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Asia Go to Europe Go to Anatolia Go to Mesopotamia Go to Persia Go to India Go to East Asia
c.2000 Pygmy MAMMOTH survives on Wrangel Island in Arctic Ocean. 2000 TTT
c.2000 INDO-EUROPEANS (located north of Black Sea or Caspian Sea or both) begin migrating west to Europe and south to Anatolia. 2000 B76 6-1123, MCAW 20
c.2000 The BALTIC linguistic group of northeastern Indo-Europeans enters the eastern Baltic and western Russia as agriculturalists and cattle raisers. 2000 mxfld
c.2000 ANDRONOVO culture begins until 1000 between Don and Yenisei rivers.  Consists of Petrovka-Sintashta, Fyedorovo, and Sargary-Alexeevka periods.  Andronovo settlements usually on small river banks and low flood plains.  Types:  (1) small timberbuilt houses;  (2) large: 20 to 100 houses. Roomy semi-dugout dwellings 100-130 sq.m with deep storage pits and corridor-shaped exits.  Settlement plans:  (1) houses in a line along a river; (2) houses along a street;  (3) houses in two rows either in semi-circular or rectangular plan. 2300 wikAnd     2000 csen
1500 mxfld
c.2000 Sintashta-Petrovka-Arkaim period of Southern Urals, northern Kazakhstan begins until 1600.  Sintashta is in the steppe just east of the Ural Mts.  Rectangular houses in a circle 140m diameter, surrounded by a timber-reinforced earthen wall with gate towers and a deep ditch on its exterior.  Evidence of copper and bronze metallurgy.  Chariot burials with sacrificed horses. 2800 wikSnt
2200 wikAnd
2000 csen
c.2000 FATYANOVO Culture of 3200-2300 still survives in central Russia. 2000 mxfld
c.2000 Cimmerians occupy difuse region in far west Ukraine, generally the south flank of the Carpathian Mountains until 680. 2000 rcU
c.2000 CRIMEA occupied by Cimmerians until 700s. 2000 rcCrm
c.2000 Solid wooden WHEELS on carts and wagons appear in south Asia, Europe, Crete, Aram, and Egypt.
(See Anatolia 1800, and China 1300)
2000 SHT 1-211
1250 SHT 1-719
Spread of the chariot
Spread of the CHARIOT:           Photo by Dbachmann
c.2000 SPOKE WHEELED CHARIOT may have been invented by the Andronovo culture in west Asiatic steppes 2000-1000.  They also appear in Mesopotamia, Aram, Egypt.
(See Europe 1500, Crete 1500, and China 1300)
2000 wikAnd
c.2000 CHARIOTS become lighter, allowing horses to pull them with a strap harness. 2000 ehow
c.2000 Peasant farmers from Steppes migrate as far east as Ural Mountains. 2000 TAWH 53
c.1950 Domesticated HORSES evidenced in the steppes.
(See Europe 1800)
2100-1700 wikDHrs
1912 Sep 24 ECLIPSE recorded?  Mozi writes:  "The three Miao tribes were in disarray.  Heaven ordered their destruction.  The sun rose at night."  If this somehow refers to an eclipse, it is the earliest reported by any people. Sep 24 1912 fcts
c.1800 Balts occupy the Baltic area.  Slavs occupy central Russia as far west as Vistula River.  Thraco-Cimmerians occupy the south and west. 1800 mxfld
c.1800 ESTONIA:  Late Neolithic Period from 2200 ends.  Bronze Age begins. 1800 wikHE
c.1800 COPPER, in Canaan from at least 2000, is used in Russia.
(See Britain 1950, Sumerian cubit 1950, Amenhemhet-III 1842, Ganges Valley 1800, Arabia 1750, China 1500)
1800 mxfld
c.1800 Eastern Ukraine and southern Russia comes under Cimmerians until 700. 1800 rcN
c.1800 ARYANS, east of the Caspian from 2000, split into 2 groups:  one migrating west, one migrating south. 1800 BCoC 215
c.1800 ALAKUL culture between Oxus and Jaxartes Rivers begins until 1400. 1800 wikAnd
c.1800 SINTASHTA fortification of Chelyabinsk Oblast. 1800 wikAnd
c.1800 KIPCHAK tribal confederation occupying various places from Aral Sea to Hungary, comes under Cimmerians until 700. 1800 rcN
c.1750 HORSE DOMESTICATION evidenced by pairs of horse skeletons with bridle parts in Timber Graves of lower Volga. 2000-1500 PAE 95
c.1700 BATTLE AXE PEOPLE of the UKRAINE:  Aryan speaking cattle and horse raising people spread west. 1700 MCAW 25
c.1700 SRUBNA (aka TIMBER-GRAVE) culture begins until 1150.  Area north of Black Sea from the Dnieper eastwards along the northern base of the Caucasus to the area abutting the north shore of the Caspian Sea, west of the Ural Mountains to come up against the Andronovo culture.  Called Timber Grave from the way graves are constructed.  Animal parts and parts of horse bridles are buried with bodies.  Economy is mixed agriculture and livestock breeding. 18th cen. wikSC
1700 PAE 110, 130
Srubna hut
Srubna hut reconstructed GNU FDL
Srubna blades
Srubna blades by Evgeny Genkin
Srubna axes
Srubna axes by Evgeny Genkin
c.1600 Balts and Slavs still don't have bronze, though it is common in the west with proto-Celts and in the south among Thraco-Cimmerians. 1600 mxfld
c.1600 Sintashta-Petrovka-Arkaim period of Southern Urals, northern Kazakhstan from 2000, ends. 1600 csen, wikAnd, wikSnt
c.1600 FEDOROVO culture in southern Siberia (earliest evidence of cremation and fire cult) begins until 1300. 1700 wikAnd 1500 csen
c.1500 COMPOSITE BOW invented on Central Asian steppes.  Made of wood, horn, and sinew glued together to increase their strength and elasticity.  (See Megiddo  1468) 1500 csmt, infpl
c.1475 LIQUOR distilled in parts of Asia. 1500-1451 TTS
c.1450 BORODINO treasure hoard contains silver spears, jadeite battle-axes, alabaster mace heads. 15th cen. PAE 129-30
c.1400 ALAKUL culture between Oxus and Jaxartes Rivers from 1800, ends. 1400 wikAnd
c.1400 SLAVS become separate ethnic group between Oder and Dnieper rivers. 1400 vrb
c.1300 ALEXEYEVKA culture in eastern Kazakhstan begins until 1100. 1300 wikAnd     1200 csen
c.1300 FEDOROVO culture in southern Siberia from 1600 ends. 1300 csen, wikAnd
c.1250 BALTIC PEOPLE, along Vistula and Oder rivers from ?, begin migrating east and north. 1250 vrb
c.1250 South SIBERIA:  Karasuk Culture develops from the Andronovo.  People change from settled communities to seasonal nomads.  Small curved knives similar to those at An-Yang in China have been found. 13-1200 mxfld
c.1200 CIMMERIANS occupy southern Russian Steppes. 1200 B76 9-596
c.1200 STEPPES:  has sophisticated bronze industry. 1200 PW 15
c.1200 CAMELS:  1st camel saddles appear for Bactrian camels.   (See Mesopotamia 1000) by 1200 wikCam
c.1175 Himalayan and Karakorum mountain ranges both begin melting. 1200-1150 pczy
c.1150 SRUBNA (aka TIMBER-GRAVE) culture north of Black Sea from 1700, ends.  Contained parts of HORSE BRIDLES. 12th cen. wikSC
c.1100 ALEXEYEVKA culture in eastern Kazakhstan from 1300 ends. 1100 wikAnd     1000 csen
c.1100 KOBAN (Kopban) culture of northern and central Caucasus begins until 400.  Dwellings, cobble bridges, altars, iron objects, bones, clay and stone objects, sickles, stone grain grinders.  Grains include wheat, rye, and barley.  Cattle, sheep, goats, donkeys, pigs and horses were kept.  Shops for pottery, stone-casting, bone and stone carving.  Evidence of an advanced metallurgy.  Differentiation of professions organized within clans. 1200 wikKC
1100 wikKC
c.1000 INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES, spreading from 1425, are spoken over most of Europe and much of south Asia. 1000 B76 9-431
c.1000 ANDRONOVO culture ends.  In western Siberia and west Asiatic steppe from 2000.  Andronovo settlements usually on small river banks and low flood plains.  Types:  (1) small timberbuilt houses;  (2) large: 20 to 100 houses. Roomy semi-dugout dwellings 100-130 sq.m with deep storage pits and corridor-shaped exits.  Settlement plans:  (1) houses in a line along a river; (2) houses along a street;  (3) houses in two rows either in semi-circular or rectangular plan. 1000 csen, wikAnd
c.1000 REINDEER domesticated in Siberia. 1000 TTT
c.1000 Beshkent-Vakhsh culture begins until 800. 1000 wikAnd
c.1000 STEPPES:  Nomadic economy based on horses, cattle, sheep. 1000 PW 15
c.1000 HORSE RIDING learned by Iranians of Transoxia. 1000 mxfld

Asia 1000-500
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