website source links
absA     aina     bk     brKB     frM    frN     hifaA     hifi     kidA     lexA     mxfld     rcS     stmaB     stmaM     wikA     wikB     wikE     wikH

Mitanni, Assyria, Babylon
c.2000 OLD BABYLONIAN (Amorite) PERIOD begins until 1595. 2000 RAI3
1830
FLAP 45
AMORITES, in north Mesopotamia from 2100, migrate to central Mesopotamia, some to southern.
c.2000 SUMERIAN LANGUAGE V PERIOD ends.  Began 2300.
Akkadian language replaces it.
2000
B76 I-177, 17-797
 Akkadian CUNEIFORM  from 2500, has evolved into  Old Assyrian cuneiform , with modifications to Sumerian orthography.  Semitic equivalents for many signs are distorted or abbreviated to form new phonetic values, because Sumerian syllabic script is unintuitive to Semitic speakers.  Former pictograms are reduced to abstractions.  It is soon adopted by Hurrians. 2000 cnwr, wikCun
c.2000 A lament for the destruction of UR is written. 2000 MCAW 23
c.2000  GILGAMESH EPIC   Sumerian version edited.  Makes a consistent whole from 5 independent fragmentary tales of Gil, 1st written c.2150, but about Uruk in 2700.
King Gilgamesh of Uruk oppresses his people.  The gods create Enkidu, his equal, who fights, then befriends him.  They go to Cedar Mountain, kill Humbaba its monster guardian, cut down the sacred cedar forest which he guards.  Ishtar sends the Bull of Heaven to punish Gil for spurning her advances.  Gil & Enkidu kill the Bull of Heaven.  Enkidu dies of an illness sent by the gods.  Gil seeks immortality, which brings him to Utnapishtim, who was saved from the FLOOD V and given immortality by the gods.  Utnapishtim puts Gil to various tests which he fails, then sends him away, assuring him that he cannot escape death.  Gil returns to Uruk and orders his story inscribed in stone.
(See Akkadian version, Hittite translation 1250, Nineveh Library)
2150-2000 aeh
2000
ANET 73, PANE 1-40, wlw
2000-1500 wikGFM
1800-1700 wikEG
c.2000 BEER V in Gilgamesh Epic:   "The whore opened her mouth and spoke to Enkidu:  'Eat the bread now, O Enkidu, as it belongs to life.  Drink also beer, as it is the custom of the land'." 
Enkidu  "drank 7 pitchers of beer.  His heart grew light; his face glowed; and he sang out with joy."    (See Egypt 2000)
13-1000 hlsb
no date: drbr
c.2000 MATH V:  DECIMAL NOTATION appears in Mesopotamia.   (See EgyptChina decimal 1300) 2000 TTPC-5, bk, ehst
c.2000 SPOKED WHEELS V (4 spokes):  appear in north Mesopotamia, Asia, Aram, and Egypt.
(See Europe 1500, Crete 1500, China 1300)
2000 SHT 1-212, TTT
late 2nd mil.: PAE 142
c.2000 Two-wheeled CHARIOT invented in Mesopotamia. 2000 wikDHrs     1800 mxfld
c.2000 shadufSHADUF V - a long pole balanced on a pivot with a bucket on one end and a counter-weight on the other - used to lift water in Egypt and Mesopotamia. 2000 TTT, wikSdf
1700 rgnms
1500 B76 11-232

drawing {{PD-US}}
c.2000 BALANCE scale used in Egypt and Mesopotamia. 2000 TTT
c.2000 LOOM portrayed in Assyrian and Egyptian murals. 2000 TTT
c.2000 MUSIC:  Instruments in Mesopotamia become distinguished between those playable by anyone, and those requiring skill.   (See  written music 1800) 2000 wikMI
c.2000 Small DRUMS are portrayed in the hands of Sumerian women. 2000 B76 14-65
c.2000 PERFUME developed in Mesopotamia.   (See Egypt 1400) 2000 TTT
c.2000 LOCKS having pin tumblers developed in Assyria. 2000 TTT
c.2000 OXEN and ONAGERS are the only draught animals attested anywhere from their original domestication down to 2000. 2000
SHT 1-721
c.2000 CAMELS V:  Dromedaries, already domesticated in Arabia, now domesticated in Mesopotamia. 2000 blgspt
just before 1000 wikMHNAE
c.2000 POTTER'S WHEEL:  fragment at Uruk.
(See Greece, Crete, Egypt all in 1950)
2000 SHT 1-199
c.2000 1st known PHARMACOPEIA compiled at Ur. 2000 CWH
c.1998 LARSA, independent from 2025, under ensi Emisum 2004-1977, comes under Isin until 1924. 1998 hifi
c.1998 URUK, independent under Amorite rulers from ?, comes under Isin until 1865. 1998 hifi
c.1998 ISHBE-ERRA, ensi of Isin & Nippur 2017-1985, drives Elamites out of Ur. 8 yrs after Ur destroyed: Sag1 62
c.1998 UR, independent under Elamite rulers from 2004, comes under Isin until 1920. 1998 hifi
c.1998 LAGASH, under either Amorites or Elamites from 2023, comes under Isin until 1920. 1998 hifi
c.1985 KIKKIA, king of Ashur from 2000, ends.   AKIYA succeeds to 1970. 1985 hifi
c.1985 ISHBE-ERRA, ensi of Isin from 2017, ends.  Son SHU-ILISHU succeeds 1984-75. 1985 CAH I-2, Sag 62, 502, frM     1984 hifi
c.1977 EMISUM, 2nd ensi of Larsa from 2004, under Isin from 1998, ends.   SAMIUM succeeds 1976-42. 1977 CAH I-2, RAI2, Sag, frM
1976 hifi     1040 wikB
c.1975 SHU-ILISHU, son of Ishbe-Erra, 2nd ensi of Isin from 1984, ends.  IDDIN DAGAN succeeds 1974-54. 1984 MRDK
1975 CAH I-2, Sag, frM     1974 hifi
c.1975 MEDICINE:  PHYSICIANS become an important profession in Babylonia and Aram.   (See Kahun papyrus 1800) 2000-1951 TTS
c.1975 Primitive PLOW used in Uruk. 2000-1951 TTS
c.1970 AKIYA, king of Ashur from 1985, ends.   PUZUR-ASHUR-I succeeds to 1960. 1970 hifi
c.1960 PUZUR-ASHUR-I, king of Ashur from 1970, ends.   SHALLIM-AHE succeeds to 1945. 1960 hifi
fl1975 kidA
c.1954 IDDIN DAGAN, son of Shu-Ilishu, 3rd ensi of Isin from 1974, ends.  Son ISHME DAGAN succeeds 1953-35. 1954 CAH I-2, Sag, frM
1953 MRDK, hifi
c.1950 MEASUREMENT V:  SUMERIAN CUBIT is defined as 51.52 cm by a COPPER bar.
(For copper, see Canaan 2000, Britain 1950, Amenhemhet-III 1842, Asia 1800, Ganges Valley 1800)
1950 wik20bc
c.1950 KAZALLU is a minor city state under Isin 2013-?. 1950 hifi
c.1945 SHALLIM-AHE, king of Ashur from 1960, ends.   ILUSHUMA succeeds to 1906. 1945 hifi
c.1944 ISIN EMPIRE invaded by Amorites.  NIPPUR revolts and is partly destroyed.   ISHME-DAGAN maintains control of Nippur, Uruk, Eridu, Ur, Der. ± 9 yrs Sag 62-3
c.1942 SAMIUM, 3rd ensi of Larsa (under Isin) from 1976, ends.  ZABIA succeeds 1941-33. 1942 CAH I-2, RAI2, frM
1941 hifi     1877 wikB
c.1940 ASSYRIANS begin raiding central and southern Mesopotamia. 1940 hifi     1800 MCAW
c.1935 ISHME-DAGAN, 4th ensi of Isin from 1953, ends.  Son LIPIT-ISHTAR succeeds 1934-24 1990 bk     1935 B76 11-977,
CAH I-2, Sag, frM
1934 MRDK     1933 hifi
c.1933 ZABIA 4th ensi of Larsa (under Isin) from 1941, ends.   GUNGUNUM succeeds 1932-06 1933 CAH I-2, Sag 64, frM, hifi
1932 B76 11-976     1868 wikB
c.1930 GUNGUNUM, 5th ensi of Larsa 1932-06 (under Isin until 1924), campaigns in Zagros Mtns. no date: RAI2 153
c.1930  LAWS of ESHNUNNA   2 tablets written in Akkadian in a mode facilitating memorization.
1. Theft and related offences
2. False distress
3. Sexual offences
4. Bodily injuries
5. Damages caused by a goring ox, & comparable cases
(See Lipit Ishtar 1870, Hammurabi 1790, Hittite 1370, Middle Assyrian 1100, Mosaic 1100, COMPARE)
1930 wikLE
1900 4nel
c.1925 Λ MEASUREMENT:  A copper bar 110.35cm long weighing 41.5kg is a measurement standard used in Nippur.  It is divided into 4 units. 1950-01 TTS
c.1924 LIPIT-ISHTAR, 5th ensi of Isin from 1934, ends.  UR-NINURTA succeeds to 1896. 1980 bk     1942 Sag
1924 B76 11-976, CAH I-2, frM
1923 MRDK     1922 hifi
c.1924 LARSA, under Isin from 1998, becomes independent until 1763.
GUNGUNUM, 5th ensi of Larsa from 1932, becomes king of Larsa to 1906, attacks Isin, claims sovereignty over Sumer & Akkad.
1924
RAI2 153
1920 hifi
c.1920 UR, under Isin from 1998, taken by Gungunum, comes under Larsa until 1763. 1920 hifi
c.1920 LAGASH, under Isin from 1998, taken by Gungunum, comes under Larsa until ?. 1920 hifi
c.1910 ILUSHUMA, king of Ashur, invades Babylonia, takes DER, claims to have freed Ur & Nippur (possibly from Amorites). 1900 Sag1 63, 69
c.1910 GUNGUNUM, king of Larsa 1924-06, takes Lagash, Susa, and possibly Uruk. no date: RAI2 153
c.1906 ILUSHUMA, king of Ashur from 1945, ends.   Son IRISHUM-I succeeds to 1867. 1939 kidA     1906 RAI3, hifi
1890 RAI2, Sag 63
c.1906 GUNGUNUM, king of Larsa from 1924, ends.   Amorite ABI-SARE succeeds 1905-1895. 1906 B76 11-976,
CAH I-2, Sag1 64, frM
1905 hifi     1841 wikB
c.1900 BRONZE AGE MESOPOTAMIA 2900-1000
EARLY BRONZE from 2900 ends because of Amorite immigration.
MIDDLE BRONZE begins until 1550.
Three dynasties coexist:  Isin, Larsa, Babylon.
2200 wikBA
1900 MCAW
c.1900 Λ SUMERIAN LANGUAGE, in Mesopotamia from ?, no longer spoken.  Continues with Akkadian as liturgical and literary language. 1900 SAAG 1
1800 SOTS 22
c.1900 SPOKED WHEELS:  in north Mesopotamia from 2000, spokes increased from 4 to 8. 1900 SHT 1-213
1100 increased to 6: TTT
c.1900 KAZALLU, under Isin from ?, breaks free.  Probably seizes city of Marad. 1900 hifi
c.1900 MARI, under a dynasty of generals from c.2250, and now possibly abandoned, is taken or repopulated by by Simalites, a branch of Amorites living in Terqa. 1900 hifi
c.1897 AKKAD re-emerges as an Amorite city state under Babylon, forming the capital of its northern division.  1897 hifi
c.1897 SUMUDITAMA, king of Kazallu, overlord of Kish, & Babylon, ends.  1897 hifi
c.1897 KISH, under Kazallu from ?, breaks free.  IAWIUM rules Kish until 1888. 1897 hifi
c.1897 KAZALLU still controls land from Sippar to Marad, which had been seized from Isin. 1897 hifi
c.1896 UR-NINURTA, 6th ensi of Isin from 1923, ends.  Son BUR-SIN succeeds 1895-74. 1896 CAH I-2, Sag, frM
1895 MRDK     1894 hifi
c.1895 ABI-SARE Amorite king of Larsa from 1905, ends.   SUMU-ILUM succeeds 1894-66. 1895 CAH I-2, RAI2, Sag, frM
1894 hifi     1830 wikB
c.1894 Amorite prince Sumu-Abum takes advantage of chaos in Mesopotamia to take Babylon from city state of Kazallu.
SUMU-ABUM becomes king of Babylon until 1881.
1950 bk     1897 hifi
1894 B76 2-554, 11-978, CWH, IDB 1-265, RAI2, Sag1 64, brKB, stmaB
1830 LEWH 31
1800 SOTS 24, wikB
1st DYNASTY (Amorite) of BABYLON begins until 1595.
c.1888 IAWIUM ruler of Kish from 1897, conquered by MANANA who succeeds until 1883. 1888 hifi
c.1883 MANANA ruler of Kish from 1888, overthrown by SUMU-ABUM king of Babylon.  Kish is sacked. 1883 hifi
c.1881 SUMU-ABUM ends.  1st king of 1st dynasty of Babylon from 1894.  SUMU-LA-EL succeeds 1880-45. 1883 hifi     1881 CAH I-2, RAI2, Sag, brKB, stmaB   1817 wikB   1798 frM
c.1874 BUR-SIN, son of Ur-Ninurta, 7th ensi of Isin from 1895, ends.   LIPIT-ENLIL succeeds to 1869. 1875 CAH I-2     1874 MRDK, RAI2, frM     1873 hifi
c.1870  LIPIT-ISHTAR LAW CODE  written in Sumerian and promulgated in Sumeria.  43 articles and parts of the prolog have survived.
7-11:  lands, gardens, orchards
12-14:  slaves
15-16:  surfs and peasants
18:  transfer of a feif if holder fails to perform duties
21-27:  inheritance
28:  bigamy
29:  A girl may not marry a rejected suitor's best man.
30:  marriage of a harlot
31-33:  division of a paternal estate among heirs
33-37:  fines for damage to a hired ox
(See Eshnunna 1930, Hammurabi 1790, Hittite 1370, Middle Assyrian 1100, Mosaic 1100, COMPARE)
1934-24 4nel
1900-1850 ANET 159
1870
AYGC 78, CWH
1870-60 wikLI
no date: RAI3 182, Sag1 200
c.1869 LIPIT-ENLIL, 8th ensi of Isin from 1874, ends.   IRRA-IMITTI succeeds 1868-61. 1870 CAH I-2
1869 MRDK, RAI2, frM     1868 hifi
c.1867 IRISHUM-I, son of Ilushuma, king of Ashur from 1906, ends.   Son IKUNUM succeeds to 1860. 1900 kidA
1867 CAH I-2, RAI3, hifi
c.1866 SUMU-ILUM, Amorite king of Larsa from 1894, ends.  Followers insignificant until 1834.   NUR-ADAD succeeds 1865-50. 1866 CAH I-2, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, frM, hifi     1801 wikB
c.1865 URUK, under Isin from 1998, breaks away under SIN-KASHID, who rules as king until 1833.   Uruk is independent until 1816. 1865 hifi
c.1862 IBALPIEL-I ruler of Eshnunna from ?, ends.   Son IPIQADAD-II succeeds until 1830. 1862 hifi
c.1861 IRRA-IMITTI, 9th ensi of Isin from 1868, ends.   ENLIL-BANI succeeds to 1839. 1917 bk     1862 CAH I-2
1861 MRDK, RAI3, frM     1860 hifi
c.1861 YAKHZIR-ILU, king of Kazallu from ?, expelled by king of Babylon.   1861 hifi
c.1860 IKUNUM, son of Irishum I, king of Ashur from 1867, ends.  Son SARGON-I succeeds to 1850. 1860 hifi
c.1850 SARGON-I, king of Ashur 1860-50, invades AMURRU. Sargon yr 11 IDB 1-115
c.1850 SARGON-I, son of Ikunum, king of Ashur from 1860, ends.   Son PUZUR-ASHUR-II succeeds to 1830. 1850 hifi
no date: RAI3, Sag, kidA
c.1850 AMORITES of Arabia begin a new wave of expansion into Fertile Crescent. 1850 mxfld
c.1850 NUR-ADAD, Amorite king of Larsa from 1865, ends.   SIN-IDINNAM succeeds 1849-43. 1850 CAH I-2, RAI2, RAI3, frM, hifi
1785 wikB
c.1845 SUMU-LA-EL ends.  2nd king of 1st dynasty of Babylon from 1880.  SABIUM succeeds 1844-31. 1866 RAI2, RAI3     1847 hifi
1845 CAH I-2, Sag1, brKB, frM, stmaB     1781 wikB
c.1843 SIN-IDINNAM, Amorite king of Larsa from 1849, ends.
Three less significant followers 1842-35: SINERIBAM, SINIQISHAM, SILLI-ADAD to 1835.
1843 CAH I-2, RAI2, RAI3, frM, hifi
1778 wikB
c.1839 ENLIL-BANI, 10th ensi of Isin from 1861, ends. 1893 bk     1839 Sag
1838 CAH I-2
1837 MRDK, RAI3, frM
1836 hifi
Five rulers of little significance follow until 1794.  ZAMBIA, succeeds to 1833.
c.1835 KUDUR-MARBUK, Amorite sheikh with Elamite affiliations, chases armies of Kazallu & Mutibal out of Larsa. 1890 bk     1850 wikE
no date: Sag 65
c.1835 SILLI-ADAD, Amorite king of Larsa from ?, defeated and killed by armies of Sabium of Babylon, Kazallu & Mutibal.  Kudur-Mabug of Elam installs his son WARAD-SIN to 1823. 1850 wikE
1835 RAI2, RAI3, Sag, frM, hifi
1834 B76 11-977
1770 Sdl 1-162, wikB
c.1833 ZAMBIA, ensi of Isin from 1839, ends.  ITER-PICA, succeeds to 1829. 1835 CAH I-2
1834 MRDK     1833 hifi
c.1833 SIN-KASHID, king of Uruk from 1865, ends.  Son SIN-IRIBAM succeeds to 1827. 1833 hifi
c.1831 SABIUM ends.  3rd king of 1st dynasty of Babylon from 1844.  APIL-SIN succeeds 1830-13. 1832 hifi     1831 CAH I-2, RAI2, Sag, brKB, frM, stmaB     1767 wikB
c.1830 PUZUR-ASHUR-II, son of Sargon, king of Ashur from 1850, ends.  NARAM-SIN succeeds to 1815. 1830 hifi
c.1830 IAGGID-LIM, becomes Amorite ruler of MARI until 1820. 1830 rcS
c.1830 IPIQADAD-II ruler of Eshnunna from 1862, overthrown by NARAM-SIN king of Ashur 1830-15, who rules until 1815. 1830 hifi
c.1830 ESHNUNNA, under Naram-Sin, extends into north Babylonia. 1830 hifi
c.1829 ITER-PICA, ensi of Isin from 1833, ends.  URDU-KUGA, succeeds to 1825. 1831 CAH I-2     1830 MRDK
1829 hifi
c.1827 SIN-IRIBAM, king of Uruk from 1833, ends.  Son SINGAMIL succeeds to 1824. 1827 hifi
c.1825 URDU-KUGA, ensi of Isin from 1829, ends.  SIN-MAGIR, succeeds to 1814. 1828 CAH I-2, frM
1827 MRDK     1825 hifi
c.1824 SINGAMIL, king of Uruk from 1827, ends.  Bro ILUMGAMIL succeeds to 18??. 1824 hifi
c.1823 WARAD-SIN, son of Kudur-Mabug, Amorite king of Larsa from 1834, ends.   Bro RIM-SIN succeeds 1822-1763. 1823 CAH I-2, RAI2, RAI3, Sag 65, frM, hifi     1769 Sdl 1-162
1758 wikB
c.1820 IAGGID-LIM, Amorite ruler of MARI from 1830, ends.  IAKHDUN-LIM, succeeds until 1796. 1830 B76 17-933
1820 RAI3, rcS     1811 hifi
c.1816 ANAM, king of Uruk from 18??, ends.   Son IRDANENE succeeds to 1810. 1816 hifi
c.1815 NARAM-SIN, king of Ashur from 1830, ends.   IRISHUM-II succeeds to 1809. 1815 hifi
c.1815 ESHNUNNA, under Naram-Sin from 1830, goes independent until ?.  DANNUM-TAHAZ rules until 1808. no date: hifi
c.1814 SIN-MAGIR, ensi of Isin from 1825, ends.  DAMIQ-ILISHU, succeeds to 1794. 1817 CAH I-2, frM
1816 MRDK     1814 hifi
c.1813 APIL-SIN ends.  4th king of 1st dynasty of Babylon from 1830.  SIN-MUBALLIT succeeds 1812-1793. 1813 CAH I-2, RAI2, Sag 66, brKB, frM, stmaB     1812 hifi     1749 wikB
c.1810 IRDANENE, king of Uruk from 1816, defeated & captured in battle by RIM-SIN king of Larsa.
URUK, independent from 1865, comes under Larsa until 1786.
Son RIMANUM succeeds as vassal to Larsa until 18??.
1810 hifi
c.1809 IRISHUM-II, king of Ashur from 1815, overthrown by SHAMSHI-ADAD, a west Semite from Terqa.
SHAMSHI-ADAD-I is king of Ashur until 1782.
1869 bk     1820 WPOT 157
1814 RAI2 159, Sag 70
1813 B76 1-815, 11-977, kidA
1812 IDB 1-271, 294
1809 RAI3, hifi     1749 Sdl 1-82
1748 FLAP 47, SOTS 165
c.1808 SHAMSHI-ADAD-I king of Assur, unites cities of Ashur, Nineveh, and Arbel into one cohesive unit, gains control over Arrapkha.  Tries to create a territorial state. 1813 aina
c.1808 DANNUM-TAHAZ, ruler of Eshnunna from 1815, ends.   DADUSHA succeeds to 1780. 1808 hifi
c.1803 URUK, vassal of Larsa 1810-1763, plundered and burned by RIM-SIN king of Larsa. 1803/2 hifi
c.1800 Λ MATH V PLIMPTON TABLET #322   Has a table of 4 columns and 15 rows of numbers in Babylonian sexagesimal notation.  Lists what are now called Pythagorean triples, i.e. integers a, b, c satisfying a2 + b2 = c2.
(See Berlin Pap. 1800)

GEOMETRY:  Shows knowledge of trigonomrtry:  Square of hypotenuse = sum of squares of other 2 sides.
(See Rhind Pap. 1650, trig 1200)
1900-1600 BHM 34
1800 wikPlm
c.1800  DESCENT of INANNA   Inanna visits the underworld to attend funeral rites of Ereshkigal's husband Gugalana. 2000 jnrd, tccc
19-1600 ahe, hlol
c.1800 HARAN comes under Mari until 1760. 1800 rcT
c.1800 Λ BEER V HYMN to NINKASI  (Sumerian goddess of Beer), Sings her praises, and includes a recipe.   (See Egypt 20001600) 1800 brgne, wikNks
c.1800 Earliest written references to HORSE V breeding found at Chagar-Bazar in northeast Mesopotamia. 1800 SHT 1-721
c.1800 HURRIANS, Aryans originally from Caucasus, enter north Mesopotamia. long before 2000 wikH
1800 TAWH 55
c.1800 HURRIANS at Urkesh (close to or identical to the later city of Washukkanni) adopt Akkadian cuneiform to their own language. 2000 wikH 
The land we call Syria is abbreviated from Assyria because the name stuck even after Assyria fell in 612.  It is arbitrarily called Aram here because the Torah calls it Aram even before the Arameans arrived.
c.1800 MARI in mid Euphrates, ruled by two rival dynasties until 1760?. no date: WBANE 56
Native language close to patriarchal Hebrew.
 MARI TEXTS   God MULUK worshipped.
c.1800 IAHDUN-LIM, Amorite ruler of Mari 1830-1796, sends troops into Aram to join those of Yamkhad fighting against several previously subject Aramean tribal states, including Haran and Tuttul.  Arameans are defeated and their towns attacked. 1800 hifi
c.1796 IAHDUN-LIM, Amorite ruler of Mari from 1830, killed by his servants in palace revolt.   Son ZIMRI-LIM flees to Yamhad, in Aram until 1780.  SUMU-YAMAM succeeds to 1791. 1798 rcS     1796 RAI2, RAI3
1795 hifi     no date: Sag 70
c.1796 SHAMSHI-ADAD, king of Ashur 1814-1782, takes advantage of strife in Mari.  Installs 2nd son IASMAH-ADAD as viceroy of Mari until 1780. 1796 RAI2, rcS    1793 IDB 3-266
1791 hifi     1776 RAI3
no date: Sag 70
c.1794 DAMIQ-ILISHU, ensi of Isin from 1814, conquered by RIM-SIN of Larsa.
ISHBE-ERRA DYNASTY from 2017 ends.
ISIN, independent from 2017, under Larsa until 1787.
1796 hifi
1794 B76 11-975, CAH I-2, CWH, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag 65, frM
1791 hifi
c.1793 SIN-MUBALLIT ends.  5th king of 1st dynasty of Babylon from 1812.  Son HAMMURABI succeeds 1792-50. 1948 BCoC 144     1848 bk
1793 B76 9-831, CAH I-2, CWH, IDB 1-268, RAI2, Sag 66, WPOT 180, brKB, frM, hifi, stmaB     1792 SHWC 9     1729 wikB     1728 FLAP 47, LEWH 31, Sdl 1-162, 2-94
c.1790 HAMMURABI, king of Babylon 1792-50, effects efficient bureaucracy decreasing power of priesthood in favor of civil authorities.   Drops pretensions to godhood, but claims to be "favorite of the gods".   Preserves Old Sumerian language in rituals & prayers. 1790
BCAW 75, MCAW 25
c.1790 CALENDAR V REFORM by Hammurabi.
(See Egyptian 1500, Olmec 1200, Roman 713)
1790 BCAW 75, MCAW 25
c.1790 HAMMURABI, in 2nd year, says this is the "year when he established justice".   So this is probably when he published his LAW CODE. 1790 FLAP 47, MCAW 25
law code 1750 mxfld
Hammurabi Stele
Hammurabi (standing) receives laws from god Shamash (seated) with a crown of 4 tiers of horns.
1760 wikBR
1754 wikCH,


left:
GNU FLD
right:
GNU FLD
c.1790  LAW CODE of HAMMURABI   282 laws written in Akkadian with scaled punishments written on a man-sized basalt stele and various clay tablets.  Punishments differ depending on social status.  Nearly ½ of the Code deals with matters of contract.  Covers:  religion, military service, trade, slavery, duties of workers.   (See Eshnunna 1930, Lipit Ishtar 1870, Hittite 1370, Middle Assyrian 1100, Mosaic 1100, COMPARE) 1790 FLAP 47, MCAW 25
1772 wikCH
1758 4nel     1750 mxfld
1726
ANET 163
c.1790 LIQUOR mentioned in Code of Hammurabi.  Contains regulations on taverns to insure fair commerce, but no penalties for drunkenness, which is not even mentioned.  Includes standards for brewing and serving Λ BEER. 1750 hlsb, wikHAB
c.1787 ISIN, under Larsa from 1794, conquered by HAMMURABI, who proceeds down Euphrates.  ISIN under Babylon until ?. 1787 B76 8-599, RAI2 164, frM, hifi
c.1786 URUK vassal of Larsa from 1810, taken by HAMMURABI, under Babylon until ?. 1787 B76 8-599, hifi
1786 RAI2 164
1785 IDB 2-518
c.1786 HAMMURABI, king of Babylon 1792-50, campaigns in EMUTBAL north of Tigris. 1786 RAI2 164
c.1783 City of MALGUM (on Tigris east of Kish) taken by HAMMURABI. 1784 hifi     1783 RAI2 164
c.1782 RAPIQUM (on Euphrates west of Babylon) taken by HAMMURABI. 1782 RAI2 164
c.1782 SHAMSHI-ADAD-I, king of Ashur 1809-1782 turns on recent ally Eshnunna and seizes Nerebtum and Shaduppum, which are taken back upon his death. 1780 hifi
c.1782 SHAMSHI-ADAD-I, king of Ashur 1809-1782 is attacked simultaneously by Yamkhad and Eshnunna. 1776 hifi
c.1782 SHAMSHI-ADAD-I, king of Ashur from 1809, dies.  Son ISHME-DAGAN succeeds to 1741. 1837 bk     1782 RAI2, Sag     1781 B76 1-815, 11-977, CAH I-2, kidA     1780 IDB 1-294
1781 or 76 frM     1776 RAI3, hifi     1717 Sdl 1-82 1716 FLAP 47, LEWH 49, MCAW, SOTS 165
c.1780 DADUSHA, ruler of Eshnunna from 1808, ends.   IBAL-PI-EL-II "Man of Eshnunna" succeeds to 1761. 1790 RAI2     1780 hifi
c.1780 ZIMRI-LIM, son of IAHDUN-LIM former king of Mari, in Yamhad from 1796 backed by Yamhad, Eshnunna, Babylon, returns to claim inheritance of Mari. 1782 CAH 2.1-263 1781 rcS
1780 IDB 3-266, RAI2, RAI3, WPOT 222       1776 hifi
no date: Sag 71
IASMAH-ADAD, Assyrian viceroy of Mari from 1796, overthrown by ZIMRI-LIM, who rules Mari as king 1779-61.
c.1776 HAMMURABI, 6th king of 1st dynasty of Babylon 1792-50, uses political stalemate to fortify northern border cities until 1768. 1776
B76 8-598
c.1775 Λ MATH V:  Multiplication tables appear in Mesopotamia.   (See Egypt 1700) 1800-1751 TTS
c.1775 PALACE at MARI, largest in Mesopotamia, built by ZIMRI-LIM. 1775
PW 14
Archive contains 17,500 clay tablets.
c.1770  MARI DOCUMENT:  "There is no king who...alone is strongest.
10 to 15 kings follow Hammurabi of Babylon.
The same number follow Rim-Sin of Larsa.
The same number follow Ibal-Pi-El of Eshnunna.
The same number follow Amut-Pi-El of Qatanum.
20 kings follow Yarim-Lim of Yamhad." 
pre-yr 13 Sag1 67
c.1764 ZIMRI-LIM, king of Mari 1789-61, recognizes ally Hammurabi as greatest threat to his independence.  Joins Anti-Babylonian Coalition. Ham yr 29 Sag1 71
c.1764 ANTI-BABYLONIAN COALITION:  (Elam, Eshnunna, Guti, Assyria, Mari) attacks Babylonia, and is crushed. 1764 B76 8-599, RAI2 166, hifi
c.1764 ELAM, under king Shirukduk, crushed by Hammurabi. 1764 hifi     Ham yr 30 Sag1 72
1762 frM
c.1763 RIM-SIN, son of Kudur-Mabug, Amorite king of Larsa from 1822, who failed to assist Hammurabi in 1764, overthrown by Hammurabi. 1763 B76 8-599, 11-977, CAH I-2, CWH, RAI2, RAI3, Sag1 72, frM, hifi
1699 wikB
1698 Sdl 1-162
LARSA, independent from 1924, conquered by Hammurabi.   Under Babylon until 1740.
c.1763 UR, under Larsa from 1920, comes under Babylon until ?. 1763 hifi
c.1763 SUMER & AKKAD, disunited from ?, united under HAMMURABI. 1763 RAI2, Sag1 72, hifi
c.1761 ZIMRI-LIM, king of Mari from 1779, conquered by Hammurabi.  Becomes his vassal until 1759.
MARI under Babylon until 1595.
1761 RAI2, RAI3, Sag1 72, WPOT 222, hifi     1760 rcS
1700 SOTS 24
1697 FLAP 46
c.1761 ESHNUNNA, under a dynasty from 2050, conquered by Hammurabi. 1762 hifi
1761 Sag , RAI2
IBAL-PI-EL-II, ruler of Eshnunna from 1780, overthrown.
c.1761 ZIMRI-LIM, vassal-king of Mari under Hammurabi from 1761, revolts and is defeated. 1761 B76 8-599, hifi
no date: Sag1 72
c.1760 HARAN, under Mari from 1800, comes under various Akkadian peoples until 1600. 1760 rcT
c.1760 ELAMITES in Mesopotamia driven out by Hammurabi. 1760 wikE
c.1760 CANAL on west branch of Euphrates rebuilt by Hammurabi to facilitate resettlement of population that lived there before the war. 1760
B76 8-599
c.1760 ASHUR captured by Hammurabi. 1760 frM
c.1759 MARI, independent Amorite kingdom from 1780, destroyed by Hammurabi.  Area annexed by Babylon until 1730. 1760 MCAW 24     1759 CAH 2.1-263, RAI2 167, Sag, hifi
1757 Sag1 67, frM
c.1756 HAMMURABI, king of Babylon 1792-50, defeats Assyrian army, but doesn't conquer Assyria. 1756 RAI2 167
Some say he conquered Assyria.
c.1756 ESHNUNNA ravaged by flood.   Rarely mentioned thereafter. 1756 hifi
c.1754 ISHME-DAGAN, king of Ashur 1782-42, loses control of north Mesopotamia to HAMMURABI. 1754 RAI2
c.1754 All Mesopotamia except Assyria is now under HAMMURABI. 1950 TTPC     1806 bk
c.1750 Λ CAMELS V:  Dromedaries, domesticated in Mesopotamia from 2000, present at Mari, evidenced by bones found. 18th cen IDB 1-490
c.1750 Λ  GILGAMESH EPIC  V early Akkadian versions.  So fragmentary that it is unclear whether they included an expanded account of the Λ FLOOD V myth; but 1 fragment includes Gilgamesh's journey to meet Utnapishtim.
2000-1500 wikGFM
c.1750 HAMMURABI dies.  6th king of 1st dynasty of Babylon from 1792.
Son SAMSU-ILUNA succeeds 1749-12.
1913 TTPC     1905 BCoC 144     1806 bk
1750 B76 9-831, CAH I-2, CWH, MCAW 24, RAI2, Sag 73, SHWC 9, WPOT 180, brKB, hifi, stmaB     1696 frM
1686 FLAP 47, Sdl 1-162, wikB
c.1741 ISHME-DAGAN, son of Shamshi-Adad-I, king of Ashur from 1782, ends.   MUT-ASHKUR succeeds to 1730. 1742 RAI2, Sag
1741 CAH I-2, RAI3, frM, kidA
c.1741 RIM-SIN-II of Larsa and ANNI of Eshnunna rebel against Babylonian domination until 1736. 1741 hifi
c.1740 GUNDASH becomes 1st king of Kassites until 1705. 1746 RAI2     1730 hifi
1720 MRDK
c.1740 GUNDASH, 1st king of Kassites, 1740-05,, raids Babylonia, ravages Ur & Uruk. no date: Sag1 73
Samsu yr 9 Wiki
Introduces Λ HORSE V & CHARIOT.
c.1740 SAMSU-ILUNA, king of Babylon 1749-12, defeats Kassite raiders. Samsu yr 9 RAI3 243
c.1740 SEALANDS come under Babylonia until 1721. guess
c.1737 UR and its walls destroyed by Babylonians under Samsu-Iluna. Samsu yr 12 mxfld
WRITING V:  Until then, all tablets and texts of Ur were written in Sumerian, but after destruction the tablets were written in Babylonian.  The invaders adopted cuneiform writing, but Sumerian language died.
c.1736 ANNI ruler of Eshnunna, under Babylon, rebelling from 1741, captured by Babylonians under Samsu-Iluna and strangled.  Eshnunna is destroyed. 1736 hifi
c.1735 KASSITES under GUNDASH move from Persia into north Mesopotamia.   Mesopotamia becomes their center of activity until 1157. guess
c.1732 KISH taken by Sealand kings until 1460. 1732 hifi
c.1730 MUT-ASHKUR, king of Ashur from 1741, ends.   RIMUSH succeeds to 1727. 1730 hifi
c.1730 ESHNUNNA, conquered by SAMSU-ILUNA, king of Babylon 1749-12.. 1730 B76 11-978
c.1730 MARI, under Babylon from 1759, taken by GUNDASH, king of Kassites 1740-05.  Becomes Kassite capital until ?.  Under Kassites until 1595. 1730 hifi
c.1727 RIMUSH, king of Ashur from 1730, ends.  A brief period of anarchy follows until 1726. 1727 hifi
c.1726 ASINUM becomes king of Ashur and ends the same year.  PUZUR-SIN succeeds to 1707. 1726 hifi
c.1726 SAMSU-ILUNA, king of Babylon 1749-12, builds Fort Samsuiluna at confluence of Diyala and Tigris for defense against Kassites. 1726
B76 11-978
c.1725 HURRIANS, in north Mesopotamia from 1800, are now in north Aram, particularly Alalakh. 1800 TAWH 55     1725 WikH
c.1722 SAMSU-ILUNA, king of Babylon 1749-12, defeats 2 otherwise unknown kings, Iadikhabum & Muti-khurshana. 1722 hifi
c.1721 SEALANDS, under Babylonia from 1740, rebel against SAMSU-ILUNA, king of Babylon 1749-12.  Go independent until 1460. yr 28 Sag1 74
c.1714 SAMSU-ILUNA, king of Babylon 1749-12, defeats Amorite army. 1714 RAI2 199
c.1712 SAMSU-ILUNA ends.  7th king of 1st dynasty of Babylon from 1749.  Son ABI-ESHUH succeeds 1711-1684. 1768 bk     1712 B76 9-831, 11-978, Sag1 73, brKB, frM, hifi, stmaB     1648 wikB
c.1710 ABI-ESHUH, king of Babylon 1711-1684, attacks ILUMA-ILU, king of Sealands, who flees to the swamps and continues to rule. 1715 hifi
c.1707 PUZUR-SIN, king of Ashur from 1726, ends.  ADARI usurps throne as a vassal to Babylon until 1700. 1707 hifi
c.1705 GUNDASH, 1st king of Kassites from 1740, at Mari from 1730, ends.  AGUM-I succeeds to 1690. 1731 RAI2     1705 hifi
1700 MRDK
c.1700 ADARI, king of Ashur (vassal to Babylon) from 1707, ends.  Son BELU-BANI succeeds to 1691. 1700 RAI3, frM, hifi, kidA
c.1700 COMPOUND INTEREST practiced at Babylon.   A tablet asks how long it will take a sum of money to double at 20% compounded annually. 1700 EIHM 45
c.1700 Λ CUNEIFORM WRITING is adopted thruout the Mid East for international communication.  Some use the Babylonian language, some adopt cuneiform signs to their own language.  Hittites do both.  (See Levant) 1700 MCAW 25
c.1700  SUMERIAN Λ FLOOD V EPIC   A Sumerian text from Nippur names ZIUSUDRA as the flood survivor. 1700
RAI2 100
c.1700 ARMOR:  Bronze body armor used in Near East. 1700 PW 14
c.1700 ILUMA-ILUM, 1st king of SEALANDS from 1740, ends.  ITTI-ILI-NIBI succeeds to 1683. 1700 hifi
no date: brKB, stmaB, wikB
c.1700 WINDMILLS used by Babylonians for irrigation. 1700 TTPC
c.1691 BELU-BANI, son of Adari, king of Ashur (vassal to Babylon) from 1700, ends.  Son LIBAIA succeeds to 1674. 1691 CAH 2.1, RAI3, frN, hifi, kidA
c.1690 AGUM-I, 2nd king of Kassites at Mari from 1705, ends.  Son KASHTILIASH-I succeeds to 1680. 1710 RAI2 1690 hifi
c.1684 ABI-ESHUH ends.  8th king of 1st dynasty of Babylon from 1711.  Son AMMI-DITANNA succeeds 1683-47. 1684 Sag, brKB, frM, hifi, stmaB
1620 wikB
c.1683 ITTI-ILI-NIBI, 2nd king of SEALANDS from 1700, ends.  DAMIQ-ILISHU succeeds to 1657. 1683 hifi
no date: brKB, stmaB, wikB
c.1680 ASSYRIA, vassal to Babylon from 1707, occupied by HURRIANS until ?. 1680 frN
c.1680 KASHTILIASH-I, son of Agum, 3rd king of Kassites at Mari from 1690, ends.  USHI succeeds to 1665. 1680 RAI2, hifi 1650 MRDK
c.1674 LIBAIA, son of Belu-bani, king of Ashur from 1691, ends.  Son SHARMA-ADAD-I succeeds to 1662. 1674 CAH 2.1, RAI3, frN, kidA
1673 hifi
c.1665 USHI, king of Kassites at Mari from 1680, ends.  ABIRATASH succeeds to 1650. 1665 hifi     Ushi & Abirtash are same man: RAI2
c.1662 SHARMA-ADAD-I, son of Libaia, king of Ashur from 1674, ends.  Son IPTAR-SIN succeeds to 1650. 1662 CAH 2.1, RAI3, frN, kidA
1661 hifi
c.1660 URUK, ISIN, LAGASH, LARSA, under Sealands from ? lost to Babylon. reign of Damiqilishu: hifi
c.1657 DAMIQ-ILISHU, 3rd king of SEALANDS from 1683, ends.  ISHKIBAL succeeds to 1642. 1657 hifi
no date: brKB, stmaB, wikB
c.1650 IPTAR-SIN, son of Sharm-Adad-1, king of Ashur from 1662, ends.  Son BAZAIRA succeeds to 1622. 1650 CAH 2.1, RAI3, frN, kidA
1649 hifi
c.1650 ABIRATASH, king of Kassites at Mari from 1665, ends.  KASTILIASH-II succeeds to 1640. 1660 Tashi-Gurmash succeeds: RAI2     1650 hifi
c.1650  ATRAHASIS MYTH  - a version of the Λ FLOOD V story:  Heaven is ruled by Anu, earth by Enlil, subterranean water by Enki.  Minor gods (field workers) rebel.  Humans are made from clay, saliva and god blood to work the fields.  Human noise disturbs Enlil's sleep.  He decides to destroy them with flood.  Enki gives Akkadian Atrahasis 7 days warning, so he builds a boat. 1700 gvsu, ratra
1700-1640 ahe
1700-1600 brtms
c.1650  ERIDU GENESIS  written in Sumerian cuneiform:  Contains fragments of the Flood story.  The gods have decided not to save mankind from an impending flood.  King/priest Zi-ud-sura learns of this.  Enki is mentioned.  [gap]  A storm rocks the boat 7 days and nights.  Utu the Sun god appears.  Zi-ud-sura creates an opening in the boat, prostrates himself, and sacrifices oxen and sheep.  [gap]  Animals disembark.  Zi-ud-sura prostrates himself before An (sky-god) and Enlil (chief god), who give him eternal life and take him to dwell in Dilmun. 2150 wikSCM
1700-1600 wikZsd
c.1647 HURRIANS, in north Aram from 1725, 1st recorded invasion of Anatolia, capture everything up to Hattusa.  HATTUSILI-I counterattacks, and drives them back out of Anatolia. yr 3 hinf
1635 WPOT 223
c.1647 AMMI-DITANA ends.  9th king of 1st dynasty of Babylon from 1683.  Son AMMI-SADUQA succeeds 1646-26. 1702 bk     1647 Sag 74, WPOT 115, brKB, frM, hifi, stmaB     1583 wikB
c.1642 ISHKIBAL, 4th king of SEALANDS from 1657, ends.  SHUSHUSHI succeeds to 1618. 1642 hifi
no date: brKB, stmaB, wikB
c.1640 KASTILIASH-II, king of Kassites at Mari from 1650, ends.  URZIGURUMASH succeeds to 1630. 1640 hifi
1640 Harba-Shipak succeeds Tashi-Gurmash: RAI2
c.1630 URZIGURUMASH, king of Kassites at Mari from 1640, ends.  HARBASHIHU succeeds to 1600. 1630 hifi     1600 MRDK
c.1626 AMMI-SADUQA ends.  10th king of 1st dynasty of Babylon from 1646.  SAMSU-DITANNA succeeds to 1595. 1682 bk     1626 B76 11-979, Sag1 74, WPOT 115, brKB, frM, hifi, stmaB
1562 wikB
c.1622 BAZAIRA, son of Iptar-Sin, king of Ashur from 1650, ends.  LULLAIA "son of a nobody" succeeds to 1618. 1622 CAH 2.1, RAI3, frN, kidA
1621 hifi
c.1618 LULLAIA "son of a nobody", king of Ashur from 1622, ends. 1618 CAH 2.1, RAI3, frN, kidA
1615 hifi
c.1618 SHUSHUSHI, 5th king of SEALANDS from 1642, ends.  GULKISHAR succeeds to 1592. 1618 hifi
no date: brKB, stmaB, wikB
c.1615 KIDIN-NINUA, son of Bazaira, becomes king of Ashur to 1602. 1615 CAH 2.1, RAI3, frN, hifi, kidA
c.1602 KIDIN-NINUA, son of Bazaira, king of Ashur from 1615, ends.  Son SHARMA-ADAD-II succeeds to 1601. 1602 CAH 2.1, RAI3, frN, kidA
1601 hifi
c.1601 SHARMA-ADAD-II, son of Kidin-Ninua, king of Ashur from 1602, ends.  Son IRISHUM-III succeeds to 1586. 1601 RAI3, frN, kidA
1599 CAH 2.1
1598 RAI3, hifi, kidA
c.1600 Oldest recorded leather SHOE V (other than Λ sandals) is a wraparound strapped to the foot with rawhide laces. 1600
EOET 295
c.1600 HURRIANS have several kingdoms in northwest Mesopotamia. 1600 mxfld
c.1600 HARAN, under various Akkadian peoples from 1760, comes under Arameans until 900. 1600 rcT
c.1600 MARI, under Kassites 1730-1595, sacked by MURSILI-I, king of Hittites 1620-1590. no date: Sag 74
c.1600 HARBASHIHU, king of Kassites at Mari from 1630, ends.  TIPTAKZI succeeds to 1595. 1620 RAI2 1600 hifi
c.1600  Babylonian tablet YBC 7289  Inscribed with sexagesimal (base-60) numbers that describe the relationship between the length of the diagonal and the length of the sides of a square.
Λ MATH V:  Approximates √2 to 5 - 8 decimal places.  (Sources disagree.)   (See  Rhind Pap. 1650China 950zero 876)
1800-1600 mubc, wikBM, wikYbc
1600 aukl
c.1600 Babylonian  HYMN to ISHTAR  written. 1600 bk, g2b
c.1595 MURSILI-I, king of Hittites, plunders and burns BABYLON.   Goes home. 1650 bk     1595 PW 15, Sag1 74, frM, frN, hifi     1590 B76 V-67     1531 vrb
c.1595 SAMSU-DITANNA dies.  11th king of 1st dynasty of Babylon from 1626, killed by Mursilis-I. 1595 B76 11-978, CWH, Sag1 74, brKB, frM, hifi, stmaB
1550 FLAP 45
1531 wikB
OLD BABYLONIAN period ends.  Began 2000.
1st (Amorite) dynasty of Babylon ends.  Began 1894.
c.1595 MARI, under Kassites from 1730, comes under Hittites until 1590. 1595 rcS
c.1595 TIPTAKZI, king of Kassites at Mari from 1600, ends.  AGUM-II succeeds to 1585. 1626 bk     1602 RAI2
1595 hifi     1580 MRDK
c.1595 KASSITES under AGUM-II invade Babylonia, take Babylon. 1650 FHBC 74
1595 RAI2 197, 202, 208, Sag 74, hifi     1593 CAH 2.1-270
1525 B76 19-521
1500 SOTS 24
AGUM-II ascends as 1st king of Kassite dynasty of Babylon until 1585.
KASSITE PERIOD of Babylon begins until 1235.
Chronologies:  High = 1651, Middle =1595, Low = 1531
c.1592 GULKISHAR, 6th king of SEALANDS from 1618, ends.  A king of unknown name succeeds to 1580. 1592 hifi
no date: brKB, stmaB, wikB
c.1590 MARI, under Hittites from 1595, back under Babylon until 1350. 1590 rcS
c.1586 IRISHUM-III, son of Sharma-Adad II, king of Ashur from 1598, ends.  Son SHAMSHI-ADAD-II succeeds to 1580. 1586 CAH 2.1, RAI3, kidA     1585 hifi
c.1585 AGUM-II ends.  King of Kassites at Mari from 1602, 1st king of Kassite dynasty of Babylon from 1595.  BURNABURIASH-I succeeds to 15??. 1585 RAI2
1545 hifi
1530 MQB
Kassite genealogy & chronology get complicated until 1470.
c.1580 SHAMSHI-ADAD-II, son of Irishum-III, king of Ashur from 1586, ends.  Son ISHMI-DAGAN-II succeeds to 1563. 1580 CAH 2.1, RAI3, kidA     1579 hifi
c.1580 PESHGALDRAMASH becomes king of SEALANDS to 1530. 1580 hifi
c.1575 ZODIAC discovered in eastern Mesopotamia. 1600-1551 TTS
c.1563 ISHMI-DAGAN-II, son of Shamshi-Adad-II, king of Ashur from 1580, ends.  Son SHAMSHI-ADAD-III succeeds to 1547. 1564 CAH 2.1 1563 hifi
c.1550 MIDDLE BRONZE AGE in Mesopotamia ends.  Began 1900.
LATE BRONZE AGE begins until 1200.
1550 wikBA
c.1550 CUT GLASS V evidenced by fragments found in Mesopotamia.  Glass indusrty continues strong until 1200.   (See Egypt 1550) 16-1500 thgi, vs2fr
1500 txgls
c.1547 SHAMSHI-ADAD-III, son of Ishme-Dagan-II, king of Ashur from 1563, ends.  Bro ASHUR-NIRARI-I succeeds to 1522. 1548 CAH 2.1
1547 RAI3, frN, hifi, kidA
c.1530 PESHGALDRAMASH, king of SEALANDS from 1580, ends.  ADARAKALAMMA succeeds to 1502. 1530 hifi
no date: brKB, stmaB, wikB
c.1522 ASHUR-NIRARI-I, son of Ishme-Dagan-II, king of Ashur from 1547, ends.  Son PUZUR-ASHUR-III succeeds 1521-1498. 1522 CAH 2.1, RAI3, frN, kidA     1521 hifi
c.1502 ADARAKALAMMA, king of SEALANDS from 1530, ends.  EKURDUANNA succeeds to 1476. 1502 hifi
no date: brKB, stmaB, wikB
c.1500 HURRIANS, in north Aram from 1585, establish kingdoms in northwest Mesopotamia.   Most important is MITANNI until 1320, capital:  Washukkanni.  A chief of one group of Hurrians, PARATTARNA dies.  KIRTA succeeds until 1490. 1550 SHWC 21
1500 B76 VI-942, X-564, 11-980, anan, hifaA, stmaM, wikH
c.1500  BORDER TREATY PUZUR-ASHUR-III king of Ashur 1521-1498 and BABYLONIA. 1490
B76 11-981
c.1500 IRON SMELTING V improved by Hittites and Mitannians. 1500 TTT
c.1500 HORSES, in Mesopotamia from 1740, maintained by Assyrian kings in elaborate stables by professional trainers. 1500
B76 8-1092
c.1500 SAUSAGE made in Mesopotamia by stuffing animal guts with spiced meat. 1500 EOET 396
c.1500 SUNDIAL used in Babylonia.   (See Egypt 1475) 1500 wikSnd
c.1500 Λ GLASS V ornament and vessels appear in Mesopotamia.   Much more glass after 1500, molding, cutting, core winding.   Earliest examples of painted glass.  Soon brought to Egypt. 1500 SHT 1-311, 337, 341, TTT
1400-1351 TTS
c.1500 Ziggurat of Ur, originally built of sun-dried brick, has its steps replaced with burnt brick. 1500 B76 3-163
c.1498 PUZUR-ASHUR-III, son of Ashur-Nirari-I, king of Ashur from 1521, ends.  Son ENLIL-NASIR-I succeeds to 1483. 1498 CAH 2.1, RAI3, frN, kidA     1497 hifi
c.1490 KIRTA ends.  Chief of Hurrians at Washukkanni from 1500.  SUTTARNA succeeds until 1480. 1550 MRDK
1490 anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1483 ENLIL-NASIR-I, son of Puzur-Ashur-III, king of Ashur from 1498, ends.  Son NUR-ILI succeeds to 1475. 1485 CAH 2.1 1483 hifi
c.1480 SUTTARNA ends.  Chief of Hurrians at Washukkanni from 1490.  PARATTARNA succeeds and becomes 1st known king of Mitanni until 1455. 1530 RAI3, frN
1480 RAI2, Sag 78
1470 anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1476 EKURDUANNA, king of SEALANDS from 1502, ends.  MELAMKURKUKKA succeeds to 1469. 1476 hifi
no date: brKB, stmaB, wikB
c.1475 Single-tube SEED DRILL used by Sumerians, a sowing device that precisely positions seeds in the soil and then covers them. 1500 wikSD
1500-1451 TTS, TTT
c.1475 ASSYRIA becomes vassal to MITANNI until 1365. 1500 RAI3 256
1475 hifi     1472 aina
c.1475 NUR-ILI, son of Enlil-Nasir-I, king of Ashur from 1483, ends.  Son ASHUR-SHADUNI succeeds as vassal to Mitanni until 1472. 1475 hifi
1473 CAH 2.1
c.1472 ASHUR-SHADUNI, son of Nur-ili, king of Ashur (vassal to Mitanni) from 1475, ends.  ASHUR-RABI-I, son of Enlil-Nasir-I, succeeds to 1452. 1472
CAH 2.1, hifi
c.1470 PARATTARNA, king of Mitanni 1480-55, conquers KIZZUWATNA, Anatolia, independent kingdom from 1540, under king Pillaya from ?. Pillaya becomes vassal of Mitanni until ?. no date: hinf
Peak of Hurrian westward expansion.
c.1470 KASSITE BABYLON, under insignificant rulers from 1550, KASHTILIASH-III ascends as king of Babylon until 1460. 1470 RAI2, Sag
no date: brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
c.1469 MELAMKURKUKKA, king of SEALANDS from 1476, ends.  An unknown person succeeds and ends.  EA-GAMIL succeeds to 1460. 1469 hifi
no date: brKB, stmaB, wikB
c.1460 KASHTILIASH-III dies.  Kassite king of 3rd dynasty of Babylon from 1470.
Bro ULAMBURIASH succeeds to 1440.
1470 MQB     1460 RAI2
1450 Sag1 79
no date: brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
c.1460 EA-GAMIL, king of SEALANDS from 1469, conquered by ULAMBURIASH, Kassite king of Babylon 1460-40.
BABYLONIAN "SEALANDS" (Ur, Uruk, Eridu, Larsa, maybe Lagash), all independent from 1721, end.  Babylonia reunited until ?.
1460 brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
no date: Sag
c.1460 KISH, under Sealands from 1732, comes under Babylonia. 1460 hifi
c.1457 THUTMOSE-III, pharaoh of 18th (Theban) dynasty 1504-1436 (8th campaign) crosses Euphrates into Mitanni, surprising Mitannian king, who flees.  T-III captures 30 harem girls and hundreds of troops.  T-III then conquers Mitannian cities unopposed.  Returns to Aram. 1457 MCAW 32
T-3 yr 33 B76 18-366, GEoP 194, T-3
c.1455 PARATTARNA ends.  Hurrian king of Mitanni from 1480.  PARSATATAR succeeds to 1440 - or he may be the same man. 1500 RAI3     1480 B76 VI-942, frN
1455 RAI2, Sag
1450 MRDK, anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1452 ASHUR-RABI-I, son of Enlil-Nasir-I, king of Ashur (vassal to Mitanni) from 1472, ends.  Son ASHUR-NADIN-AHE-I succeeds to 1432. 1453 CAH 2.1 1452 hifi
c.1450 King of Mitanni conquers vassal Assyria.   Carries off golden gates of Ashur. 1472 aina
1450 king not named: MCAW 32
c.1450 MITANNI becomes most powerful state in Mid East until 1360. 1450 wikH
c.1440 PARSATATAR ends.  (maybe = PARATTARNA), Hurrian king of Mitanni from 1455.  SAUSHATAR succeeds to 1410. 1500 RAI3     1480 B76 VI-942
1455 RAI2, Sag 78
1440 anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1440 MITANNI under SAUSHATAR extends from Mediterranean to Zagros Mts. including Alalakh, Nuzi, & Arapkha. 1440
B76 11-980
c.1440 ULAMBURIASH ends.  Kassite king of 3rd dyn. of Babylon from 1460.  AGUM-III succeeds to 1420. 1460 MQB     1451 MRDK 373
1450 MRDK     1440 RAI2, Sag
no date: brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
c.1432 ASHUR-NADIN-AHE-I, son of Ashur-Rabi-I, king of Ashur (vassal to Mitanni) from 1452, ends.  Bro ENLIL-NASIR-II succeeds to 1426. 1433 CAH 2.1 1432 hifi
c.1428 WASSUKANNI, city in Mitanni, conquered by Tudhaliya-II.  Annexed to Kizzuwatna until ?. 1370 bk
no date: hinf
c.1426 ENLIL-NASIR-II, son of Ashur-Rabi-I, king of Ashur (vassal to Mitanni) from 1432, ends.  Son ASHUR-NIRARI-II succeeds to 1419. 1427 CAH 2.1 1426 hifi
c.1420 AGUM-III ends.  Kassite king of 3rd dyn. of Babylon from 1440.  KARA-INDASH succeeds to 1405. 1445 RAI2 203
1450 Kadashman-Harbe succeeds: MRDK       1420 RAI2, Sag
no date: brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
c.1419 ASHUR-NIRARI-II, son of Enlil-Nasir-II, king of Ashur (vassal to Mitanni) from 1426, ends.  Son ASHUR-BEL-NISHESHU succeeds to 1410. 1420 CAH 2.1
1419 hifi
c.1415 ASHUR-BEL-NISHESHU king of Ashur 1419-10 makes  border treaty  with Babylonia. 1415 B76 11-981
c.1410 ASHUR-BEL-NISHESHU, son of Ashur-Nirari-II, king of Ashur (vassal to Mitanni) from 1419, ends. 1411 CAH 2.1
1410 hifi
c.1410 SAUSHATAR ends.  King of Mitanni from 1440.  ARTATAMA-I succeeds to 1400. 1430 CAH 2.1-680, RAI3, frN
1420 RAI2, Sag 78
1410 anan hifaA, stmaM
c.1405 KARA-INDASH ends.  Kassite king of 3rd dyn. of Babylon from 1420.  KADASHMAN-HARBE-I succeeds to 1400. 1427 RAI2 203
1405 RAI2, Sag
no date: brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
c.1402 Son of Ashur-bel-Nisheshu, ASHUR-NADIN-AHE-II ascends as king of Ashur (vassal to Mitanni) until 1393. 1402 B76 11-981, CAH 2.1, hifi
c.1400 ARTATAMA-I ends.  King of Mitanni from 1410.  SHUTTARNA-II succeeds to 1385. 1400 RAI2, RAI3, Sag 79, anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1400 AMORITE LANGUAGE, in Mesopotamia from 2200, in Levant from 2100, disappears in Mesopotamia, becomes dominant in Levant. 1400+/-100 B76 I-321
c.1400 Linguistic evidence proves that Indo-Aryan speech forms older than the oldest known Avestan or Sanskrit exist in Cappadocia and Syria.  Aryans principalities now appear in Syria and Mesopotamia. 1400
HCIP 1-209, 222
c.1400 UMBRELLA invented in Mesopotamia as an extension of the fan for protection from the sun.   (See Egypt 1200) 1400 EOET 318
c.1400 KADASHMAN-HARBE-I ends.  Kassite king of 3rd dyn. of Babylon from 1405.  KURIGALZU-I succeeds to 1376. 1415 B76 11-980
1400 MRDK, RAI2, Sag
no date: brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
c.1393 Son of Ashur-bel-Nisheshu, ASHUR-NADIN-AHE-II ends.  King of Assyria (vassal to Mitanni) from 1402.  Bro ERIBA-ADAD-I succeeds 1392-66. 1393 B76 11-981, CAH 2.1, RAI3, Sag, frN, kidA
1392 CAH 2.2, hifi
1380 absA, lexA
MIDDLE ASSYRIAN Kingdom begins until 912 V .
c.1385 SHUTTARNA-II dies.  King of Mitanni from 1400.  Son ARTASHUMARA succeeds to 1380. 1390 RAI3, Sag1 80
1385 RAI2, anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1380 ARTASHUMARA dies.  King of Mitanni from 1385, murdered by Uthi, who installs another son of Shuttarna-II, TUSHRATTA who succeeds to 1350, with Uthi as regent until ?. 1390 B76 11-980, 4nel
1385 frN
1380 anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1380 MITANNI splits.  Homeland south of Lake Van breaks away under Tushratta's younger bro, ARTATAMA, who is called king of the Hurrians. no date: RAI3, RAI2, Sag 81
c.1380  TREATY  made by marriage alliance:
Hittites and Mitanni, kings not named.
1400 B76 9-346, NLEM 326
1380 B76 19-1171, MCAW 36
no date: FLAP 165
c.1380 BABYLONIAN PHYSICIANS sent by Tushratta of Mitanni to Egypt. no date: CWH 9
c.1376 KURIGALZU-I ends.  Kassite king of 3rd dyn. of Babylon from 1400.  KADASHMAN-ENLIL succeeds to 1375. 1391 hifi     1390 B76 11-980
1377 brKB     1376 RAI2, Sag
no date: stmaB, wikB
c.1375 KADASHMAN-ENLIL ends.  Kassite king of 3rd dyn. of Babylon from 1376.  BURNABURIASH-II succeeds to 1347. 1376 RAI2, RAI3, Sag, stmaB
1375 B76 11-980, CAH 2.2, MRDK, frN, hifi     1370 IDB 1-270
1361 brKB     1360 wikB
c.1370 ARTATAMA, king of the Hurrians, aided by Suppiluliuma-I, king of Hittites, attacks bro TUSHRATTA, king of Mitanni unsuccessfully. no date: Sag 81
c.1370 Western MITANNI taken by Suppiluliuma-I, king of Hittites, some of it only until 1352. no date: hinf
c.1370 WASSUKANNI, city in Mitanni, plundered by Suppiluliuma-I. 1370 bk     no date: hinf
c.1366 Son of Ashur-bel-Nisheshu, ERIBA-ADAD-I ends.  King of Assyria (vassal to Mitanni) from 1392.  Son ASHUR-UBALLIT-I succeeds 1365-30. 1366 CAH 2.2, CWH, IDB 1-271, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, frN, kidA
1365 B76 I-582, hifi
1353 absA, lexA
c.1365 ASSYRIA, vassal to Mitanni from 1475, breaks free under ASHUR-UBALLIT-I.  Assyria independent until ?. 1400 frN     1365 aina
1360 RAI3 256
c.1360 MITANNI, most powerful state in Mid East from 1450, power broken by Suppiluliuma-I, king of Hittites.  Washukkanni, capital of Mitanni, plundered. 1370 IDB 4-533     1355 B76 X-564     1350 wikH     1340 B76 1-818     no date: hinf
c.1360  TREATY ASHUR-UBALLIT-I, king of Assyria 1365-30 with BURNABURIASH-II, king of Babylon 1375-47. no date: Sag
Kara-Indash, son of Burnaburiash, marries dau of Ashur-Uballit.
c.1352 TUSHRATTA, king of Mitanni 1380-50, recovers much western territory taken by Suppiluliuma-I, king of Hittites, in 1361. no date: MCAW
c.1351 TUSHRATTA, king of Mitanni 1380-50, bids for alliance with AKHENATEN & fails.  Angers pro-Assyrian faction, which causes his death. no date: Sag 81
c.1350 TUSHRATTA, king of Mitanni from 1380, murdered by son and pro-Assyrian faction.  Son SHUTTARNA-III succeeds to later in 1350. 1360 B76 VI-942, RAI2 213, RAI3 259, bk     1350 MCAW 36, Sag1 81, anan, 4nel, frN, hifaA, stmaM
1340 B76 11-980
c.1350 MATTIWAZA (aka SHATTIWAZA), son of Tushratta, escapes from Mitanni to Babylonia.  Fails to get help there, and flees to Anatolia, where he gets support from Suppiluliuma. no date Sag1 81
c.1350 SHUTTARNA-III, king of Mitanni, shifts allegiance to Assyria.
Some sources say he was defeated in battle by ASHUR-UBALLIT-I, king of Assyria 1365-30.
1350
B76 11-981, hifaA
c.1350 MARI, under Babylon from 1590, comes under Arameans until 1250. 1350 rcS
c.1350 NUZI, under Hurrians from ?, taken by Assyrians. 1350 hifaA
c.1350 MATTIWAZA, son of Tushratta, supported by Suppiluliuma-I, invades Mitanni, overthrows SHUTTARNA-III.  MATTIWAZA succeeds as king of Mitanni and vassal of Suppiluliuma until 1320. 1350 anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1347 BURNABURIASH-II ends.  Kassite king of 3rd dyn of Babylon from 1375.  Pro-Assyrian son KARA-INDASH succeeds, but is killed by anti-Assyrian faction.  Usurper NAZI-BUGASH succeeds to 1346. 1347 B76 11-980, CAH 2.2, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, frN, hifi, stmaB     1340 IDB 1-270
1333 brKB, wikB
c.1346 NAZI-BUGASH ends.  Kassite king of 3rd dyn of Babylon from 1347, deposed by ASHUR-UBALLIT-I, who liquidates entire anti-Assyrian party. 1346 Sag     1345 hifi
1333 wikB     1331 brKB
c.1345 Pro-Assyrian Kassite KURIGALZU-II ascends as king of 3rd dyn of Babylon until 1324.  Installed by ASHUR-UBALLIT-I. 1345 B76 11-980, CAH 2.2, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, frN, hifi, stmaB 1332 wikB     1306 brKB
c.1330 Son of Eriba-Adad-I, ASHUR-UBALLIT-I ends.  King of Assyria from 1365.  Son ENLIL-NIRARI succeeds 1329-20. 1330 B76 I-582, 11-981, CAH 2.2, CWH, IDB 1-271, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, frN, kidA     1329 hifi     1327 FLAP 169     1318 absA, lexA
c.1329 KURIGALZU-II, king of Kassite 3rd dyn of Babylon 1345-24, vassal of Assyria, contends with ENLIL-NIRARI for throne of Assyria.  Civil war weakens Babylon. 1329 Sag
1328 B76 11-981,
c.1327 KURIGALZU-II, Kassite king of Babylon, temporarily occupies ELAM. 1320 wikE
c.1324 KURIGALZU-II ends.  King of Kassite 3rd dyn of Babylon from 1345.  NAZI-MURUTTASH succeeds 1323-1298. 1324 B76 11-980, CAH 2.2, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, frN, hifi, stmaB     1308 wikB     1306 brKB
c.1320 MITANNI, a Hurrian kingdom from 1500, vassal state to Suppiluliuma-I, king of Hittites from 1350, broken by Suppiluliuma.  Last king, MATTIWAZA is overthrown.  Mitanni continues in a reduced form under its Assyrian name, HANIGALBAT until 1300.  SHATTUARA-I rules until 1300. 1370 GEoP 198
1360 B76 VI-942
1350 SHWC 20 1340 B76 X-564, MCAW 38, frN
1320 anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1320 ENLIL-NIRARI, son of Ashur-Uballit-I ends.  King of Assyria from 1329.  Son ARIK-DEN-ILI succeeds 1319-08. 1320 B76 11-981, CAH 2.2,
IDB 1-289, RAI3, Sag     1319 frN, hifi, kidA     1308 absA, lexA
c.1310 AKHLAMU, Arab nomads, migrate into Aram and Mesopotamia. 1310 LEWH 46
c.1308 ARIK-DEN-ILI, son of Enlil-Nirari ends.  King of Assyria from 1319.  Son ADAD-NIRARI-I succeeds 1307-1275. 1308 B76 11-981, CAH 2.2,
IDB 1-289, RAI3, Sag, frN, kidA
1307 hifi     1296 absA, lexA
c.1300 ADAD-NIRARI-I, king of Assyria, claims that SHATTUARA-I, ruler of Hanigalbat, attacked him.  Adad-Nirari invades Hanigalbat, captures Shattuara, brings him back to Assur, makes him take an oath of vassalage, releases him. 1330 frN
1250 SOTS 90
no date: Sag 82, hinf
c.1300 HANIGALBAT, the residue of Mitanni from 1340, becomes vassal state to Assyria until 1270. 1250 SOTS 90
no date: Sag 82, hinf
c.1300 SHATTUARA-I, ruler of Hanigalbat from 1340, vassal of Assyria, ends.  WASHASATTA succeeds to 1280. 1300 anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1298 NAZI-MURUTTASH ends.  king of Kassite 3rd dyn of Babylon from 1324.  KADASHMAN-TURGU succeeds 1297-80. 1298 CAH 2.2, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, frN, hifi, stmaB
1282 wikB     1280 brKB
c.1282 WASHASATTA, ruler of Hanigalbat, vassal of Assyria 1300-1280, rebels against Adad-Nirari I.  Seeks Hittite aid.  Hittites accept his gifts, but never help him. no date: hinf
c.1281 ADAD-NIRARI-I, king of Assyria, invades Hanigalbat, takes capital, Taite, and many other cities.  WASHASATTA, ruler of Hanigalbat, retreats to Irrite.  Adad-Nirari takes Irrite and destroys it, annexes part of Hanigalbat. no date: hinf
c.1280 WASHASATTA, ruler of Hanigalbat, vassal of Assyria, from 1300, ends.  SHATTUARA-II succeeds to 1270. 1280 anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1280 KADASHMAN-TURGU ends.  king of Kassite 3rd dyn of Babylon from 1297.  KADASHMAN-ENLIL-II succeeds 1279-65. 1280 CAH 2.2, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, frN, hifi, stmaB
1264 wikB     1262 brKB
c.1275 Son of Arik-Den-Ili, ADAD-NIRARI-I ends.  King of Assyria from 1307.  Son SHALMANEZERI-I succeeds 1274-45. 1276 MCAW 40     1275 B76 9-831, 11-981, CAH 2.2, CWH, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, frN, kidA     1274 Sdl 3-311, hifi
1273 IDB 1-289     1264 absA, lexA
c.1275 URARTU, between Lakes Van & Urima, suffers intermittent invasions by Assyrians until 840. 1275
B76 18-1039
c.1270 SHATTUARA-II, last ruler of HANIGALBAT from 1280, rebels against overlord Shalmanezer-I, who conquers and deposes him.  HANIGALBAT is annexed to Assyria, except for a remnant in the northwest, where ILI-IPADA rules until 1240. 1270 Sag 82, anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1270 After capturing Mitannian Λ IRON making centers, the Assyrians fail to make sensible use of it until c.900. 1100 TTT
c.1265 KADASHMAN-ENLIL-II ends.  King of Kassite 3rd dyn of Babylon from 1280.  KUDUR-ENLIL-II succeeds to 1256. 1265 CAH 2.2, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, frN, hifi, stmaB     1255 wikB
1254 brKB
Kashtiliash-IV succeeds: Sag
c.1260 CARCHEMISH, under Hittites from 1340, taken by Shalmanezer-I, king of Assyria 1274-45.  Under Assyria until 1190. 1276 MCAW 40
c.1256 KUDUR-ENLIL-II ends.  King of Kassite 3rd dyn of Babylon from 1265.  SHAGARAKTI-SHURIASH succeeds 1255-43. 1256 CAH 2.2, MRDK, RAI3
1255 frN, hifi, stmaB
1246 wikB     1245 brKB
c.1250 MONEY:  In this century, SILVER is the medium of exchange thruout Anatolia, Mesopotamia, & LevantBabylonian shekel (8.4g) is basic weight unit.  60 shekels = 1 mina. 1250 MCAW 41
c.1250 Flow of Tigris and Euphrates begins falling rapidly, reaching low point c.1150. 1250 pczy
c.1250 MARI, under Arameans from 1350, comes under Assyria until 1200. 1250 rcS
c.1249 SHALMANEZER-I, king of Assyria 1274-45, temporarily takes BABYLON.  Removes statue of Marduk until 1134. 1249
MCAW 40, 43
c.1245 Son of Adad-Narari-I, SHALMANEZER-I ends.  King of Assyria from 1274.  Son TUKULTI-NINURTA-I succeeds 1244-08. 1257 MCAW 40     1246 Sdl 1-429
1245 B76 9-832, 11-981, CAH 2.2, CWH, IDB 1-272, 301, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, bk, frN, kidA     1244 B76 X-173, Sdl 3-311, hifi     1242 IDB 1-289
1234 AYGC 161, absA, lexA
c.1243 SHAGARAKTI-SHURIASH ends.  King of Kassite 3rd dyn of Babylon from 1255.  KASHTILIASH-IV succeeds 1242-35. 1243 CAH 2.2, MRDK, RAI3, frN, hifi, stmaB
1233 wikB     1232 brKB
c.1240 ILI-IPADA, ruler of the northwest end of Hanigalbat from 1270, rebels against overlord Tukulti-Ninurta-I, who conquers and annexed his land to Assyria. 1240 hifaA
c.1240 KASHTILIASH-IV, king of Kassite Babylon 1242-35, caught between 2 enemies:  Tukulti-Ninurta-I of Assyria, Kiddin-Khuntran of Elam. soon after 1250 RAI2 216
c.1238 KASHTILIASH-IV, king of Kassite Babylon 1242-35, fights, Unpatar-Naprisha of Elam unsuccessfully. 1230 wikE
c.1235 Kassite 3rd Dynasty of Babylon ends.  Began 1595.  Conquered by Assyria. 1235 B76 11-980, CAH 2.2, MRDK, RAI3, frN, hifi, stmaB
1232 AYGC 161
1231 Sdl 1-429     1225 wikB
1224 brKB
Kash-III: IDB 1-270
Kash-V: Sag
KASHTILIASH-IV ends.  King of Kassite 3rd dyn of Babylon from 1242, taken in chains to Assyria.
BABYLON comes under Assyrian governors until 1227.
c.1230 KASSITES defeated in battle by KIDDIN-KHUTRAN, king of Elam. 1230 hifi 1224 wikE
c.1227 BABYLONIA, under Assyria from 1235, back under Kassites until 1157.  ENLIL-NADIN-SHUMI reigns as an Assyrian puppet until 1224.
Assyrians
will not directly rule Babylonia again until 729.
1228 CAH 2.2
1227 RAI3, hifi
1224 brKB, wikB
c.1225 ASTRONOMY V:  Babylonians have an instrument to determine when a star or planet is due south. 1250-01 TTS
c.1224 ENLIL-NADIN-SHUMI Kassite king of Babylon (Assyrian puppet) defeated in battle by KIDDIN-KHUTRAN, king of Elam. 1224 wikE
c.1224 ENLIL-NADIN-SHUMI, Kassite king of Babylon (Assyrian puppet) from 1227, ends.  KADASHMAN-HARBE-II succeeds to 1221. 1225 CAH 2.2
1224 hifi, wikB
1221 brKB
c.1221 KADASHMAN-HARBE-II, Kassite king of Babylon (Assyrian puppet) from 1224,ends.  ADAD-SHUMA-IDDINA succeeds to 1218 1225 CAH 2.2
1222 hifi, wikB
1221 brKB
c.1220 ADAD-SHUMA-IDDINA, Kassite king of Babylon (Assyrian puppet), defeated in battle by KIDDIN-KHUTRAN, king of Elam. 1222-17 wikE
c.1218 ADAD-SHUMA-IDDINA, Kassite king of Babylon (Assyrian puppet) from 1221, ends.  ADAD-SHUMA-USUR succeeds to 1189. 1219 CAH 2.2     1218 B76 11-980, frN, stmaB     1217 hifi
1216 hifi, wikB     1215 brKB
c.1208 Son of Shalmaneser-I, TUKULTI-NINURTA-I dies.  King of Assyria from 1244, killed by son ASHUR-NADIN-APLI, who succeeds 1207-03. 1208 B76 X-173, 9-831, 11-981, CAH 2.2, CWH, IDB 1-272, 301, RAI3, Sag, bk, frN, kidA     1207 Sdl 1-425, hifi     1197 absA, lexA
c.1203 Son of Tukulti-Ninurta-I, ASHUR-NADIN-APLI ends.  King of Assyria from 1208.  Son ASHUR-NIRARI-III succeeds to 1197. 1204 CAH 2.2, Sag
1203 hifi     1194 absA, lexA
no date: kidA
c.1200 MARI, under Assyria from 1250, comes under Babylon until 750. 1200 rcS
c.1200 LATE BRONZE AGE ends in Mesopotamia from 1550.
EARLY IRON AGE begins until ?.
1200 wikBA
c.1200 Λ GLASS making:  An active industry in Egypt and Mesopotamia from at least 1550, declines in Mesopotamia until 750. 1200 txgls
c.1200 Λ ASTRONOMY V:  Earliest star catalogs in Babylonia.  Many star names are in Sumerian.  (See Egypt  1200) 1800-1751 TTS
1200 wikHA
c.1200 Λ  GILGAMESH EPIC  Akkadian version edited by Sin-liqe-unninni.  Includes long version of the Λ FLOOD story.   (See library 63?) 1300-1000 wikGFM
c.1200 MECHANICS:  Rotary motion converted to back and forth motion by Mesopotamians. 1200 TTT
c.1197 Son of Ashur-nadin-apli, ASHUR-NIRARI-III ends.  King of Assyria from 1204.  Son of Tukulti-Ninurta-I, ENLIL-KUDUR-USUR succeeds to 1193. 1198 CAH 2.2     1197 Sag, hifi     no date: kidA
1188 absA, lexA
c.1197 ENLIL-KUDUR-USUR, king of Assyria, attacks Babylonia. 1197 Sag
c.1193 Son of Tukulti-Ninurta-I, ENLIL-KUDUR-USUR ends.  King of Assyria from 1197.  Noble backed by Babylon NINURTA-APAL-EKUR succeeds 1192-80. 1193 CAH 2.2, RAI3, Sag, kidA     1192 hifi
1183 absA, lexA
c.1190 CARCHEMISH, under Assyria from 1260, recovered by Hittites.  Becomes their chief city until 1110. guess
c.1189 ADAD-SHUMA-USUR, Kassite king of Babylon from 1218, ends.  MELISHIPAK succeeds 1188-74. 1189 B76 11-980, CAH 2.2, RAI3, frN, stmaB
1187 hifi, wikB     1185 brKB
c.1180 Son of Ila-Hadda, NINURTA-APAL-EKUR ends.  King of Assyria from 1193.  Son of Ashur-Nadin-Apli, ASHUR-DAN-I succeeds 1179-34. 1180 CAH 2.2, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, absA, frN, hifi, kidA, lexA
c.1174 MELISHIPAK, Kassite king of Babylon from 1188, ends.  MARDUK-APAL-IDDINA-I succeeds 1173-61. 1174 CAH 2.2, RAI3, frN, stmaB
1172 B76 11-980, hifi, wikB
1170 brKB
c.1161 MARDUK-APAL-IDDINA-I, Kassite king of Babylon from 1173, ends.  ZABABA-SHUMA-IDDINA succeeds to 1159. 1161 CAH 2.2, RAI3, frN, stmaB
1159 hifi, wikB     1157 brKB
c.1160 ARAMEANS of north Arabia begin moving into north Aram. no date: LEWH 46
c.1158 SHUTRUK-NAHUNTE, king of Elam 1185-55, invades Kassite Babylonia. 1176 LEWH 52
c.1158 ZABABA-SHUMA-IDDINA, Kassite king of Babylon from 1161, killed by SHUTRUK-NAHUNTE, king of Elam, who installs Zababa's eldest son ENLIL-NADINSHE until 1157. 1160 CAH 2.2
1159 RAI3, frN, stmaB
1158 hifi, wikB, wikE     1156 brKB
c.1158 SHUTRUK-NAHUNTE, king of Elam 1185-55, takes Babylon.  Pushes Kassites out.  Takes  LAW STELE of HAMMURABI  to Susa. 1176 LEWH 52     1175 FHBC 74 1173 MCAW 46     1171 RAI2
1170 WPOT 181     1162 CWH
1158 wikE     1157 RAI3
c.1157 ENLIL-NADINSHE, Kassite king of Babylon from 1159, overthrown by Shutruk-Nahunte, king of Elam.  MARDUK-KABIT-AKHESHU succeeds 1156-39. 1175 FHBC 74     1173 MCAW 46 1171 RAI2     1170 WPOT 181
1162 CWH     1157 CAH 2.2, RAI3, MRDK, frN, stmaB
1155 hifi, wikB     1153 brKB
c.1157 KASSITE BABYLON from 1227, overthrown by Shutruk-Nahunte, king of Elam 1185-55.
KASSITE activity in Mesopotamia from 1735 ends.
1175 FHBC 74     1173 MCAW 46 1171 RAI2     1170 WPOT 181
1162 CWH     1160 AYGC 162
1157 RAI3, MRDK, bk, frN, mxfld, stmaB     1155 B76 11-980, hifi, wikB     1153 brKB
MIDDLE BABYLONIAN period begins until 732.
4th DYNASTY of BABYLON begins (aka 2nd DYNASTY of ISIN) until 1025.
c.1150 KUTIR-NAHUNTE-III, king of Elam 1155-50, plunders temple of Akkad. 1150 LEWH
c.1150 Flow of Tigris and Euphrates, falling rapidly from 1250, reaches low point, returning to normal after 950. 1150 pczy
c.1139 MARDUK-KABIT-AKHESHU, 1st king of 4th dyn of Babylon from 1157, ends.  ITTI-MARDUK-BALATU succeeds to 1132. 1152 CWH, RAI2     1146 hifi
1139 B76 11-981, CAH 2.2, RAI3, frN, stmaB     1146 brKB, wikB
c.1138 ELAMITES, occupying and raiding Babylonia from ?, expelled. 1138 hifi
c.1134 Son of Ashur-Nadin-Apli, ASHUR-DAN-I dies.  King of Assyria from 1179.  Two sons: Mutakkil-Nusku and Ninurta-Tukulti-Ashur compete for throne.  Babylon interferes and installs NINURTA-TUKULTI-ASHUR to 1133. 1135 aina     1134 B76 11-982, CAH 2.2, RAI3, Sag, bk, frN, hifi, kidA     1133 absA, lexA
c.1134 Statue of Marduk, in Assyria from 1249 returned to Babylon by NINURTA-TUKULTI-ASHUR, king of Assyria. 1134 Sag
c.1134 ARAMEANS, in north and east Aram from 1160, move east.  Pressure Assyria and Babylonia. 1134 Sag
no date: IDB 1-186
c.1133 Son of Ashur-Dan-I, NINURTA-TUKULTI-ASHUR ends.  King of Assyria from 1134.  Son of Mutakkil-Nusku, ASHUR-RESHISHI-I, succeeds to 1116. 1134 RAI3, Sag
1133 B76 11-982, CAH 2.2, IDB 1-191, absA, aina, bk, frN, kidA, lexA
c.1132 ITTI-MARDUK-BALATU, 2nd king of 4th dyn of Babylon from 1139, ends.  NINURTA-NADIN-SHUMI succeeds to 1126. 1143 CWH, RAI2
1132 brKB, hifi, wikB   1131 CAH 2.2
no date: stmaB
c.1126 NINURTA-NADIN-SHUMI, 3rd king of 4th dyn of Babylon from 1132, ends.  NEBUCHADREZZAR-I succeeds to 1103. 1128 LEWH 52     1126 brKB, hifi, wikB     1125 CAH 2.2, LEWH 31
1124 B76 9-831, RAI2, RAI3, Sag
no date: stmaB
c.1120 ARAMEANS of north and East Aram, move northwest and southwest. 1120 TAWH 56
c.1120 Babylonians take some Assyrian territory on lower Tigris. by 1115 mxfld
c.1116 Son of Mutakkil-Nusku, ASHUR-RESHISHI-I ends.  King of Assyria from 1133.  Son TIGLATH-PILESER-I succeeds 1115-1076. 1116 B76 11-982, CAH 2.2,
IDB 1-272, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, WPOT 135, bk, frN, kidA
1115 IDB 1-190, absA, hifi, lexA     1114 SOTS 115, 165
c.1112 gold cup Kuduru (boundary stone) recording a grant of 5 gur of corn-land, in the district of Edina in Southern Babylonia, to Gula-eresh by Eanna-shum-iddina, governor of the Sea-Land.  STAR and CRESCENT in combination is shown at top. 1125-00
wik


Photo Marie-Lan Nguyen
c.1110 MUSHKI people of east Anatolia first appear in records of TIGLATH-PILESER-I, king of Assyria 1115-1076, who defeats 5 of their chiefs in Kutmuhi east of Euphrates. 1100
IDB 3-357
c.1110 TIGLATH-PILESER-I, king of Assyria 1115-1076, crosses Euphrates into Anatolia, defeats Phrygians and remnants of Hittites. 1120 wikA
1114 MCAW 48
c.1110 NEBUCHADREZZAR-I, king of Babylon 1126-03, defeats HULELUTUSH-INSHUSHINAK, king of Elam 1120-1110, captures SUSA. no date:
MCAW 46, wikE
c.1110 Λ CAMEL V:  Dromedary present at Mari from 1750, first mentioned in a non-Biblical extant document - a broken obelisk of T-P-I.  Used in caravans. 1100 IDB 1-490, 536
by 1000 SHT 1-706
c.1110 CARCHEMISH, under Hittites from 1190, taken by TIGLATH-PILESER-I.  Under Assyria until ?. 1120 wikA
c.1110 KERMES OAK, native to Anatolia, brought by Tiglath-Pileser-I to Assyria.  This is host plant to the kermes insect, from which crimson dye is made. 1100
SHT 1-246
c.1108 TIGLATH-PILESER-I, king of Assyria 1115-1076, subjugates AMURRU and Phoenicia.  Takes cedar for temples of Anu and Adad. 1120 wikA
c.1103 NEBUCHADREZZAR-I, 4th king of 4th dyn of Babylon from 1126, ends.  ENLIL-NADIN-APLI succeeds to 1100. 1104 bk     1103 B76 9-831, 11-981, CAH 2.2, brKB, hifi, wikB     no date: stmaB
c.1100 Army of TIGLATH-PILESER-I, king of Assyria 1115-1076, reaches Mediterranean. 1103 TTPC 9, WPOT 119
c.1100  MIDDLE ASSYRIAN LAW CODE  of Tiglath-Pileser-I.  Penalties include much amputation and death.
(See Eshnunna 1930, Lipit Ishtar 1870, Hammurabi 1790, Hittite 1370, Mosaic 1100, COMPARE)
1100 AYGC 102
1075 frdu, wikSod
c.1100 Λ BOOTS:  calf high, leather laced, with a sole reinforced with metal used by Assyrian army. 1100 EOET 296
c.1100 NISIBIS founded by Arameans, independent until 896. 1100 GHH
c.1100 ARAMEANS of East Aram, begin moving into Babylonia until 900. 1100 WPOT 193 1080 TAWH 56
c.1100 ENLIL-NADIN-APLI, king of 4th dyn of Babylon from 1103, ends.  MARDUK-NADIN-AHE succeeds to 1082. 1100 brKB, hifi, wikB 1099 CAH 2.2
no date: stmaB
c.1094 TIGLATH-PILESER-I, king of Assyria 1115-1076, raids Aram. 1094 IDB 4-722
c.1090 Lack of rain in Assyria.  No harvests are picked. 1090 pczy
c.1082 MARDUK-NADIN-AHE, king of 4th dyn of Babylon from 1100, ends.  MARDUK-SHAPIK-ZERI succeeds to 1069. 1082 brKB, hifi, wikB
1081 B76 11-981, CAH 2.2
no date: stmaB
Itti-Marduk-Balati 1080 Sag
c.1080 ASSYRIA hit by flood, famine, plague.  Cannibalism reported. 1082 pczy     1080 MCAW 50
c.1076 Son of Ashur-Resh-Ishi-I, TIGLATH-PILESER-I, King of Assyria from 1115.  Son ASHARID-APAL-EKUR-I succeeds to 1074. 1077 B76 IX-1006, 11-982, CAH 2.2, RAI3, Sag, bk, frN, hifi, kidA     1076 FLAP 170, IDB 1-190, 272, MCAW 50, SOTS 165, WPOT 135, absA, lexA
1074 MWΦ 10, Sdl 1-417, SOTS 115
c.1074 Son of Tiglath-Pileser-I, ASHARID-APAL-EKUR-I ends.  King of Assyria from 1076.  Bro ASHUR-BEL-KALA succeeds to 1057. 1075 CAH 2.2, hifi     1074 B76 11-982, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, WPOT 137, absA, aina, frN, kidA, lexA
c.1074 Assyria starts losing territory to ARAMEANS, including cities of Tur Abdin, Haran, and Khabur. reign of Ashurbelkala: aina
c.1069 MARDUK-SHAPIK-ZERI, king of 4th dyn of Babylon from 1082, ends.  ADAD-APLA-IDDINA succeeds to 1046. 1069 brKB, hifi, wikB
1068 CAH 2.2, RAI2, RAI3, Sag     1067 stmaB
c.1057 Son of Tiglath-Pileser-I, ASHUR-BEL-KALA ends.  King of Assyria from 1074.  Son ERIBA-ADAD-II succeeds to 1056-54. 1057 B76 11-982, CAH 2.2, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, bk, frN, hifi, kidA
1056 WPOT 137, absA, lexA
c.1054 Son of Ashur-bel-kala, ERIBA-ADAD-II ends.  King of Assyria from 1056.  SHAMSHI-ADAD-IV succeeds to 1050. 1055 CAH 2.2, hifi     1054 absA, lexA     omit: RAI3, frN, kidA
c.1050 Son of Tiglath-Pileser-I, SHAMSHI-ADAD-IV ends.  King of Assyria from 1054.  Son ASHUR-NASIRPAL-I succeeds to 1031. 1051 CAH 2.2, hifi
1050 B76 I-582, 11-982, RAI3 absA, frN, kidA, lexA     1049 RAI2
c.1046 ADAD-APLA-IDDINA, king of 4th dyn of Babylon from 1069, ends.  MARDUK-AHE-ERIBA succeeds and ends.  MARDUK-ZER-X succeeds to 1033. 1046 CAH 2.2, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
c.1033 MARDUK-ZER-X, king of 4th dyn of Babylon from 1046, ends.  NABU-SHUM-LIBUR succeeds to 1025. 1033 CAH 2.2, brKB, hifi, wikB
1032 RAI3, stmaB
c.1031 Son of Shamshi-Adad-IV, ASHUR-NASIRPAL-I ends.  King of Assyria from 1050.  Son SHALMANESER-II succeeds to 1019. 1032 B76 I-582, 11-982, CAH 2.2, RAI3, bk, frN, hifi, kidA     1031 RAI2, absA, lexA
c.1025 NABU-SHUM-LIBUR, king of 4th dyn of Babylon from 1033, ends.  A new dynasty begins until 1004.  SIMBAR-SHIPAK succeeds to 1008. 1038 RAI2     1025 CAH 2.2, RAI3, brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
1024 B76 11-982
c.1025 4th DYNASTY of BABYLON ends.
Began 1157  (aka 2nd DYNASTY of ISIN).
5th DYNASTY of BABYLON begins until 1004.
1038 RAI2     1025 RAI3, brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
c.1019 Son of Ashurnasirpal-I, SHALMANESER-II ends.  King of Assyria from 1031.  Son ASHUR-NIRARI-IV succeeds to 1013. 1020 CAH 2.2, RAI3, frN, hifi, kidA     1019 RAI2, absA, lexA
c.1013 Son of Shalmaneser-II, ASHUR-NIRARI-IV ends.  King of Assyria from 1019.  Uncle ASHUR-RABI-II succeeds to 973. 1016 RAI3, frN, kidA   1014 CAH 2.2, hifi     1013 absA, lexA     1012 IDB 1-191, 2-507, SOTS 115, WPOT 138
1010 RAI2, Sag, Sdl 3-212
c.1008 SIMBAR-SHIPAK, 1st king of 5th dyn of Babylon from 1025, ends.  EA-MUKIN-SHUMI succeeds and ends.  KASHU-NADIN succeeds to 1004. 1022 RAI2     1008 brKB, hifi, wikB
1007 B76 11-982, CAH 2.2, RAI3, stmaB
c.1004 KASHU-NADIN, 2nd king of 5th dyn of Babylon from 1008, ends.
5th DYNASTY of Babylon from 1025 ends.
6th DYNASTY of Babylon begins until 984.

EULMA-SHAKIN-SHUMI succeeds to 987.
1004 CAH 2.2, RAI3, brKB, hifi, wikB
1003 stmaB

Syria & Urartu 1000-612         Mesopotamia 1000-612
V             V