Levant
The land we call Syria is abbreviated from Assyria because the name stuck after Assyria fell in 612.  It is arbitrarily called Aram here because the Torah calls it Aram even before the Arameans arrived.
c.2000 Timber resources of Lebanon are already depleted. 2000 mxfld
c.2000 CANAAN:  EARLY BRONZE AGE from 3000 ends.
MIDDLE BRONZE AGE begins until 1525.
2200 FHBC 197
2100 IDB 1-207
2000 PAE 78, WBANE 86, FLAP 125,
RAI2 196
MIDDLE BRONZE-I begins until 1900.
Amorites enter and settle unfortified villages in hill country and Jordan valley.  Handmade pottery.  Many COPPER tools replace flint.  Scattered settlements, little architecture.
(For copper, see Britain 1950, Sumerian cubit 1950, Amenhemhet-III 1842, Asia 1800, Ganges Valley 1800)
c.2000 Solid wheeled carts and wagons, around upper Euphrates from 2200, appear in north Aram (later called Syria), and in south Asia, Europe, Crete, and Egypt, also Canaan by at least 1600.   (See Anatolia 1800China 1300) 3500 B76 X-643
2000 B76 19-521, SHT 1-211
c.2000 SPOKED WHEELS appear in Aram V, Asia, Mesopotamia, and Egypt.
(See Europe 1500, Crete 1500, China 1300)
2000
B76 X-643
by 2000 CHARIOTS, used in Sumeria from before 2500, appear in north Aram. by 2000 SHT 1-209
c.2000 OXEN and ONAGERS are the only draught animals attested anywhere from their original domestication down to 2000. 2000
SHT 1-721
c.2000
Ebla ruins
EBLA falls, possibly to Amorites.  Eblaite language is a forerunner of all Canaanite dialects including Ugaritic, Phoenician, and Hebrew.
2000 mxfld



Photo Inge
c.2000 GEBAL (later called Byblos) comes under Egypt until 1800. 2000 rcLeb
c.2000 BETHEL, Canaan founded. 2000 IDB 1-391
c.1975 MEDICINE:  PHYSICIANS become an important profession in Babylonia and Aram.   (See Kahun papyrus 1800) 2000-1951 TTS
c.1950 Many SLAVES are imported from Egypt.  Canaanite households commonly have 3. post-2000 mxfld
c.1950 SINUHE, Egyptian fugitive, travels in Aram. 1950 MCAW 21
c.1950 GEBAL (later called Byblos) becomes rich from exporting timber to Egypt 12th dynasty. 2000 TTPC
1900 MCAW 21
no date: B76 II-414
c.1900 MIDDLE BRONZE-I in Levant from 2000, ends because of Amorite immigration.
MIDDLE BRONZE-IIa begins until 1725.
2090 bivu
2000 FHBC 197
1900 WBANE 74, 88, IDB 1-207
c.1900 ACCO comes under Egypt until 1200. 1900 rcHL
c.1900 ARCH made of mud-brick built by Canaanites at city gate of Askelon.   (See Mycenean 1300Smyrna 825) 1900 TTT
1850 wikArch
c.1900 JERICHO, under Amorites from 2300, comes under Caanites until 1260. 1900 rcCan
c.1900 SHECHEM occupied until 1550. 2000 Sdl 3-366
1900 IDB Sup-821
c.1858 JACOB and ESAU born to ISAAC and REBEKAH. 2007 htc     2006 ds     2005 bivu     1858 trubi     1836 fnj     1831 btl
c.1850 Levant raided by SENUSRET-III, 5th pharaoh of 12th dynasty 1877-43.  A first for any pharaoh. 1850 MCAW 20     1818 Wiki
no date: BHoE 187
c.1850 Sebek-khu SteleSebek-khu Stele records the earliest known Egyptian military campaign in Retjenu (Levant), including Sekmem (s-k-m-m, thought to be Shechem).  Discovered at Abydos. 1860 wikLABA




Photo {{PD-US}}
c.1850 AMURRU invaded by SARGON-I, king of Akkad. Sargon yr 11 IDB 1-115
c.1850 AMORITES of Arabia begin a new wave of expansion into Fertile Crescent. 1850 mxfld
c.1844 ABRAHAM dies. 1992 htc     1991 CBCOT     1990 bivu
1844/3 trubi     1816 btl
c.1840 ABI-SHEMU-I becomes king of Gebal until 1820. 1840 Bill     1820 wikLKB
c.1820 ABI-SHEMU-I, king of Gebal from 1840, ends.  YAPI-SHEMU-ABI succeeds to 1795. 1820 Bill
1795 wikLKB
c.1800 Oldest known written MUSIC V is at Ugarit.   (See instruments 2000) 1800 wikH
c.1800 Oldest known prohibitions against pork among shepherd tribes in Mid East. 1800 ehst
c.1800 GEBAL (later called Byblos) under Egypt from 2000, independent until 1550. 1800 rcLeb
c.1800 Tell JEMMEH (10 km south of Gaza) is reoccupied with a Middle Bronze settlement. 1800 wikH
c.1800 ZIKLAG, town in Negev, comes under Egypt until 1200. 1800 rcCan
c.1795 YAPI-SHEMU-ABI, king of Gebal from 1820, ends.  YAKIN-EL succeeds to 1770. 1840 Bill
1780 wikLKB
c.1790  PHOENICIAN ALPHABET  a vessel found at Gebal contains (probably) Phoenician letters ayin and kaph. post-1800 BBP 14
c.1775 IAMKHAD, kindom from Mediterranean to Euphrates, capital: HALAP, rises to importance under Amorite king IARIM-LIM. 1775
B76 17-933
c.1775 JACOB marries Leah, then Rachel 7 years later. 1960 htc     1922 CBCOT, bivu     1775 trubi     1747 btl
c.1770 YAKIN-EL, king of Gebal from 1795, ends.  YANTIN-HAMMU succeeds to 1735. 1770 Bill
1765 wikLKB
c.1768 ISHMAEL dies. 1991 CBCOT     1768 btl
c.1750 SHECHEM, occupied 1900-1550, contains courtyard temples made of small rooms and a plaza surrounding a central court open to the sky. 1750
IDB sup-821
c.1735 YANTIN-HAMMU, king of Gebal from 1770, ends.  ILIMI-YAPI succeeds to 1731. 1735 Bill, wikLKB
c.1731 ILIMI-YAPI, king of Gebal from 1735, ends.  ABISCHEMU succeeds until 1700. 1731 Bill     1720 wikLKB
c.1725 HURRIANS, in north Mesopotamia from 1800, are now in north Aram, particularly Alalakh. 1725 WikH     1550 bk
c.1725 MIDDLE BRONZE-IIa, in Levant from 1900, evolves by innovations to MIDDLE BRONZE-IIb (Hyksos period) until 1640. 1750 CWH
1750-00
WBANE 88
1700
IDB 1-207
Very thin pottery.   Earth mound fortifications plastered over to prevent erosion.
c.1720 DAMASCUS comes under Amurru until 1570. 1720 wikD
c.1712 JOSEPH sold into slavery. 1898 CBCOT    1897 bivu    1712 btl
c.1711 ISAAC dies. 1887 htc     1886 CBCOT     1885 bivu 1739 trubi     1711 btl
c.1701 JACOB & family move to Egypt. 1877 htc     1876 CBCOT, ds
1875 bivu     1728 trubi    1701 btl
c.1700 CUNEIFORM WRITING is adopted thruout the Mid East for international communication.  Some use the Babylonian language, some adopt cuneiform signs to their own language.  Hittites do both.   (See Mesopotamia 1700) 1700 MCAW 25
c.1700 QATNA, town just east of Orontes River, comes under Halap until 1600. 1700 rcCan
c.1700 ABISCHEMU, king of Gebal from 1720, ends.  YAPA SCHEMUABI succeeds until 1690. 1700 wikLKB
c.1700 LACHISH fortified with a defensive ditch, 100 foot high wall, and plaster covered slope. 1700
IDB 3-54
c.1700 Earliest occupation of BETH-SHEMESH. 1700 CAH 2.1-113
c.1690 YAPA SCHEMUABI, king of Gebal from 1700, ends.  AKERY succeeds until 1670. 1690 wikLKB
c.1684 JACOB dies in Egypt. 1879 Sdl 2-91     1860 htc     1859 CBCOT
1858 bivu     1711 trubi     1684 btl
c.1670 AKERY, king of Gebal from 1690, ends.  AKAY succeeds until 1650. 1670 wikLKB
c.1650 AKAY, king of Gebal from 1670, ends.  Successor unknown until 1375. 1650 wikLKB
c.1650 SHECHEM, occupied 1900-1550, Coutryard temples from 1750 are replaced with a massive fortress temple with walls 15' thick. 1650
IDB Sup-821
c.1648 HATTUSILI-I, king of Hittites 1650-20, invades Aram. yr 2 hinf 
c.1648 ALALAKH, ruled by Ammitaqu, who was vassal to Hammurapi of Halap, attacked & destroyed by HATTUSILI-I. yr 2 hinf
1650-30 CAH 2.1-241
1600 wikH
c.1645 HATTUSILI-I, king of Hittites 1650-20, 2nd Aram campaign.  Destroys Zaruna, fights a Hurrian army from Hassu, defeats the combined armies of Halap and Hassu in the Adalur Mountain (in the Amanus range).  He then crosses the Euphrates (first Hittite king to do so) and destroys Hassu, returns to Hattusa. yr 5 hinf
c.1640 MIDDLE BRONZE-IIb ends.  (Hyksos period), in Levant from 1725.  IIc begins until 1525. 1650-25 WBANE 88
1600 IDB 1-207
c.1630 JOSEPH dies in Egypt. 1806 htc    1805 CBCOT    1804 bivu
1800 ds     1658 trubi     1630 btl
c.1600 Massive fortress temples built at Megiddo, Shechem, & Jericho. 1600 WBANE 90
c.1600 BEYRYT Lebanon founded by Phoenicians of Gebal.  Under Gebal until 1400. 1600 rcLeb
c.1600 MURSILIS-I , king of Hittites 1620-1595. invades Aram. 1600 SOTS 89
no date: Sag 74
c.1600 YAMHAD (Halap) taken by MURSILIS-I.  Under Hittites until 1457. 1600 SOTS 89     1400 rcS
no date: Sag 74
c.1600 QATNA, town just east of Orontes River, under Halap from 1700, no longer under Halap. 1600 rcCan
c.1600 City of AMRIT (Marath) founded by settlers from Arvad. 1600 hifiArv
c.1600 HAZOR, a source of tin, comes under Egypt until 1200. 1600 rcCan
c.1600 ASHDOD, ASKALON, EKRON, GAZA, and GATH come under Egypt until 1200. 1600 rcHL
c.1595 MURSILIS-I, king of Hittites 1620-1595, invades Aram, encounters and fights Hurrians, destroys Halap & Alalakh, continues down Euphrates. 1600 SOTS 89
1595 Sag 74, B76 17-935
c.1585 HURRIANS, in north Aram from 1725, gain control of much of northern Aram, make raids into Anatolia. I got his from an early edition of Sag, which I no longer have, and unfortunately omitted the page #.
c.1570 DAMASCUS, under Amurru from 1720, independent until ?. 1570 wikD
c.1550 GEBAL independent from 1800, back under Egypt until 1340. 1550 rcLeb
c.1550 LACHISH:  A small temple is built on a trash heap.  Lasts until 1200. 1550 IDB 3-54
c.1550 JERICHO violently destroyed.   Unoccupied until late 1300s. 1550 WBANE 94
c.1550 SHECHEM, occupied from 1900, destroyed.  Unoccupied until 1450. 1550 IDB 4-315, Sup-821
c.1526 MOSES born in Egypt. 1594 trubi    1526 btl 1525 bivu, htc
c.1525 MIDDLE BRONZE period ends.  Began in Levant 2000.
MIDDLE BRONZE-IIc from 1640, overcome by Egyptian invasions.
1600 Sdl 1-154
1550 FHBC 198,
IDB 1-207
1525 WBANE 90, 92
1500 FLAP 125
LATE BRONZE begins until 1200.
LATE BRONZE-I begins 1500-1400.   Egyptian domination.
c.1524 THUTMOSE-I, 3rd pharaoh of 18th (Theban) dynasty 1527-10, invades Levant up to Aram.  Encounters no resistance at Kadesh.  This is little more than a raid with no lasting results. 1524 MCAW 28
1523 B76 17-934
1520 RAI3 254
no date: BHoE 263
c.1510 With the death of Thutmose-I, ARAM begins slipping out of Egyptian control, and coming under the influence of Mitanni. no date: hinf
c.1500 TYRE founded by Sidon.  1st legendary ruler is son of Poseidon or Belos, AGENOR until 1490.
Tyre is called Sour-ri in El-Amarna tablets 1340, called Zor in Hebrew.  Agenor has 5 sons: Cadmus, Cilix, Phineas, Phoenix, and Thasus.  All depart to search for their sis, Europa, who had been abducted by Zeus.
Founded: 28-2700 Herodotus     2250 hifiT     1500 rcLeb, wikKT     15-1400 IDB 4-722
1217 HDB 4-823
Agenor fl.: 1500 hifiT
c.1500 UGARITIC ALPHABET V developed by reducing cuneiform to 30 signs, each standing for a different sound.
(See Hittites 1510, Mycenean 1500, Crete (Linear-A), China 1475)
1500 TTT
1400 mom
c.1500 TOB, east of Sea of Galilee, come under Egypt until 1250. 1500 rcCan
c.1500 BETH-SHAN in north Jordan valley receives Egyptian garrison until 1300s. 1500 rcCan
c.1490 AGENOR, king of Tyre from 1500, ends.  Son PHOENIX succeeds until ?. 1490 hifiT
c.1480 GALILEE, partly under Hazor from 2000, partly under Egyptian hegemony from 1500, no longer partly under Hazor, continues partly under Egyptian hegemony until 1200. 1480 rcHL
c.1479 THUTMOSE-III pharaoh 1504-1436, invades Philistia, celebrates 23rd aniversary of ascension at Gaza, destroys GEZER, conquers Philistia until 1350, moves on to YEHEM. 1479 IDB Sup-362, mxfld
1468 IDB 2-357
1456 DMoN 84
c.1479 GEZER, walled city from before 1600, destroyed by Thutmose-III. 1479 IDB Sup-362
c.1471 Aram is now dominated by THUTMOSE-III, pharaoh 1504-1436 until his death. 1471 B76 1-818, CAH 2.1-676
c.1468 KADESH & MITANNI form coalition of 330 rulers of Aram & Canaan to defend against Thutmose-III.  King of Kadesh marches army to Megiddo. 1482 B76 17-935
1468 B76 18-366
c.1468 THUTMOSE-III, pharaoh of 18th (Theban) dynasty 1504-1436, invades Canaan.  Marches thru plain of Sharon, Camps at Yehem. yr 22
BHoE 285,
Grim 213
c.1468 APHEK, Canaanite royal city, conquered by Thutmose-III. 1469 Jud 3-176
c.1468 THUTMOSE-III, pharaoh of 18th (Theban) dynasty 1504-1436, personally leads army up Megiddi pass where his army is strung out and subject to flank attack.  Defeats Canaanites, who retreat to Megiddo.  Gets to Megiddo, but fails to take it because his troops stop to plunder. 1479 BHoE 285-8,
IDB 3-802
1468 B76 18-366
c.1468 King of Kadesh, who led the Canaanite rebellion, escapes north from Megiddo before Thutmose-III besieges Megiddo. no date: BHoE 291
Model of Megiddo
Model of Megiddo by Alma E. Guinness
c.1468 MEGIDDO, besieged by Thutmose-III, falls.  Destroyed.  Taking Megiddo gives T-III control of all Canaan. 1482 or 1479 wikBM
1480 B76 17-935, Sdl 1-27
1479 BHoE 285, RAH 74
1468 B76 VI-756, 18-366, MCAW 32, WBANE 91
Hostages taken from family of king of Kadesh.
c.1468 COMPOSITE BOW V 1st evidenced at battle of Megiddo.
(See Asia 1500, Tutankhamun 1325)
1482 or 1479 wikBM
1468 Oct. THUTMOSE-III, pharaoh of 18th (Theban) dynasty 1504-1436, returns to Thebes with more loot than taken by any predecessor. no year: BHoE 293
c.1461 THUTMOSE-III (5th campaign) in Levant.   Sails army north to Phoenicia.  Bribes TYRE for entry.  Takes unknown city, takes city and territory around Ardata (Arqata).  Takes ARVAD.  Turns south.  Returns to Egypt by ship. 1472 hifiArv
1461 GEoP
yr 29 BHoE 298, wikT3
c.1460 THUTMOSE-III (6th campaign) sails troops to Gebal.   Sails up Eleutheros River, takes Simyra, quells rebellion in Ardata (Arqata).   Marches on KADESH and besieges. yr 30 BHoE 299, DMoN 86, wikT3
c.1460 KADESH destroyed by Thutmose-III. 1461 Sdl 1-27
yr 30 BHoE 195, DMoN 86, GEoP
c.1459 ARAM rebels against Thutmose-III. T-3 yr 31 wikT3
c.1459 THUTMOSE-III (7th campaign) takes port city of Ullaza and smaller Phoenician ports, takes more measures to prevent further rebellions.  Takes excess Aramean grain which is stored in harbors. yr 31
BHoE 301, GEoP, wikT3
c.1457 THUTMOSE-III (8th campaign) into Levant, sails directly to Gebal, makes boats which he book with him overland on what appeared to be another tour of Aram.  Takes Qatna and Senzar, goes north beyond where he had previously conquered, fights serious battle west of Halap, takes Halap, fights at Carchemish, crosses Euphrates into Mitanni, taking Mitannian king by surprise.  Conquers Mitannian cities unopposed.  Receives tribute from Hittites, Asshur, Babylon.  Returns to Aram, takes Niya, where he hunts elephants. 1457 MCAW 32
yr 33
B76 18-366, BHoE 302, DMoN 86, GEoP 194, Grim 216, Shaw 238, wikT3
c.1457 HALAP, under Hittites from 1600, taken by THUTMOSE-III, under Egypt until 1455. 1457 MCAW 32
yr 33 B76 18-366, BHoE 302, DMoN 86, GEoP 194, Shaw 238, wikT3
c.1457 THUTMOSE-III on Mediterranean coast, reveives rich gifts from Hittites. yr 33 BHoE 304
c.1456 THUTMOSE-III (9th campaign) returns to Aram, suppresses rebellion at Djahy, raids Nuhasse area, takes Nuges. yr 34 BHoE 313, GEoP, Grim 216,
wikT3
c.1455 Mitanni had raised a large army and engages Egyptians around Halap. T-3 yr 35 wikT3
c.1455 HALAP, under Egypt from 1457, becomes independent ally of Mitanni until 1449. guess
c.1455 THUTMOSE-III (10th campaign).  Quells rebellion in Aram, fights Mitanians around Halap, takes only ten prisoners, boasts of great victory, including tribute from Hittites. yr 35 BHoE 314, GEoP, Grim 216, wikT3
c.1454 THUTMOSE-III (11th campaign).  Records lost. yr 36 GEoP, wikT3
no date: BHoE 315, Grim 216
c.1453 THUTMOSE-III (12th campaign) at Nuhasse.  Records lost. yr 37 GEoP, wikT3
no date: BHoE 315, Grim 216
c.1453 LEVANT and ARAM organized into 3 Egyptian provinces:  Amurru (south Aram), Upe (north Levant), Canaan (south Levant).  Each is governed by an Egyptian official.  Native dynasts are allowed to continue rule over small states.  Ammon may be included. 1453 hifiAm, hifiT
c.1452 THUTMOSE-III (13th campaign) mainly in south Lebanon.  Receives gifts from Cyprus and Assyrian province of Arrapakhitis. yr 38 BHoE 315, GEoP, wikT3
c.1451 SHASU tribes of Edom first mentioned in Egyptian texts. 1450 BAR 34:06 Nov/Dec, 2008
c.1451 THUTMOSE-III (14th campaign) against the Shasu tribes of Edom. yr 39 BHoE 315, GEoP, wikT3
c.1450 SHECHEM, unoccupied from 1550, occupied until 1125. 1450 IDB Sup-821
c.1450 Tell JEMMEH (10 km south of Gaza) occupied by Canaanites until 1200. 1450 mxfld
c.1449 HALAP, ally of Hurrians from 1455, defects to Tudhaliya-II, king of Hittites, but soon forced back under Hurrians. at Tud-2's accession: hinf
c.1448 THUTMOSE-III (uprising campaign) lands on coast of Aram, takes port of Arqata, quells rebellions in Arka plain, takes Tunip and Kadesh, destroys 3 surrounding Mitannian garrisons, returns to Egypt. yr 42 BHoE 315, DMoN 87, GEoP, Grim 216, Shaw 238, wikT3
c.1448 KADESH becomes vassal to Egypt until 1350. 1450 rcCan
c.1446 EXODUS - early date  V 1531 lgbt     1513 trubi     1447 bihi, htc
1446 FHBC 202, btl, ds     1445 HCC, bivu
1441 FLAP 60     1440 B76 12-487, bica
c.1436 ARAM:  Cities of Orontes valley led by Kadesh & Tunip rebel against Amenhotep-II. 1450
B76 17-935
c.1435 AMENHOTEP-II, 6th Pharaoh of 18th Dyn. 1436-06, savagely crushes rebellion in Aram.  Personally executes 7 leaders at Kadesh.  Takes bodies back to Thebes. 1488 B76 17-935
yr 2 BHoE 324     yr 3 Grim 218
yr 7 Shaw 244
no date: GEoP 199-200
c.1432 AMENHOTEP-II, 6th Pharaoh of 18th Dyn. 1436-06, has to reconquer many Aramean cities conquered in 1435. 1443 B76 17-935
c.1432 APHEK, Canaanite royal city, reconquered by AMENHOTEP-II. 1432 Jud 3-175
c.1427 CANAAN:  Some cities rebel against AMENHOTEP-II who reconquers them, campaigns as far north as the Sea of Galilee, takes 70,000 captives back to Egypt.
CANAAN now under Egypt until 1350.
1441 B76 17-935
1430 MCAW 32
Amen-II yr 9 GEoP 202
c.1405 MOSES dies.  JOSHUA rules Hebrews until 1390. 1489 lgbt     1474 trubi     1407 bihi, htc     1406 btl     1405 bivu
1250 WBH 25     1195 MCAW 46
c.1405 ISRAELITES cross Jordan river.
JERICHO falls to JOSHUA.
1473 trubi     1412 kical     1406 ds
1405 bivu     1400 bica
1250 Sdl 2-282     1200 SHWC 29

Levant 1400-1001
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