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c.2000 Bronze halberd used in Ireland from 2400, no longer evidenced. 2000 wikB
c.2000 Early Bronze Age Britain 2700-1500, Mount Pleasant Phase and Early Beaker culture from 2700 end.  Late Beaker culture continues 2100-1900.  Knives, tanged spearheads. 2000 wikBAB
c.2000 Grime's Graves GRIMES GRAVES, Neolithic flint mining site in East Anglia, worked 3000-1900.  Extends over 96 acres, consists of at least 433 shafts dug into chalk to reach seams of flint.  Largest shafts are more than 14m deep and 12m diameter at the surface.  Over 2,000 tons of chalk had to be removed from the larger shafts, taking 20 men around 5 months, before stone of sufficient quality was reached.  Has LAMPS V made of chalk lumps hollowed out for oil & wick.   (Lamps: see Crete 1500, Egypt 2000) 2000
SHT 1-235, vrb
3000-1900 wikGG

Picture Ashley Dace
c.2000 White HorseWhite Horse of Uffington parish in Oxfordshire county made by deep trenches filled with crushed white chalk.  Thought to represent a tribal symbol, perhaps connected with builders of Uffington Castle.  Until late 19th century the horse was scoured every 7 years.  When regular cleaning is halted the figure quickly becomes obscured. 2000 wikB
no date: wikUWH

pub dom
c.2000 British WESSEX CULTURE begins until 1400.  WESSEX-I begins until 1650.  Has enough social organization to produce Stonehenge 3:5.  Burial under barrows, inhumation at first, later cremation, often with rich grave goods.  Traded with Europe, importing amber from Baltic, jewelry from Germany, gold from Brittany, daggers and beads from Mycenaean Greece and vice versa. 2000 be
c.2000 INDO-EUROPEANS, now thruout Europe & Anatolia, having uniform culture in 3000, begin having CULTURAL DIVERSITY:  Illyrian, Armenian, Phrygian, Mysian, Dacian, Thracian, Greek. 2000
B76 2-614
c.2000 SCANDINAVIA V, populated by at least 4 different cultures from 2500:  declining remains of megalithic culture, Boat-axe Culture of south Sweden, Single-grave Culture of Jutland, Pitted Ware Culture, populations fuses together in a Neolithic Culture which makes flint daggers and other instruments.  Battle-axe people arrive, but they have no bronze.  Amber beads no longer appeared in tombs, as amber is now traded to the Mediterranean. 2000 mxfld
c.2000 The BALTIC linguistic group of northeastern Indo-Europeans enters the eastern Baltic and western Russia as agriculturalists and cattle raisers. 2000 mxfld
c.2000 BRONZE V AGE begins in Europe until 900 (including southern Britain until 750 ), but replaces the Stone Age much more slowly than in the Near East. 2000 LEWH 15, MCAW 22, PAE 78, PW 14, TTPC, mxfld
Fortified settlements in center and east indicate increasing social & economic pressures.
c.2000 AUSTRIA, BOHEMIA, TYROL, and CARINTHIA occupied by Celto-Ligurians until 1250. 2000 rcCE
c.2000 Cimmerians occupy difuse region in far west Ukraine, generally the south flank of the Carpathian Mountains until 680. 2000 rcU
c.2000 WALLACHIA occupied by Cimmerians until 670. 2000 rcEB
c.2000 TRANSYLVANIA (uplands of Carpathians) occupied by Cimmerians until 700. 2000 rcEB
c.2000 MORAVIA, under Danubian Indo-Europeans from ?, occupied by Celto-Ligurians until 1200. 2000 rcCE
c.2000 MOLDAVIA (land at northeast corner of Black Sea), comes under Cimmerians until 700. 2000 rcEB
c.2000 SLOVAKIA (Carpathian mountains north of Hungary, east of Moravia and Czech Republic, west of Galitzia and Ukraine, and south of Poland) under Danubian Indo-Europeans from ?, occupied by Cimmerians until 700. 2000 rcCE
c.2000 SLAVONIA (area between Sava and Drava Rivers) occupied by Celto-Ligurians until 1250. 2000 rcWB
c.2000 BIHAR (area between Tisza, Szamos, Muresul Rivers, and Transylvanian highlands) occupied by Cimmerians until 700. 2000 rcEB
c.2000 KARANOVO, Bulgaria:  A hilltop community of wattle and mud-walled houses loosely scattered in a village area is deserted and replaced by a new people. 2000 PAE 91
c.2000 Solid wooden WHEELS V (no spokes V) used in Netherlands, Asia, Crete, Aram, and Egypt.   (See Anatolia 1800, China 1300) 2000
B76 5-970, PAE 95
c.2000 CATS domesticated by lake dwellers of Switzerland. 2000 TTT
c.2000 HORSE bones in BADEN culture of Hungary, but no evidence of domestication.  Evidence of horse domestication in Sweden. 2000 PAE 95-6
c.2000 BEAKER PEOPLE (named after bell shaped vessels), bronze using farmers & archers in Portugal from ?, migrate to Brittany, thence to Holland, thence to Germany, possibly also Britain. 2000 BCAW 90, MCAW 20,
PAE 100
c.2000 BALKANS are occupied by 3 groups: TUMULUS, BATTLE AXE, and CORDED WARE peoples. 2000 mxfld
c.2000 INDO-EUROPEANS from Asia begin to appear in BALKAN PENINSULA and East Europe. 2000 vrb
c.2000 DORIC Indo-Europeans settle in ILLYRIA. 2000 vrb
c.2000 ITALY, until now occupied by Western Iberians, receives various Indo European & Arian speaking tribes, including Italics, Latins, Faliscans.   Farmers & shepherds build villages on man-made islands, settle on Lakes Garda, Como, Maggiore.   They have bronze tools & weapons. 2000 Durant III-4, MCAW 20, vrb, mxfld, wik20
c.2000 MANTUA settlement founded on banks of Mincio river, on a sort of island.  Under unknown people until 550. 2000 wik20, wikMnt
c.2000 GREECE, under Aegeans from ?, invaded from north by Arian speaking Indo Europeans.   Conquered.  Invaders destroy much and contribute little, but their pottery is better. 2000 B76 19-275, MCAW 20,
2000-1900 GRG 1
BRONZE AGE, in Europe 2000-900, EARLY BRONZE AGE in Greece from 3000 ends.
MIDDLE BRONZE AGE begins in Greece until 1580.
c.2000 GREECE: EARLY HELLADIC Period ends.  Began 3200.
EARLY HELLADIC Period-III ends.  Began 2200-2150.
MIDDLE HELLADIC Period begins until 1550.
2050-2000 wikHP
In the Early Period Neolithic agricultural population imported bronze and copper and learned bronze-working techniques from Anatolia.  In the Middle Period settlements draw together and tend to be on hilltops.  Gray burnished Minyan pottery begins at Tiryns and spreads.  It may be related to people whom Greek historians called Minyans.
c.1950 BRITAIN receives influx from Rhineland of people having knowledge of COPPER V.
(For copper, see Canaan 2000, Sumerian cubit 1950, Amenhemhet-III 1842, Asia1800 , Ganges Valley 1800)
soon after 2000 PAE 100,
SHT 1-81
c.1950 BRITAIN:  Houses are circular wood-framed huts.  A few have stone walls. early 2nd mil
PAE 150
c.1950 Government by kings, elders, and assembly, and the importance of the warrior class all become evident. soon after 2000 PAE 107
c.1950 UNETICE culture (named for site at Unetice northwest of Prague), in central Europe 2300-1600, triangular daggers, flat axes, stone wrist-guards, flint arrowheads from 2300, changes to daggers with metal hilt, flanged axes, halberds, pins with perforated spherical heads, solid bracelets until 1600. 1950 wikUnC
c.1950 POTTER'S WHEEL V:  Evidence of pivoted disks in Greece, Uruk 2000, Crete 1950, Egypt 1950.  Foot wheels also in Greece and Crete. 2000 SHT 1-203
1950 MCAW 21
1800 SHT 1-200
c.1950 Merchants of PHOENICIA trade with south central Europe. soon after 2000 PAE 102
c.1942 King of Leubingen in Thuringia is buried in a large barrow within a 66-foot-wide (20 m) stone cairn inside a ring ditch. 1942 wik20
c.1930 STONEHENGE 3:4 ends.  Began 2280.  Includes circle of bluestones between the 2 rings of sarsens and in an oval at the centre of the inner ring.  Altar Stone may have been moved within the oval and re-erected vertically.  Shabbily built compared to immediate predecessors: Re-installed bluestones are not well-founded and begin to fall over.  Only minor changes are made after this.
STONEHENGE 3:5 succeeds to 1600:  North east section of the 3:4 bluestone circle is removed, creating a horseshoe, which mirrors the central sarsen Trilithons.
1930 wikSh
c.1900 Late Beaker culture of Britain from 2100 ends.  Knives, tanged spearheads.  Bedd Branwen Period begins until 1500. 1900 wikBAB
c.1900 BEAKER PEOPLE, in Gaul from 2000, migrate to Britain.  Introduce bronze. 1900 CWH
c.1900 SLOVENIA northwest of Balkans, comes under Illyrian tribes until 15. 1900 rcCE
c.1900 GREECE, under Indo Europeans from 2000, invaded by ACHAEANS V - the 1st Greek speaking people of Greece. 1900 Wiki
1200 HCIP 1-212
c.1900 MYCENAE, in Peloponnese, founded by Achaeans.  Greek Achaeans are now called MYCENEANS.  But Mycenean Age does not begin until 1600. 1900 vrb
1470 TTPC
Mycenae from south           MA p.20-21
Argive plain looking south from Mycenae           MA p.20-21
c.1900 ARGOLIS in western Peloponnese of Greece is the main region for cities. 1900 vrb
c.1850 Central Europe becomes dominated by the Bell-beaker Culture.  In Eastern Europe Λ COPPER V working extends almost to the Arctic. 1850 mxfld
c.1800 ORKNEY Islands:  Neolithic farming arrives.  Well built stone huts. 1800 MCAW 24
c.1800 Λ SCANDINAVIA V, having no metal resources, imports bronze, mainly from Britain.   BRONZE AGE begins in Scandinavia until 440. 2300 arhs     early 2nd mil: PAE 120 1800 B76 5-148, clmn, NBA, wikSP 1700 wikNBA     1500 arcer
c.1800 Λ COPPER V is used in British Isles and all Europe south of mid-Scandinavia. 1800 mxfld
c.1800 El ARGAR civilization appears in Almería, in southeast Spain, replacing the earlier civilization of Los Millares.  Adoption of bronze metallurgy allows gradual dominance and influence in the region.  It remains until 1300. 1800 wikTpR
c.1800 Domesticated HORSES arrive in Europe from Asian Steppes. 1800 eah
c.1800 Goods begin to travel widely between cultures. 1800 eah
c.1800 Spearheads, swords, imported jewelry, pins with wheel-shaped heads all appear in tombs. 1800 eah
c.1800 ITALY, under Italics, Latins, Faliscans from 2000, taken over by Italics, except the northwest quarter which is occupied by Etruscans. 1800 mxfld
c.1800 APPENINE CULTURE begins until 1200.  Alpine cattle herdsmen, living in small hamlets located in defensible places.  On the move between summer pastures they build temporary camps or live in caves and rock shelters.  Their range is not confined to the hills.  Apennine pottery has been found on the Capitoline hill and on islands.  It is burnished incised with spirals, meanders, and geometric zones, filled with dots or transverse dashes.  It has been found on Ischia island in association with LH-II and LH-III pottery, and on Lipari in association with LH-IIIA pottery, which date it to Late Bronze Age. 1800
B76 19-278, wikLat 15th cen. wikApC
BRONZE AGE begins in Italy until 900.
c.1790 PROTO-CELTIC LANGUAGE V spoken in Germany.  Soon spreads west to become Gaelic and neo-Celtic. soon after 1800 B76 6-1123
c.1775 BRITAIN:  People arrive at northeast coast, evidenced by corded & cord ornamented pottery, perforated stone battle axes. 1775 CMoG3 66
c.1775 BRITAIN:  Bell-Beaker People arrive at southeast coast from Rhineland. 1775 CMoG3 66
c.1750 ACHAEANS, in mainland Greece from 1900, now control it. 1750 SHT 1-726
c.1700 BEAKER PEOPLE in Ireland and Britain from 2500 fade out. 1700 wikB
c.1700 RYE cultivated in eastern Europe.  It will soon be the main bread of the proto-Celts, Teutones, & Slavs. 1700 TTPC 6
c.1700 THEBES Boeotia, founded c.3000, increases in population. 1700 ahe
c.1650 British WESSEX CULTURE 2000-1400.  WESSEX-1 ends.  Began 2000.  WESSEX-2 begins until 1400.  Associated with later Stonehenge. 1650 wikWC
Apa swords
Picture by Dbachmann
APA type SWORDS appear in Black Sea and Aegean areas as a further development of the dagger.  Previous swords were usually 60-80cm long.  Apa swords reach over 100cm.  Technology to produce blades this long developed using alloys of copper and tin or arsenic c.1700. 
17-1600 wikBAS
Boar's tusk helmet
Photo by frankfl
Mycenaean Boar's tusk helmets appear until 950.  Previous swords were usually 60-80cm long.  Made of slivers of boar tusks attached in rows to a leather base, padded with felt.  A description of a boar's tusk helmet appears in Homer's Iliad book 10, as Odysseus is armed for a night raid against the Trojans.
This one is 14th century, from chamber tomb 515, Mycenae.
17th cen. wikBTH
c.1628 Evidence of Thera eruption appears in tree rings in Ireland. 1628 TTS, wikME     1520 TTPC
1500 MCAW 32, OCD 1060, TAWH 66, mxfld
Stonehenge 3.5
pub dom
STONEHENGE 3:5 ends.  Began 1930.  The outer 2 rings of holes (Y and Z Holes) are the last known construction.
Stonehenge reaches final form which appears today.  Roman coins and medieval artefacts have been found, but it is unknown if or how it was used henceforth.
1600 wikSh
16th cen.
PAE 138
1450-00 TTS, TTT
by 1600 Southwest BRITAIN has a trade boom as British tin is exported across Europe. by 1600 wikPB
c.1600 Λ COPPER mines at MITTERBERG, Austria begin until 800. 1600 SHT 1-565-6
c.1600 Λ BRONZE working has spread all over Europe except the northern half of Britain, Λ Scandinavia V, and western Iberia. 1600 mxfld
c.1600 UNETICE culture fades out.  In central Europe from 2300.  Named for site in Unetice northwest of Prague.
General characteristics:  Burial in flat graves with bent legs and arms, lying on side (males on left, females on right), oriented South-North or Northeast-southwest.  Some groups buried in hollow tree-trunks or stone cairns.  Males often have copper triangular daggers, flint arrowheads, stone wrist-guards, clay cups.  Females: bone or copper pins, bone arm-rings, bracelets with spiral ends, rings.
Characteristics from 1950:  daggers with metal hilt, flanged axes, halberds, pins with perforated spherical heads, solid bracelets.
Metalsmiths mainly used pure copper.  Traded with British Wessex culture.
1600 wikUnC
c.1600 TUMULUS culture, distinguished by burying dead under mounds (tumuli), begins in central Europe until 1200. 1600 wikTC
Nebra skydisk
Photo by Dbachmann
NEBRA SKYDISK.  A bronze disk of @30cm diameter weighing 2.2kg, with a blue-green patina and inlaid with gold symbols, interpreted generally as a sun or full moon, a lunar crescent, and stars (including a cluster interpreted as the Pleiades).  Two golden arcs along the sides, marking the angle between the solstices, will be added later.  A final addition will be another arc at the bottom surrounded with multiple strokes (of uncertain meaning, variously interpreted as a Solar Barge with numerous oars, as the Milky Way, or as a rainbow).
The disk is attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt.  It has been associated with the Unetice culture.
1600 wikNSD
Sogel swords
Photo by Dbachmann
SOGEL type SWORDS found with Nebra skydisk.  .  .  .
1600 wikBAS
c.1600 Proto-Italic bronze workers from northeast of Alps enter Italy and begin TERREMARE civilization in the Po valley.  They prefer cremation over burial. 1700 flm 1600 RAH
c.1600 GREECE:  In Λ Bronze Age 2000-1200
Λ MYCENEAN AGE begins until 1200.
1600 TAWH 16, wikMc
1550 PW 15
Independent city states are established thruout Aegean Sea.
c.1600 A single GREEK LANGUAGE (with many dialects) is spoken in Greece. 1500 B76 9-431
c.1600 SHAFT GRAVE Era begins at Mycenae until 1450.  Mycenaean warrior class dead men are usually laid in gold masks and funerary armor, women in gold crowns and clothes with gold ornaments.  The royal shaft graves next to the acropolis of Mycenae, particularly Grave Circles A and B signify the elevation of a native Greek-speaking royal dynasty whose economic power depends on long-distance sea trade.  Mycenaeans increase contacts with the outside world, especially the Cyclades and Crete. 1600 wikMG
Aegina Treasure
earring       GNU FDL
AEGINA TREASURE:  Mycenean treasure is buried in a tomb on Aegina Island.  Gold, pieces include a cup, 4 pendants, 5 necklaces, 54 roundels for dress-trimming, 3 or 4 diadems, a bracelet of solid gold, 5 solid gold rings of nearly uniform weight, and so conjectured to be ringmoney, and 5 finger-rings inlaid with glass paste.  There are also many beads and pendants made of a variety of materials including gold, lapis lazuli, amethyst, quartz, cornelian and green jasper.  Other later treasure from Aegina will confuse the dating.
1850-1550 wikAT     17-1500 niem, wikAe 800 MA 393
7th cen. jcam
c.1600 gold cupRadial daisies juxtaposed to interconnected spirals is the most common Mycenean art pattern, as evidenced by this gold cup from Aegina. no date: MA 389
c.1600 Mainland Greece renews contact with Crete.  Late Minoan culture flows into Greece. 1600 B76 19-276
c.1580 MIDDLE BRONZE AGE ends in Greece.  Began 2000.
LATE BRONZE AGE begins in Greece until 1200.
B76 14-898
c.1550 Monument building in Britain ends. 1500 mxfld
c.1550 Skilled BRONZE METALURGY is centered in Czechoslovakia. pre-1500 PAE 123
c.1550 GREECE:  MIDDLE HELLADIC Period ends.  Began 2000.
LATE HELLADIC Period begins until 1050.
LATE HELLADIC Period-I begins until 1500.
1675-50 wikMP 1550 wikHP, wikSc

Photo Svilen Enev
Silver rhytonMycenaean culture flourishes, influenced by Minoan Crete and the Cyclades.  Gray & black Minyan ware disappears.  Yellow Minyan ware begins.  LH-I pottery has more lustrous paint than MH, and is known from Shaft Graves of Lerna and the settlements of Voroulia and Nichoria (Messenia), Ayios Stephanos, (Laconia) and Korakou.
c.1550 Mask of AgamemnonSo called Mask of Agamemnon buried in tomb V at grave circle A, Mycenae.  Made of a gold sheet.  2 holes near the ears indicate that the mask was held in place of the deceased's face with twine.  Believed to be a fake due to the high level of detail, such as the beard and ears.  It's 3 centuries too early to be Agamemnon. 16th cen. wikMsk

Photo CC BY 2.0
c.1528/7 Mythical FLOOD of DEUCALION happens, according to  Parian Chronicle  of 260. 1528/7 wikPC 1504 GHH
c.1525 ±25 Grave Circle AMycenae GRAVE CIRCLE A built inside the city wall.  Grave circle B will be outside the wall. 1550-00 hlpme 1504 GHH
Mycenae layout
c.1500 WRITING V:  MYCENEAN SCRIPT (Linear-B), 88 symbols (combination of a consonant and a vowel) each denoting a syllable develops in GREECE and soon afterward in Crete (Linear-A).   (See Hittites 1510, Ugaritic 1500, China 1475) 1500 TAWH 16
1450 vrb     1400 bk
1200 BBP 17
c.1500 Λ SPOKED WHEELS V, in Asia from 2000, Aram and Egypt from at least 1600, appear in Greece and Crete.   (See Anatolia 1400,  China 1300) 1500
SHT 1-211-13
c.1500 Early Bronze Age in Britain ends.  Began 2700.  Bedd Branwen Period from 1900 ends.  Middle Bronze Age begins in Britain until 1000.  Acton Park Phase begins until 1300:  palstaves, socketed spearheads; copper, tin, lead. 1500 wikBAB
1200 wikPB
c.1500 TERRAMARICOLI people south of the Po from 1600, develop TERRAMARE culture until 1150.  Each settlement is trapezoidal.  Houses are square wooden stilt, built on the mainland generally near a stream, with roads that cross at right angles.  Some houses are built on piles to protect them from floods.  The whole is protected by an earthwork defensive wall strengthened on the inside by buttresses, and encircled by a wide moat with running water.  Over 60 villages are known, almost entirely from Emilia.  In Middle Bronze Age they are no larger than 4.9 acres placed at an average density of 1 per 25 km2. 1700 wikTC     1500 B76 19-280
16th cen wikPIIA
c.1500 THRACE inhabited.  Rulers and Indo-European gods are identifiable. 1500 mxfld
c.1500 SPAIN:  A culture of small fortified villages known as Bronze of Levante culturally close to El Argar appears in modern Valencia.  They install the first settlements in the semi-desertic La Mancha called Motillas (forts on top of man-made hills).  Cattle-herding tribes of the central plateau organize into a single culture, known as Cogotas-I, practicing transhumance herding.  Strategic tin resources in northwest Iberia probably causes some development in this region.  The Montelavar group is known for bronze axes. 1500 wikTpR
c.1500 Λ LANGUAGE V:  All Central Europe speaks a single Indo-European idiom called Old European. 1500 mxfld
c.1500 Mycenean objects, ideas, motifs, and techniques appear in central Europe and southern Britain. 1500
SHT 1-609
c.1500 SLEDGE HAMMER of modern shape appears at MITTERBERG, Austria. 1500
SHT 1-609
c.1500 Cult of DEMETER appears in Greece. 1500 wikEM
c.1500 Cult of DIONYSUS appears in Greece at Thebes. 1500 wikDM
c.1500 GREECE:  LATE HELLADIC Period-I ends.  Began 1550.
LATE HELLADIC Period-II begins until 1400.
LATE HELLADIC Period-IIA begins until 1450.
1600-1550 wikMP     1500 wikHP
In Messenia are small closed shapes such as squat jugs decorated with hatched loops "rackets" or simplified spirals; dark-on-light painted motifs include small linked spirals such as varieties of hook-spiral or wave-spiral.  Forms of the hatched loop and double-axe, and accessorial rows of small dots and single or double wavy lines; also, the ripple pattern on Keftiu cups.
In LH-IIA these innovations spread thruout the mainland.
c.1480 Mycenaean pottery reaches Ionia, including Miletus and Troy, Cyprus, Lebanon, Palestine and Egypt. early 15th cen. wikMG
c.1475 MYCENEANS of Greece invade and conquer eastern CRETE. 1475 vrb
c.1450 Balto-Slavic ethnic group splits into Slavic and Baltic. 15-1400 vrb
c.1450 CASTELLIERI culture begins on the coast of Istria, and later expands into Friuli and Dalmatia.  Castellieri are fortified boroughs.  Lasts until Roman conquest. 15th cen. wikPIIA
c.1450 SHAFT GRAVE Era at Mycenae from 1600 ends.  A new and more imposing type of elite burial emerges, the Tholos: large circular burial chambers with high vaulted roofs and a straight entry passage lined with stone. 1450 wikMG
c.1450 GREECE:  LATE HELLADIC Period-IIA ends.  Began 1500.
LATE HELLADIC Period-IIB begins until 1400.
1490-70 wikMP     1450 wikHP
Ephyraean style, most commonly represented on goblets and jugs, spins off of the Alternating style of LM-IB.  Dependence on Minoan ceramics disappears, and somewhat reverses.
c.1425 INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES begin an new phase of expansion. 1450-1400 B76 9-431
c.1400 British WESSEX CULTURE ends.  Began 2000.   WESSEX-2 ends.  Began 1650.  Related to Hilversum culture and armorican tumuli. 1400 wikWC
c.1400 CREMATION becomes common north of the Danube, leading to the URNFIELD CULTURE, named for human ashes buried in urns in fields. no date: wikUC
c.1400 Mycenean trading posts appear in Italy at Ischia and near the future site of Taras. 1500-1400 PAE 134
1300 mxfld
c.1400 TUMULUS PEOPLE, proto-Urnfield people, migrate south to Balkan Peninsula. 1400 B76 2-614
c.1400 MYCENEAN civilization peaks. 1400 RAH
c.1400 Geometric pottery design, a copy of Minoan, begins at Mycenae.  1400 MA 318
c.1400 GREECE:  LATE HELLADIC Period-II ends.  Began 1500.
LATE HELLADIC Period-IIB ends.  Began 1450.
LATE HELLADIC Period-III begins until 1060.
LATE HELLADIC Period-IIIA begins until 1300.
1435-05 wikMP     1400 wikHP
Cretan and Minoan power decreases.  Mycenaean expansion covers most of the Eastern Mediterranean.  New shapes appear.  Motifs of painted pottery become standardized.  Goblets have a shallower bowl, and stems lengthen.  This begins the transformation from goblet to kylix.  Stirrup jar becomes popular.  Naturalistic motifs become less popular.  Kylix becomes main pottery shape.  Levant, Egypt and Cyprus come into close and continuous contact with the Greeks.
c.1400 Dagger blades in Greece made by Cretan craftsmen have ornamentation in relief incised or inlaid with varicolored metals including gold and silver. 1400
B76 11-1096
Dendra Panoply
Mycenaean ARMOR from Dendra in Argolid - commonly called the Dendra Panoply.  V:  Oldest surviving armor in Greece.
1400 ehow, wikHP, wikMG
c.1350 SLASHING SWORD V with a flanged hilt-grip begins in central Europe.  (see Aegean 1240) 14th cen. PAE 159
Tiryns citadel plan
Ruins of Tiryns           Photo by Dorieo
c.1350 TIRYNS fortress built by Myceneans in Argolis in Peloponnese.  It covers 5.9 hectares sustaining 1,180–1,770 people, and had large tiled two-storeyed round house (Rundbau) 28m diameter on the upper citadel.  It may have served as a palace or temple or communal granary. 1350 MCAW 36     14th cen. wikHP
c.1350 Palace of Mycenea greatly enlarged. 1350 CMoG3 145
Spread of the chariot
Spread of the CHARIOT:           Photo by Dbachmann
c.1350 ChariotCHARIOT with 4 spoke wheels on a fresco from Pylos.  Charioteers wear Boar's tusk helmets. 1350 wikMG
Picture: {{PD-US}}
Mycenae citadel
ruins of Mycenae citadel           GNU FDL
MYCENAE:  A citadel on the acropolis, and fortifications on other surrounding hills, are rebuilt in cyclopean style.  The blocks are so massive that they were thought in later ages to be the work of Cyclopes.  Within these walls, much of which can still be seen, successive monumental palaces are built.  Earlier palaces were cleared away or built over.
1350 wikMc     14th cen wikHP
c.1350 THEBES is fortified by Myceneans.  It covers 20 hectares with a population of 4,000–6,000. 14th cen wikHP
Mycenean states
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0
c.1300 Solid WHEEL vehicles, in Europe from 2000, appear in Sweden. by 1300 B76 19-521
c.1300 Middle Bronze Age Britain 1500-1000:  Acton Park Phase ends.  Began 1500.  palstaves, socketed spearheads; copper, tin, lead.  Knighton Heath Period begins until 1200: Rapiers. 1300 wikBAB
c.1300 URNFIELD CULTURE appears in Poland, where it is called the Lausitz Culture. 1300 mxfld
c.1300 CHARIOTS used in Europe. 1300 bk
c.1300 From Rhine to upper Danube develops a Bronze Age fine sword-making, horse-using, farming culture that trades with the Mediterranean area.   Their descendants will be Celts. 1300 MCAW 42
c.1300 El ARGAR civilization in Almería southeast Spain from 1800, ends abruptly, giving way to a less homogeneous post-Argarian culture. 1300 wikTpR
c.1300 SPAIN:  Motillas are abandoned.  Urnfield culture is the first wave of Indo-Europeans to enter Spain and stay in Catalonia.  They trigger the Atlantic Bronze Age in Northwest that maintains commercial relations with Brittany and British Isles.  In Western Andalusia appears an internally burnished pottery culture.  Northwest is defined by their typical axes, divided into Galician and Astur-Cantabrian. 1300 wikTpR
c.1300 Spain Late Bronze SPAIN:  The Chalcolithic culture of Vila Nova vanishes, possibly in direct relation to the silting of the canal connecting the main city Zambujal with the sea.  It is replaced by a non-urban culture, whose main artifact is externally burnished pottery.
El Argar also disappears as such, what had been a very homogeneous culture, a centralized state for some, becomes an array of many post-Argaric fortified cities.
The Motillas are abandoned.
The proto-Celtic Urnfield culture appears in the North-East, conquering all Catalonia and some neighboring areas.
Lower Guadalquivir valley shows its first clearly differentiated culture, defined by internally burnished pottery.  This group might have some relation with the semi-historical, yet-to-be-found, Tartessos.
Western Iberian Bronze cultures show some degree of interaction, not just among them but also with other Atlantic cultures in Britain, France and elsewhere. This has been called the Atlantic Bronze complex.
1300 wikPI

Pic pub dom
c.1300 URNFIELD CEMETERIES, in Danube area from 1400, spread westward.  URNFIELD CULTURE begins in central Europe until 750. 1300 PW 15, wikUC
13th cen. PAE 146
c.1300 URNFIELD CULTURE (possibly including proto-Celts) arrives in SPAIN.  Occupy mainly the north, and do not mix with indigenous population. 1400 vrb
c.1300 Illyrian NORICI settle in eastern foothills of Alps. 1300 ooctA
c.1300 ILLYRIANS V, in Pannonia from ?, spread south to Dalmatia. 1300 vrb
c.1300 THRACE:  Gold bowls produced. 1300 MCAW 43
c.1300 Mycenean bridgeMycenean ARCHED BRIDGE built near the road from Tiryns to Epidauros in the Peloponnese.  Still used.   (See Askelon 1900, Smyrna 825, Etruscan 590) 1300 wikAB, wikArk
13-2000 wikB
c.1300 Mycenean culture peaks. 1300 SHWC 49
c.1300 Athamas becomes King of the Minyans in Boeotia. 1300 wikAθm
c.1300 Athamas is cast away from his kingdom in Boeotia, submitting to an oracle commanding him to inhabit a wild and mountainous place.  He reaches the Pindos mountains, where he marries Themisto, dau of Ypseus and Kreousa, and becomes founder of Athamania and Patriarch of the Athamanians. 1300 wikAθm
c.1300 GREECE:  LATE HELLADIC Period-IIIA ends.  Began 1400.
LATE HELLADIC Period-IIIB begins until 1190.
1320-00 wikMP     1300 wikHP
LH-IIIB1 has equal amounts of painted deep bowls and kylikes.  Kylikes are mostly Zigouries.  LH-IIIB2 has an absence of decorated kylikes.  Deep bowl styles further develop into the Rosette form.  Non-Helladic ware from the Aegean ceases to be homogeneous.  LH-IIIB pottery is associated in Greek mainland palaces with Linear B archives.
Mycenean territory
c.1270 Part of the Ausone tribe moves from Campania Italy to Sicily. 1270 wikAsn
1251 Sep 7 SOLAR ECLIPSE seen in Sparta in early morning. strts, wik1250
c.1250 BALTIC people, along Vistula and Oder Rivers from 2000, move north and east. 1250 vrb
c.1250 TUMULUS PEOPLE, Urnfield people in Balkan Peninsula from 1400, begin causing upheaval from Balkans to Anatolia thru 1200. pre-1200 B76 2-614
c.1250 ARMENO-PHRYGIANS cross Danube into Thrace.  Remain until 1200. pre-1250 hystn
c.1250 AUSTRIA, BOHEMIA, and CARINTHIA, occupied by Celto-Ligurians from 2000, occupied by Urnfield Culture, Austria and Bohemia until 600. 1250 rcCE
c.1250 TYROL (mountainous western corridor of Austria), occupied by Celto-Ligurians from 2000, occupied by Italics until 450. 1250 rcCE
c.1250 SLAVONIA (area between Sava and Drava Rivers) occupied by Celto-Ligurians from 2000, occupied by Urnfield Celts until 625. 1250 rcWB
c.1250 Canegrate cultureCanegrate culture begins north of Po River.  An example of western Hallstatt culture.  Necropolis is similar to contemporary sites north of the Alps.  It represents the first wave of proto-Celtics from the northwest Alps that, through the Alpine passes, had already penetrated and settled in the western Po valley between Lakes Maggiore and Como.  They bring cremation, which supplants inhumation.  They remain homogeneous for a century, then melt into the Ligurians. 13th cen. wikCC, wikPIIA

Map Ruthven
c.1250 Lion GateMYCENAE:  In Late Helladic-IIIB, the Cyclopean wall is extended on the west slope to include grave circle A.  The main entrance thru the circuit wall is the LION GATE, thru which passed a stepped ramp leading past circle A and up to the palace.  The Lion Gate is in the form of a "Relieving Triangle", i.e. a triangular space above a lintel to relieve the weight of the masonry. 1250
B76 19-276, about, wikcomM
pictures: wikcomMLG, wikcomLGM
c.1250 Treasury of AtreusTreasury of Atreus (aka Tomb of Agamemnon), a tholos tomb on the Panagitsa Hill at Mycenae.  The lintel stone above the doorway weighs 120 tons, with approximate dimensions 8.3 x 5.2 x 1.2m, the largest in the world.  The tomb was used for an unknown period, and probably has no relation to either Atreus or Agamemnon, as archaeologists believe the man buried there ruled earlier than either. 1250 wikTA

c.1250 Treasury of MINYAS in Orchomenos Boeotia built by Minyas, son of Chryses.  A vaulted tholos tomb.  . 1250 flkr     13th cen. drtm
c.1250 ASCLEPIUS, legendary physician of Thessaly.
Later deified as son of Apollo and nymph Coronis.  Learned healing from centaur Chiron.  Killed by Zeus so he wouldn't make men immortal.
1250 TTPC
no date:
B76 I-572
c.1250 A Mycenean voyage into the Black Sea may have been the base for the story of JASON and the GOLDEN FLEECE according to Apollonius. 1250
1246 strts
c.1240 Λ SLASHING SWORD with a flanged hilt-grip begins in central Aegean area. soon after 1250 PAE 159
c.1200 BRITAIN:  Early Bronze Age ends.  Began 2300.  Late Bronze Age begins to 700. 1200 wikPB
c.1200 Middle Bronze Age Britain 1500-1000:  Knighton Heath Period ends.  Began 1300.  Early Urnfield; Wilburton-Wallington Phase begins until 1000. 1200 wikBAB
c.1200 A branch of LIGURES sails to Britain, conquers and intermarries with natives, who are a mixed group of dark-haired and dark skinned people, possibly Iberian, and light-haired Scandinavians. 1200 mxfld
c.1200 BRITAIN:  Clear evidence of farming in south, circular huts in groups with small oblong fields and stock enclosures.  This type continues into Roman period. 1200
B76 3-194
c.1200 TUMULUS culture, distinguished by burying dead under mounds (tumuli), in central Europe from 1600 fades out. 1200 wikTC
c.1200 LISBON Portugal founded by Phoenicians. 1200 B76 10-1029
c.1200 METALWORKING increases dramatically.  Smiths handle more bronze and gold and show sophisticated techniques such as lost-wax casting and casting in molds in many pieces. 1200 eah
c.1200 CREMATION V replaces burial as normal funerary practice. 1200 eah
c.1200 Proto-CELTIC culture in GAUL & GERMANIA. 1200 vrb
c.1200 MORAVIA, under Celto-Ligurians from 2000, occupied by Urnfield Celts until 600. 1200 rcCE
c.1200 ILLYRIANS, in Dalmatia from 1300, sail across Adriatic to southern ITALY. 1200 vrb
c.1200 APPENINE CULTURE from 1800 with incised geometric designs on pottery ends. 13th cen. wikApC 1200 wikLat
c.1200 Thanks to Hittites, local  IRON V production begins period of rapid growth in Transcaucasia, south Italy, Levant, and Persia until 1000.
(See China 1200, Egypt 1150)
SHT 1-595
c.1200 MYCENEANS, in Greece from 1900, pressed by Doric and Aeolian tribes from north of Greece, start migrating to ATTICA, ARCADIA, CRETE, ANATOLIA, CYPRUS, and even to southern Italy. 1200
B76 19-277, MCAW 46, vrb
c.1200 Chariot2 women drive a chariot with 4 spoke wheels on a fresco from Tiryns. 1200 wikMG

Picture: {{PD-US}}
c.1200 GREECE:  LATE BRONZE AGE from 1580 and MYCENEAN AGE from 1600   both destroyed by invading illiterate Dorians who have the advantage of IRON V weapons.  Mycenae destroyed, TIRYNS people massacred.  Linear-B script forgotten.
EARLY IRON AGE begins to 725.
1200 B76 8-326, 19-285, MCAW 46, 56, TAWH 16, bk, vrb, mxfld
1150 PW 15
1100 B76 14-898, LEWH 60, MCAW 50, RAH, wikMc
1050 wikGA
DARK AGE begins (Protogeometric) to 900.   Arcs and circles drawn with a compass.
c.1200 EARLY ARCHAIC Period begins to 750. 1200 B76 I-486
c.1200 PYLOS, Greece sacked and burned by Sea Peoples Linear-B tablets  will be found here. 1200 LEWH 60, RAH 130
c.1200 ATHENS, occupied from before 1300, first buildings appear, including citadel on Acropolis. 1200 B76 2-265, MCAW 46
c.1200 ARMENO-PHRYGIANS, in Balkans and Thrace from 1250, cross Bosphorus straits into Anatolia. 1250 vrb
1200 LEWH 50, TAWH 56
1190 CWH, RAI2 219
c.1190 GREECE:  LATE HELLADIC Period-IIIB ends.  Began 1300.
LATE HELLADIC Period-IIIC begins until 1060.
1190 wikHP, wikMP
The end of LH-IIIB is associated with the destruction of Ugarit, whose ruins contain the last of that pottery.  .
c.1180 Palace of Pylos destroyed. 1180 wikMG
c.1152 ALBA LONGA on the Albus Mons founded by Ascanius. trad 1152 OCD 34
c.1150 TERRAMARE culture along the Panaro River, between Modena and Bologna from 1500 ends.  Settlementes are abandoned and populations move south, where they mingle with the Apennine peoples. 12th cen. wikPIIA, wikTC
c.1150 1st contacts between Phoenicians and Spain along Mediterranean coast. 11th cen. wikTpR
c.1124 The THESSALI expel the BOEOTI from land now named THESSALY.  The Boeoti migrate to Cadmeis, and rename it Boeotia. 1124 GHH
c.1110 AGADIR (later called Gadir, then Cadiz) on south coast of Spain, founded by Phoenicians from Tyre.  It is their 1st walled city.  Under Phoenicians until 501. 1110 B76 17-944, MWΦ 94, 230
1104 wik, wikTpR     1100 B76 II-429, 17-402, CWH, mxfld, rcIb
c.1104 CORINTH comes under HERACLID dynasty until 747.  Aleles, a descendant of Heracles, expels the Sisyphidae, and rules. 1104 DGRG 1-676 1074 GHH
c.1101 UTICA, Spain, founded by Phoenicians. 1101 MWΦ 94, 230
8th or 7th cen. B76 X-314
c.1100 DANES wear ornate weapons and ornaments and used bronze lurs as musical instruments. 1100 mxfld
c.1100 SPAIN, populated by dark whites, possibly ancestors of Basques.  Ligurians occupy west coast. 1100 mxfld
c.1100 THRACIANS arrive in Balkans. 1100 vrb
c.1100 BRITAIN:  Rectangular houses evidenced at Gwithian and Cornwall, sub-rectangular houses at Wesex and Sussex, but circular buildings are still more common. 1200-1000 PAE 150
c.1100 ITALY:  New wave of Italics arrive including OSCANS & UMBRIANS. 1100 vrb
c.1100 VILLANOVANS, iron using Urnfield people, enter Italy, but do not yet settle at Villanova. 1100 wikVlC
c.1100 Λ LAMPS made in Europe and Anatolia burn olive or nut oil thru a wick. 1100 TTT
c.1100 Bronze BODY Λ ARMOR V appears in central Europe. pre-1000 PAE 134
c.1100 Athamanians resist attacks by invading Dorians. 1100 wikAθm
c.1100 DELPHIC AMPHICTYONY created to protect the temple of Apollo at Delphi and of Demeter at Thermopylae.  Includes all tribes surrounding the oracle of Delphi: Ionians, Magnesians, Pythians, Boeotians, Dolopes, Locrians, Dorians, Malians, Thessalians, Perrhoebians and Phoecians.  Ruled by a council which has the right to declare war, punish offenders, and dictate religious policy. 1100 grka 1040 GHH
c.1100 The NELEIDAE of Pylos in Messenia are driven out by Dorians.  Under Alcmaeon and Melanthos they go to Athens. 1100 DGRBM 1-106, GHH
c.1100 THYMAETES, last Theseid king of Attica at Athens from ?, deposed.  MELANTHOS succeeds until 1091. 1128 GHH
c.1100 Post-Mycenean Greece is a land of villages making crude pottery with little decoration until 1050. 1100 GRG 2
c.1100 AEGINA Island south of Athens, conquered by Deiphontes of Tiryns, under Dorians until ?. 1100 OCD 12
c.1100 DORIANS, in Greece from 1200, spread to CRETE, destroy remnant of Minoan civilization.   Myceneans on Crete evacuate, mostly to Arcadia and Attica, some to Anatolia. 1100 CWH, MCAW 50
c.1091 MELANTHOS, king of Attica at Athens from 1100, dies.  KODROS succeeds until 1068. 1091 GHH
c.1073 SISYPHID dynasty of Corinth from ?, ends.  ALETES becomes Heracleid king of Corinth until 1035.   HERACLEID DYNASTY continues 1104-747. 1074 DGRG 1-450, 676, GHH     1073 wikHer
c.1068 KODROS, king of Attica at Athens from 1091, dies.  Sons Nelos and Androclos emigrate with many followers to west coast of Anatolia.  Son MEDON becomes life term archon of Athens until 1048.  Archonship remains in his family until 713. 1068 CDGRA 65, rcSB3, wikEA     1045 GHH
1044 DGRG 2-61
c.1060 DORIAN invasions of Greece peak. 1075-50 GRG
c.1060 GREECE:  HELLADIC Period ends.  Began 1300.
LATE HELLADIC Period ends.  Began 1550.
LATE HELLADIC Period-III ends.  Began 1400.
LATE HELLADIC Period-IIIC ends.  Began 1190.
SUB-MYCENEAN Period begins until 1000.
1100 pmsgw
1060 wikHP
1030 wikSMP
Late LH-IIIC pottery is found in Troy-VIIa and a few pieces in Tarsus.  It is also made locally in Philistine settlements of Ashdod, Ashkelon, Ekron, Gath, and Gaza.  Sub-Mycenean is a period of severe economic and cultural depression.  Crude, simplified versions of old Mycenaean and Minoan pottery are produced.  Metal craftsmanship is mostly rudimentary, but new iron working technology is adopted, perhaps from Cyprus.
c.1052 CUMAE, Italy founded by Ionian Greeks. 1052 CWH     1050 DGRG 1-716 1030 GHH
c.1050 BONONIA (Bologna), Italy occupied by Villanovans until 510. 1050 OCD 172
c.1050 Λ CREMATION becomes common at Athens. 1050 GRG 36
c.1050 Greek pottery quality begins improvement. 1050 B76 VIII-253
c.1050 Athamania is divided into 4 territories, Heracleia, Argithea, Tetraphylia, and Chalkis. 1050 wikAθm
c.1050 MYCENEANS of Attica and Arcadia begin Ionian migration to Anatolia. 1050 OCD 140
c.1048 MEDON, son of Kodros, life term archon of Athens from 1068, ends.  ACASTOS succeeds until 1012. 1048 rcSB3, wikEA 1025 GHH
c.1045 ATTICA overrun by Dorians. 1045 GHH
c.1035 Proto-geometric pottery decoration begins in Athens until 900. 1050-25 GRG
c.1035 ALETES, Heracleid king of Corinth from 1073, ends.  IXION succeeds until 997. 1035 wikHer 1034 GHH
c.1024 Echastratos and Eurypion are kings of Sparta. 1024 GHH
c.1012 ACASTOS, life term archon of Athens from 1048, ends.  ARCHIPPOS succeeds until 993. 1012 rcSB3, wikEA

Europe 1000-501           Balkan Peninsula 1000-501
V             V