HALKI succeeds until 1570. 1580 RAI3
omit: taP
c.1570 ATTA-MERRA-HALKI, king of Eparti dyn of Elam from 1600, ends.  PALA-ISHSHAN succeeds until 1545. 1570 RAI3, hifiE
omit: taP
c.1545 PALA-ISHSHAN, king of Eparti dyn of Elam from 1570, ends.  KUR-KIRWESH succeeds until 1520. 1545 RAI3, hifiE
omit: taP
c.1520 KUR-KIRWESH, king of Eparti dyn of Elam from 1545, ends.  KUR-NAHHUNTE succeeds until 1505. 1520 RAI3, hifiE
omit: taP
c.1505 KUR-NAHHUNTE, king of Eparti dyn of Elam from 1520, ends.  KUTIR-NAHUNTE-II succeeds to 1500 1505 RAI3, hifiE
omit: taP
c.1500 KUTIR-NAHUNTE-II, king of Eparti dyn of Elam from 1505, ends. 1500 hifiE, wapP
no date: abasP
omit: taP
EPARTI Dynasty of Elam from 1850, ends.
KIDINUID dynasty of Anshan & Susa begins until 1350.
KIDINU becomes king of Anshan & Susa until ?.
c.1350 TEMTI-AHAR, last Kidinuid king of Anshan & Susa from ?, ends. 1400 hifiE, wapP
1350 RAI3, KoP, taP
no date: abasP
KIDINUID dynasty of Elam from 1500 ends.
IGEHALKID dynasty of Elam begins until 1210.
IGE-HALKI becomes king of Elam to 1330.
c.1330 IGE-HALKI 1st Igehalkid king of Elam from 1350, ends.
HURPATILA succeeds and ends.
Son PAHIR-ISHSHAN succeeds to 1310.
1330 RAI3, hifiE, KoP, taP
no date: abasP, wapP
c.1327 KURIGALZU-II, Kassite king of Babylon 1345-24, temporarily occupies Elam. 1320 wikE
c.1310 PAHIR-ISHSHAN, son of Ige-Halki, 3rd Igehalkid king of Elam from 1330, ends.  Bro ATTAR-KITTAKH succeeds to 1300. 1310 RAI3, hifiE, KoP, taP
no date: abasP, wapP
c.1300 ATTAR-KITTAKH, son of Ige-Halki, 4th Igehalkid king of Elam from 1310, ends.  Son KHUMAN-NUMENA succeeds to 1275. 1300 RAI3, hifiE, KoP, taP
1285 B76 9-831
no date: abasP, wapP
c.1275 KHUMBAN-NUMENA, son of Attar-Kittah, 5th Igehalkid king of Elam from 1300, ends.  Son UNTASH-NAPRISHA succeeds to 1240. 1275 RAI3, hifiE, KoP, taP
1266 B76 9-831
no date: abasP, wapP
c.1240 DER (DUR UNTASH) built by Untash -Naprisha.  Lasts until 640.  Now called Chogha Zanbil. 1240 wikCZ
c.1240 UNTASH-NAPRISHA, son of Humban-Numena-I, 6th Igehalkid king of Elam from 1275, ends.  UNPATAR-NAPRISHA succeeds to 1235. 1240 RAI3, hifiE, KoP, taP
no date: abasP, wapP
c.1238 KASHTILIASH-IV, king of Kassite Babylon 1242-35, fights, Unpatar-Naprisha of Elam unsuccessfully. 1230 wikE
c.1235 UNPATAR-NAPRISHA Igehalkid king of Elam from 1240, ends.  KIDDIN-KHUTRAN succeeds to 1210. 1235 RAI3, KoP, taP
no date: abasP, wapP
c.1230 KIDDIN-KHUTRAN, king of Elam 1235-10 defeats KASSITES in battle. 1230 hifiE     1224 wikE
c.1230 KIDDIN-KHUTRAN king of Elam 1235-10, enters Mesopotamia to attack Assyrian puppet rulers.  Takes NIPPUR.  Attacks Isin. 1230 hifiE
c.1220 ADAD-SHUMA-IDDINA, Kassite king of Babylon (Assyrian puppet), defeated in battle by KIDDIN-KHUTRAN, king of Elam. 1222-17 wikE
c.1210 KIDDIN-KHUTRAN, son of Untash-Naprisha, Igehalkid king of Elam from 1235, ends. 1210 RAI3, KoP, taP, wapP
no date: abasP
IGEHALKID DYNASTY of Elam from 1350 ends.
c.1205 SHUTRUKID DYNASTY of Elam begins until 970.
HALLUTUSH-INSHUSHINAK becomes 1st king until 1185
1210 abasP, hifiE, wapP, wikE     1205 RAI3, KoP, taP
c.1200 Local  IRON production begins period of rapid growth in Iran, Transcaucasia, Aram and Canaan until 1000.  (see China 1200, Egypt 1150) 1200
SHT 1-595
c.1185 HALLUTUSH-INSHUSHINAK, 1st Shutrukid king of Elam from 1205, ends.  SHUTRUK-NAHUNTE succeeds to 1155. 1207 Sdl 2-147     1190 hifiE
1185 B76 11-980, RAI3, KoP, taP
no date: abasP, wapP
c.1158 SHUTRUK-NAHUNTE, king of Elam 1185-55, invades Kassite Babylonia. 1176 LEWH 52
c.1158 SHUTRUK-NAHUNTE, king of Elam 1185-55, marries eldest daughter of Melishipak, former Kassite king of Babylon 1188-74, and claims Babylonia. 1158 hifiE
c.1158 SHUTRUK-NAHUNTE, king of Elam 1185-55, takes Babylon.  Pushes Kassites out.  Takes  LAW STELE  of HAMMURABI to Susa. 1175 FHBC 74     1173 MCAW 46
1171 RAI2     1170 WPOT 181
1162 CWH    1158 wikE    1157 RAI3
c.1155 SHUTRUK-NAHUNTE, 2nd Shutrukid king of Elam from 1185, ends.  Son KUTIR-NAHUNTE-III succeeds to 1150. 1171 Sdl 2-147     1160 hifiE
1155 B76 11-980, RAI3, KoP, taP
fl. 1158 abasP, wapP
c.1150 KUTIR-NAHUNTE-III, king of Elam, plunders temple of Akkad. 1150 LEWH 52
c.1150 KUTIR-NAHUNTE-III, son of Shutruk-Nahhunte, 3rd Shutrukid king of Elam from 1155, ends.  Bro SHILHAK-INSHUSHINAK succeeds to 1120. 1155 hifiE     fl. 1155 abasP, wapP
1150 RAI3, KoP, taP
c.1140 SHILHAK-INSHUSHINAK king of Elam 1150-20, claims to raid Babylonia and Assyria repeatedly, and to control everything east of the Tigris as far north as Nuzi. no date: hifiE
c.1120 SHILHAK-INSHUSHINAK, son of Shutruk-Nahhunte, 4th Shutrukid king of Elam from 1150, ends.  HULELUTUSH-INSHUSHINAK succeeds to 1110. 1125 hifiE
1120 RAI3, KoP, taP
c.1110 HULELUTUSH-INSHUSHINAK, 5th Shutrukid king of Elam from 1120, defeated by NEBUCHADNEZZAR-I, king of Babylon 1126-03.  Flees to Anshan.  Bro SHILHANA-HAMRU-LAGAMAR succeeds to ?. 1115 hifiE    
fl. 1110 abasP, wapP
1110 KoP, taP
no date: wikE
5 Shutrukids go here: Humban-Nimena-II, Shutruk-Nahhunte-II, Akshir-Shimut, Akshir-Nahhunte, Kara-Indash.
c.1100  GATHAS  15 hymns believed to have been composed by Zoroaster (who probably lived after 1100).  Language is Indo-European but otherwise unknown.  Divided into 5 groups based on meter:
Ahunavaiti
Ushtavaiti
Spenta Mainyu
Vohu Khshathra
Vahishto Ishti
Some verses are addressed to omniscient Creator Ahura Mazda.  These verses are devotional.  Some verses are addressed to the public that may have come to hear the prophet (Zoroaster?).  In these he exhorts them to obey Ahura Mazda, and pleads to Ahura Mazda for them.
1200 avst
1000
HCIP 1-208
no date: wikGth

Persia 1000-501
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