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c.2000 WATERMELON cultivated in Africa. 2000 TTPC-5
c.2000 Farmers and herders in Ethiopia from ?, spread south to Kenya. 2000 wik20
c.1968 AMENHEMHET-I makes 1st recorded 12th Dyn campaign into Nubia. yr 23 1968 Grim 161
c.1962 SENUSRET, son of pharaoh Amenhemhet-I, penetrates WAWAT as far as Korusko, takes prisoners as far as Mazol land. Amenhemhet yr 29 BHoE 178, Grim 161, Shaw 148, nar
c.1962 KERMA south of 3rd cataract shows evidence of Egyptian occupation and extensive urban development.  Cemeteries show wives and servants buried with tribal chiefs, animal sacrifices, and up to 400 human sacrificed retainers. after 2000 mxfld
1962 MCAW 21
Sometimes Nubia and Kush are the same area.  Sometimes they are different.  When they are different, Nubia is north of Kush.
c.1958 SENUSRET-I, 2nd pharaoh of 12th dynasty 1962-28, resumes conquest of NUBIA in person.  1st campaign ever personally led by a pharaoh.  Penetrates beyond 2nd cataract, occupies as far as Buhen. 8 yrs after A-1 dies: BHoE 181
no date: DMoN
AMENI, son of Khnum-Hotep, under Senusret, commands Oryx soldiers.
c.1953 MENTUHOTEP, general under Senusret-I in Nubia, dispatched south. 1953 BHoE 181
yr 10 Shaw 149
c.1950 Egyptian fortress at BUHEN, Nubia has a drawbridge that moves on rollers. 2000 TTT
c.1950 NUBIA, independent from ?, conquered by general Mentuhotep.  Under Egypt until 1913. 1950 TTPC
no date: BHoE 17, 166, 181
General MENTUHOTEP erects so many boastful monuments that Senusret gets nervous and dismisses him.
One large stele north of 2nd cataract now extant.
c.1949 AMENI, nomarch of Oryx 1950-?, with prince Amenhemhet + 400 men, dispatched to consolidate NUBIA and mine gold. no date:
BHoE 181
c.1913 NUBIA, under Egypt from 1950, goes independent until 1903.  EGYPT / NUBIA war until 1903. 1913 wik20
c.1903 EGYPT / NUBIA war from 1913, ends.  Nubia under Egypt until 1829. 1903 wik20
c.1869 SENUSRET-III, 5th pharaoh of 12th dynasty 1877-43, sails war ships into NUBIA.
Sets up forts, Semna & Kummeh south of 2nd cataract as his southern border.
Puts temple to Dedwen, god of Nubia, in fortress Semna.
yr 8
BHoE 184, DMoN 60, Grim 168
c.1867 SENUSRET-III, minor Nubian campaign. yr 10 DMoN 61
c.1861 SENUSRET-III, 5th pharaoh of 12th dynasty 1877-43, extensive campaign against NUBIA.  Burns crops, takes cattle.
EGYPT / NUBIA war begins until ?.
yr 16
BHoE 186, DMoN 61
c.1858 SENUSRET-III personally leads campaign against NUBIA.  Burns crops, takes cattle. yr 19 BHoE 186, DMoN 61, Shaw 155
c.1829 NUBIA, under Egypt from 1903.
EGYPT / NUBIA war begins until 1818.
1829 wik20
c.1818 EGYPT / NUBIA war from 1829 ends. 1818 wik19
c.1750 Kings of KERMA in upper Nubia are powerful enough to organize labor for large walls and structures of mud brick, have rich tombs with possessions for the afterlife, conduct human sacrifices.
Craftsmen are skilled in metalworking and pottery.
1750 wikN
c.1650 KERMA is a densely populated urban center overseeing a centralized state from at least 1st Cataract to 4th. 1650 nub
c.1540 AMENHOTEP-I, 2nd pharaoh of 18th (Theban) dynasty 1550-26, invades Nubia, colonizes it, takes captives back to Thebes. 1550 MCAW 28
yr 8 Shaw 213
no date: TTPC
c.1526 THUTMOSE-I, 3rd pharaoh of 18th (Theban) dynasty 1527-10, marches south to attack NUBIA.  Arrives at 1st cataract.  Canal full of stones.  Drags ships over rapids, arrives at Tangur above 2nd cataract, soon defeats 1st tribe of Nubians. T-1 yr 2 BHoE 256, Shaw 223
c.1525 THUTMOSE-I, 3rd pharaoh of 18th (Theban) dynasty 1527-10, thoroughly subdues NUBIA, extends border beyond 4th cataract, takes back body of Nubian king tied head down to the prow of his ship. 1524 MCAW 28
T-1 yr 2 BHoE 257
c.1520 Egyptians take control of Kush until 1100. 1520 wikK
c.1520 After 1520 the Egyptian New Kingdom used Nubian gold to hire charioteers. 1520 mxfld
c.1509 THUTMOSE-II, 5th pharaoh of 18th (Theban) dynasty 1510-04 quells revolt in NUBIA.  Executes all involved except for one son of the ruler, who is brought back to Thebes as a hostage. yr 1
Grim 212, Shaw 227
c.1500 All NUBIA occupied by Egyptians. 1500 mxfld, nub
c.1440 NEHI, viceroy of Nubia for THUTMOSE-III, 5th pharaoh of 18th dyn 1504-1436 invades to 4th cataract. T-3 yr 50 BHoE 318, DMoN 88, GEoP, wikT3
c.1417 Rebellion in NUBIA suppressed by THUTMOSE-IV. yr 8 BHoE 328
c.1385 Rebellion in NUBIA suppressed by MERMOSE, viceroy of Amenhotep-III. Mermose penetrates beyond 4th cataract, possibly 5th.  This marks the greatest geographical expansion of Egypt into Nubia/Kush. 1406 MCAW 32
1390 mxfld
yr 4 BHoE 330
yr 5 DMoN 89, GEoP 205, Shaw 260
c.1340 Rebellion in NUBIA quelled by AKHENATEN, 9th pharaoh of 18th dyn 1352-34. yr 12 Shaw 270
c.1283 Rebellion in NUBIA at Irem.  SETI-I sends troops which crush it after a 7 day campaign and take over 600 prisoners. Seti-I yr 8 DMON 121
c.1200 IRON producing sites evidenced. 1200 wikIA
c.1194 SIPTAH, pharaoh 1194-88, goes to NUBIA to install his viceroy, SETI. yr 1 BHoE 473
c.1100 NUBIA, under Egypt from 1540, and KUSH, under Egypt from 1520, now free of Egyptians.  Nothing more is known of Nubia until 750. 1100 B76 VII-430, mxfld
c.1070 KINGDOM of KUSH established.  Capital at Napata. 1070 wikK     900 PW 15, TAWH 16
c.1070 PINNKHI-I becomes king of Kush at Napata until 1050. 1074 rcNA
c.1050 PINNKHI-I king of Kush at Napata from 1070 ends.  PAINUTEN-I succeeds until ?. 1050 rcNA
c.1030 MENKHEPERRA becomes king of Kush at Napata until 991. 1030 rcNA
c.1000 KENYA & TANZANIA:  Caucasoid AZANIANS bring cattle and cereals to join the previously settled dark whites.  They leave stone burial chambers, hut circles, terraced fields, roads and traces of irrigation.  By tradition Azanians were tall, bearded and red-skinned. 1000 mxfld

Africa 1000-501
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