Levant
c.200 SCOPAS, Egyptian commander in Coele-Syria, is defeated by Antiochus-III Megas at PANEAS (Panias, Panion, Paneion, Panium) in north Palestine.  Scopas with 10,000 men flees to Sidon.  Ptolemy-V makes an ineffectual attempt to relieve him. Antiq 12:3:3       200 B76 1-993, 6-482, 8-379, 383, CAH 7.1-184, 442, 8-165, CHJ 2-71, 75, IDB 1-480, LEWH 93, Shaw 394, bk, lvA3, wikPan     198 1&2BM 2, B76 1-947, 17-947, DGRBM 1-197, GHH, IDB 1-150, Sdl 5-236, VDJD 69, wikP6     no date: DGRBM 3-754
c.200 Jewish militia helps Antiochus-III dislodge the Egyptian garrison from the Jerusalem citadel. 200 E2LM 56
c.200  MISHNA  begins:  a method of teaching by presenting topics by subject matter, instead of by biblical context. 200 bihi
c.200 ANTIGONUS of SOCO (Sokho, Socho), pupil of Simon the Just, head of Sanhedrin?, Jewish sage, flourishes.  Known for piety, benevolence, and an ambiguous statement about the existence of an afterlife:
"Be not like servants that minister to the master on condition of receiving reward, but be like srevants that minister to the master without condition of receiving reward; and let the fear of heaven be upon you".
Antiq 12:2:5
Mishna: Avoth 1:3
200 Mish I-505
late 200s-
early 100s
Jud 3-67
180 IDB 2-14
no date:
Jud 16-1232
c.200 SADDUCEES founded by Zadok, disciple of Antigonus of Soco.  Priests, aristocrats, wealthy merchants who reject afterlife and oral law. 284 GHH
200 Jud 14-620, VDJD 103
c.200 SOFERIM "scribes" Scholars who interpreted Jewish law from time of Ezra, end.  PHARISEES take over their function. 200 B76 IX-322
c.200 Belief in RESURRECTION of the dead (or at least some of them) emerges. 200 IDB 3-655
c.200 AMMON, under Seleucids from 301, independent until 160. 200 hifiAm, rcJdn
c.200 IDUMEA, comes under Seleucids until 165. 200 rcHL
c.200  Macedonian Calendar , used in Judea from 332, reverts to Babylonian until ?. 200 B76 3-600
c.200  FINAL CANON  on books of prophets  Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Minor Prophets  clamps the lid on prophesy.   Book of Daniel  is not mentioned here or in any other known writing. 200 IDB 1-501-2, 508
c.200  Hephzibah Inscriptions   Contain:
1.  a letter from Ptolemy-? to commander of Coele-Syria favorable to Jews.
2.  extracts from a royal edict, 6 aimed at safeguarding ritual purity of Jerusalem and its Temple
3.  6 letters dating 201195 concerning estates of commander Ptolemy son of Thraseas, in the plain of Megiddo.  Antiochus-III gives thanks for the support of the Jews during campaigns in their district.
201-195 CHJ 2-72-4
c.200 HEBREW LETTERS change shape from angular paleo-Hebrew to square shape used by Aramaic speakers. 200 BBP 29, 120
c.200 MIDDLE ARAMAIC PERIOD begins until 200-500CE.  (aka Middle Hebrew, Mishnaic Hebrew)     This overlaps the Old Aramaic Period (1100BC 200CE).  The homogeneity of earlier Aramaic breaks up, and different forms and dialects appear. 200
CHJ 2-93, IDB 2-559, wikAL
c.200  2 Books of TOBIT (Tobiah)  written in Hebrew or Aramaic in Egypt.  Jewish piety mixed with folklore.    Vindicates Yaweh as good despite existing evil in world.  Tobit, a pious Jew exiled in Nineheh in the 7th century, does good deeds, and is supernaturally delivered from horrific affliction along with son Tobias, and son's wife Sarah.  "What you yourself hate, do to no man".  Borrows from Story of Ahikar 500.  Makes Ahikar Tobit's nephew and treasurer of Sennacherib and Esarhaddon. 3-200 CHJ 2-477, Sdl 5-162
259 IDB 2-712
225-200 AΨA 174 200 BBP 157, ODCC 1382, lvCrn 200-170 IDB 4-658 200-160 BBT
180 MNDQ 471     175-164 B76 X-18
c.199 SCOPAS, Egyptian commander in Coele-Syria, besieged in Sidon from 200 by Antiochus-III Megas, compelled by famine to surrender in exchange for safe conduct.  Scopas flees to Egypt, where he still has high favor. 199 CAH 8-173, CHJ 2-72
198 DHJ 469
c.199 RABBAH (called Philadelphia by Ptolemies) Ammon, independent from 200, comes under the Lagides. 199 IDB 4-2
c.199 JOSEPH ben Tobiah, chief Egyptian tax collector of Coele Syria from 219, dies.  Youngest son Hyrcanus takes over his office.  Joseph's sons quarrel over division of his wealth, the elder sons refusing to allow half-bro Hyrcanus any share of it. Antiq 12:4:10
199 wikTb
c.198 GEBAL (Byblos), under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until ?.. 198 rcLeb
c.198 PHOENICIA, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 68.. 198 rcLeb
c.198 ITUREA (Bekaa Valley) region in south Phoenicia, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 168.. 198 rcLeb
c.198 ATHAR, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until ?..  Name changed to TRIPOLIS. 198 CHJ 2-72, rcLeb
c.198 TYRE, under Ptolemies from 301, taken by ANTIOCHUS-III Megas, under Seleucids until 126. 200 B76 X-223, OCD 1102     198 rcLeb
c.198 SIDON, under Ptolemies from 294, taken by Antiochus-III.  Under Seleucids until 112. 198 IDB 1-150, rcLeb
c.198 PTOLEMAIS (formerly Acco), under Ptolemies from 217, taken by Antiochus-III after Paneas.  Under Seleucids until 175. 198 rcHL
c.198 GALILEE, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 103.. 198 rcHL
c.198 GERASA, city in northeast Jordan, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 110.. 198 rcHL
c.198 SAMARIA, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 129.. 198 rcHL
c.198 COELE-SYRIA, under Ptolemies from 217, ceded to Antiochus-IIIUnder Seleucids until 146. 200 CAH 7.1-4, lvA, lv5SW
198 1&2BM 2, B76 1-947, 17-947, BNTH 2, GHH,
IDB 1-150, atl2, hifi
c.198 SIMON-2 ben Onias, high priest 219-198, opens the gates of Jerusalem to Antiochus-III.  The people of Jerusalem are rewarded for their loyalty. 198 CHJ 2-604
c.198 JUDEA, under Ptolemies from 217, taken by Antiochus-IIIUnder Seleucids until 166. 198 1&2BM 20, IDB 1-500, rcHL
c.198 JERUSALEM opens gates to Antiochus-III and hails him as liberator. 198 DHJ 478
c.198 BETH SHAN (Shean), in north Jordan valley, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 110. 198 rcCan
c.198 GAZARA (Gezer), on plain of Sharon, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 167. 198 rcCan
c.198 ASHDOD (Azotus), under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 165.. 198 rcHL
c.198 ASKALON, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 150.. 198 rcHL
c.198 GATH, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 167.. 198 rcHL
c.198 GAZA, under Ptolemies from 301, taken by Antiochus-III, destroyed, comes under Seleucids until 150.. 198 DGRG 1-980, Jud 7-340, rcHL
c.198 Son of Onias-II, SIMON-II dies.  high priest from 219.  Son ONIAS-III succeeds until 174. Antiq 12:4:10     199 AΨA 293
198 CHJ 2, IDB 4-357, Mish 4-490, af     195 GHH 191 atl2     190 bivu 185 gw, hifi, wikHP
c.198 ONIAS-III, high priest 198-74, sides with elder Tobiads against Hyrcanus. no date: mnls
c.198 JERUSALEM, under Ptolemies from 217 and sick of it, opens gates to Antiochus-III, and helps him expell the Egyptian garrisonremains under Seleucid control until 164.  COELE-SYRIA remains Seleucid until 142/1 198
Jud 3-73, Sdl 5-289
c.198 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, rewards Jews by restoring Jerusalem, granting it tax exemption for 3 years, funds for the temple, and limited self government. 198 Jud 3-73
c.195 HANNIBAL sails from Thapsus to Tyre, then goes to Antioch. 195 B76 8-384, 627, CAH 8-191, LdHR 2-36
c.193 SYRO / EGYPT TREATY  at Raphia.  Seleucids dominate EgyptCLEOPATRA-I SYRA, dau of Antiochus-III, age 10, marries Ptolemy-V Epiphanes, age 16, until 181. Antiq 12:4:1       200 lvA3     194 MCAW     193 Jud 5-603, wikC1S     193/2 DGRBM 3-591,     192 IDB 3-198
c.193 COELE-SYRIA, including Judea, under Antiochus-III from 198, given to his dau Cleopatra (Cleo-I) as a dowry, which means it should go to her husband Ptolemy-V Epiphanes, but Seleucids remain in control until 142. Antiq 12:4:1
193 Jud 5-603 192 IDB 3-198
This may never have happened. wikC1
c.191 JOSE ben Joezer becomes Nasi (head of Sanhedrin) until 140. 191 rcHL
c.191 Joseph the Tobiad retires from tax-collecting in Judea and Phoenicia. 191 atl2
c.190 Ben Sira urges the people to honor the priest, and give him his due according to the Law.  Acknowledges high priest authority over statutes and judgments, but it is the scribe who advises the rulers and the assembly. 190 E2LM 68
c.187 TEMPLE of Jerusalem plundered by Antiochus-III to pay the Roman indemnity. 187 MCAW
c.185 HYRCANUS ben Joseph, Egyptian tax collector, visits Alexandria, charms and bribes his way to favor of Ptolemy-V.  When he returns, his half-bros lay in wait to kill him.  A battle ensues in which Hyrcanus and companions kill 2 of his half-bros.  Jerusalem shuts its gates to him. 187 GHH
185 atl2
no date: btst
c.181 HYRCANUS ben Joseph is forced by his half brothers to leave Judea and settle east of river Jordan.  He builds a castle, continues collecting taxes, and amassing wealth until 175. 187 GHH
181 atl2
c.180 Heliodoros, a Seleucid official tries to extort money from the temple treasury, and fails. 180 E2LM 83
c.180 Λ Book of ENOCHV  ch 91-108  (Epistle of ENOCH)  blessings and an apocalypse.  Except 105 is probably a Christian interpollation. 200-170 lv1E     100 B76 2-937
c.180  Book of SIRACH (ECCLESIASTICUS)  written in Hebrew by religiously conservative scribe Jeshua ben Eleazar ben Sira (now extant only in translations).  Scripture (39:1) is divided into 3 parts:
    the Law of the Most High
    the Wisdom of the Ancients
    Prophesies
 Books of Daniel and Esther  are the only OT books missing from Sirach.  Daniel is also missing from a list of Israel's great men.
200 CHJ 2-364, GHH 190 B76 III-772, CHJ 2-81, 425, IDB 2-9, 4-859     185 B76 2-934     180 1&2BM 5, BBP 159, CHJ 2-225, 393, IDB 1-762, Jud 4-821, 824, MCAW, bk
180-75 AΨA 293     117 lvCrn
c.178 Heliodorus Stele Heliodorus Stele inscribed in Greek.  Seleucus-IV Philopator king of Syria, 187-75 informs minister Heliodorus that he appoints a certain Olympiodoros in charge of the temples of Coele-Syria and Phoenicia. 178 wikHlM


Photo ??? ?
c.176 Aristobulus, Hellenistic Jewish writer and philosopher, flourishes. 176 atl2
170 IDB 1-220
c.175 PTOLEMAIS, under Seleucids from 198, comes under Rome until 153/2 179-70 rcHL
c.175 BETH ZUR garrisoned by ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia until 164. 175 Jud 4-783
c.175 Jewish high priest Onias visits Seleucus in Syria to seek his support against his rival Simon. 175 atl2
c.175 HELIODOROS, minister of Seleucus-IV Philopator king of Syria, 187-75, visits Jerusalem to collect money, but is deterred from robbing temple treasury, and returns. 2Mac 3-7f
176 GHH 175 atl2
c.175 HYRCANUS, son of tax collector Joseph ben Tobiah, captured by his brothers, fears being delivered to Antiochus-IV, suicides.  Antiochus-IV confiscates his wealth. Antiq 12:4:11 175 je
c.174 JASON, bro of high priest Onias-III, spokesman for Hellenistic Jews, promises Antiochus-IV 240 silver talents for the high priesthood, and 150 talents more for permition to transform Jerusalem into a Greek city, name it Antioch, and build a gymnasium. 2Mac 4:7
174
CAH 8-347, Sdl 5-293
c.174 King Areos (?) of Sparta sends a letter to Jewish high priest Onias-III offering to renew friendship. Antiq 12:4:10
174 atl2
c.174 Son of Simon-II, ONIAS-III ends.  Zadokite high priest from 198, deposed by Antiochus-IV, flees to EgyptAntiochus appoints his Hellenist bro JASON high priest until 171. 175 1&2BM 235, CHJ 2-217, E2LM 106, GHH, Jud 9-1292, 12-1403, af, gw, hifi, rcHL, wikHP     175/4 CHJ 2
174 BNTH 50, 103, CAH 8, DHJ 481, HCC, IDB 2-804, VDJD 70, atl2, bivu
173 Jud 3-74
c.174 JASON, high priest 174-71, sends a donation to the quinquennial games at Tyre. 174 GHH
c.173 GYMNASIUM built in Jerusalem by high priest Jason.  The noblest of athletes are required to wear Greek hats. 1Mac 1:14, 2Mac 4:12, Antiq 12:5:1
175 CHJ 2-219, MCAW
173 Jud 3-74
c.173 APOLLONIUS, Syrian governor of Coele-Syria, sent by Antiochus-IV, visits Joppa and Jerusalem, well received by Jason. 2Mac 4:21
c.173 APOLLONIUS proceeds to Egypt for coronation of Ptolemy-VI. 2Mac 4:21
c.173 APOLLONIUS, Syrian governor of Coele-Syria, returns to Syria.
c.172 Syrian forts and garrisons in Coele-Syria, as far south as Joppa are strengthened by Antiochus-IV, in anticipation of attack by Ptolemy-VI. 2Mac 4:21
172 CAH 8-503
c.171 JASON ben Simon, high priest 174-71, sends neph Menelaus to Antiochus-IV with tribute money to get decisions on stuff. 2Mac 4:23
172 or 1 1&2BM 249, CHJ 2-280
171 IDB 3-49, 349
c.171 JASON ben Simon, high priest 174-71, tries to Hellenize Jews. 1Mac 4:23
171 atl2
c.171 JASON ben Simon, last Zadokite high priest from 174, deposed by Antiochus-IV, who appoints Benjamite MENELAUS to succeed until 163.  Jason resists at first, then flees to Ammon, dies 170. 2Mac 4:25     172 B76 1-995, CAH 8, E2LM 106, GHH, af, bivu, bk, gw, hifi, rcHL, wikHP 171 BNTH 3, 58, DHJ 482, IDB 2-804, Jud 16-916, atl2
170/69 CAH 8-503
c.171 MENELAUS, Benjamite high priest 171-63, and city official Lysimachus get caught embezzling.  Jews riot.  Lysimachus launches an armed attack. 2Mac 4:39
171 guess
c.171 LYSIMACHUS, co-priest from ?, killed in the treasury by the people in a riot at Jerusalem. 171 GHH, af 169 atl2
c.171 MENELAUS, Benjamite high priest 171-63, secretly takes some vessels from the Temple and gives them to Andronicus, viceroy of Syria.  Former high priest Onias-III gets proof of it and publishes it. 2Mac 4:32
winter 170/69 CAH 8-504
c.171 MENELAUS, neph of high priest Jason, sent with tribute money to Antiochus-IV in Syria to get decisions on stuff.  Menelaus outbids Jason by 300 talents silver for high priesthood. 2Mac. 4:23     175 IDB 3-199 172 GHH     172 or 1 CHJ 2-280     171 IDB 3-49
c.171 Son of Simon, ONIAS-III dies.  Former high priest 198-74, (and still legitimate h.p.) decoyed from the sanctuary at Daphne (near Antioch), in which he had sought refuge, and murdered by Andronicus, viceroy of Syria instigated by Menelaus. 2Mac 4:34, Antiq 12:5:1
172 BAR 1982 VIII-5 p54 171 BNTH 58, GHH, Sdl 5-364, af     170 CHJ 2, atl2, hifi, wikHP
169 CAH 8-503
c.170 SYRO / EGYPT WAR dormant from 195, resumes (6th) for control of Coele-Syria until 168. 171 DGRBM 1-198, IDB 3-199, LEWH 97, MCAW     170 B76 8-383, OHG, Sdl 5-238, frH     169 CAH 8-305, CDCC 857
c.170 ZUGOT "Pairs" begin.  Pairs of sages resopnsible for maintaining the chain of oral law starting with Antigonus of Soco.
1st zug is Jose ben Joezer and Jose ben Johanan.
Ben Joezer is NASI (elected head of the sanhedrin)
Ben Johanan is AV BET DIN "father of the house of the judge".
170 Mish 1-506, Jud 16-233
c.170 Nasi JOSE Ben Joezer says laying hands on a sacrificed bull puts weight on it, thereby causing it to do work.  Therefore he forbids laying of hands on Sabbaths and holy days. Mish 2-2
c.170 Nasi JOSE Ben Joezer says the hopping locust is clean, and the liquid in the Temple slaughterhouse is clean.  Therefore they call him Jose the permitter. Mish Eduyoth 8:4
c.170  APOCALYPSE of WEEKS:   Book of ΛENOCHV  ch 93:1-10, 91:11-17 divides world history into 10 unequal periods "weeks": 7 of past events, 3 of future events (including final judgment).  Climax is the 7th part of the 10th week where a new heaven appears, then there will be numberless weeks forever, and righteousness reigns. 200-150 wikBoE
just before 168 B76 III-905
163 IDB 3-104
c.170 ELULAEUS & LAENUS, regents for Ptolemy-VI 173-69, break Ptolemaic treaty with Seleucids by invading Coele-Syria. 170 B76 8-383     170/69 CAH 8-344
c.170 PHILO the Elder flourishes.  Writes  On Jerusalem  in Homeric Hexameters.  Only 24 lines survive.  The subject of the first fragment is Abraham, and probably the sacrifice of Isaac.  The 2nd speaks of Joseph.  The 3rd praises the springs and water pipes of Jerusalem. 170 ejwΦ 100 B76 10-313
c.169 JASON, former high priest 174-1, contender for high priesthood, flees to Ammon until 168. 2Mac 5:8
169 IDB 3-492
c.169 HARITHATH (Aretas)-I becomes king of Nabataea until 144.  This is the 1st known date in Nabataean history because Jason flees there. 169 IDB 3-492, MRDK 359
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 marches into Levant for 1st campaign against Egypt until later 169. 170 CHJ 2-282, Sdl 5-296
169 B76 8-383, CAH 8-283
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV withdraws from Egypt into Levant. 169 B76 8-383, CAH 8-284, 506, Sdl 5-240
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV enters Jerusalem, walks into the Temple and demands to see the treasures, takes whatever he wants, including even the sacrificial instruments.  This is probably an administrative measure to recover arrears of tribute. 1Mac 1:20, Antiq 12:5:4
170 DGRBM 2-878
169 1&2BM 24, CHJ 2-283, GHH, Jud 9-392, Sdl 5-297     168 atl2, bk
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 returns from Levant with 1,800 talents to Antioch. 169 CHJ 2-283
c.168 ITUREA (Bekaa Valley) region in south Lebanon, under Seleucids from 198, independent until 105. 168 rcLeb
c.168 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 marches thru Levant for 2nd invasion of Egypt. 2Mac 5:1       168 1&2BM 26, B76 8-383, CAH 8-507, IDB 2-970, Jud 3-74, VDJD 70
c.168 JASON, former high priest 174-1, exiled in Ammon, hears false rumor that Antiochus-IV is killed in Egypt, leads 1,000 men to surprise attack Jerusalem.  High priest Menelaus flees to the citadel.  Jason slaughters opponents at Jerusalem, tries to recover high priesthood from Menelaus, conquers Jerusalem except for the citadel. 2Mac 5:5
169 B76 1-995, CHJ 2-293, GHH
168 BNTH 4, Jud 3-74, 9-1292, 1391, Sdl 5-298
c.168 JASON, former high priest 174-1, can't get control of government, returns to Ammon, then to Egypt, then to Sparta where he dies. 2Mac 5:5-9
169 CHJ 2
168 IDB 3-52, atl2
c.168 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 hears of fighting at Jerusalem, believes it is rebellion, hurries from Egypt to Judea. 2Mac 5:11
168 CAH 8-507, Jud 3-74
c.168 SYRO / EGYPT WAR from 170, ends. 168 CDCC 857, DGRBM 1-198, OHG, Sdl 5-238, frH
c.168 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 at Tyre, hears charges by Jews against high priest Menelaus, favors Jews.  Menelaus bribes Ptolemy son of Dorymenes to get Antiochus-IV to acquit him.  Antiochus-IV acquits Menelaus. 2Mac 4:43 168 B76 1-994
c.168 JERUSALEM, besieged by Antiochus-IV, betrayed by Antiochus' partisans inside, who open the gates.  Taken by storm.  Antiochus orders slaughter of all including women & kids.  3 days slaughter ensues.  40,000 killed, 40,000 enslaved.  Walls are destroyed until 152. 2Mac 5:11
169 CHJ 2
168 1&2BM 172, B76 11-225, DGRBM 1-198, E2LM 119, Jud 3-74, atl2
167 B76 1-995
Jerusalem will be held by force 3 years and 3 months. Wars, Preface-7
c.168 TEMPLE SACRIFICES stopped for 3 years and 6 months. Wars I-1-1
c.168 TEMPLE plundered of 1,800 talents worth of loot by Antiochus-IV aided by high priest Menelaus.  Antiochus reports that a statue of a bearded man, holding a book and seated on a donkey, is honored there.  This must be Moses.  This report evolves into a rumor that the Jews worshipped a donkey's head. 1Mac 1:21,
2Mac 5:15, 21, Antiq 12:5:3
169 CHJ 2
168 CHJ 2-644, Dur 2-556,
Sdl 5-298
c.168 Governors placed over Judea by Antiochus-IVPhilip of Phrygia at Jerusalem, Andronicus at Mt. Gerizim. 2Mac 5:21
c.168 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64, returns to Syria until 167. 2Mac 5:21
168 Sdl 5-298
c.168 APOLLONIUS, tax collector of Antiochus-IV, with 22,000 men, sent to Jerusalem to kill or enslave more Jews.  Reaches Jerusalem on pretense of peace, waits for Sabbath, attacks and kills many. 2Mac 5:24-5
168 GHH
167 Sdl 5-298
c.168 SAMARITANS send letter to Antiochus-IV, claim no relation to Jews or their god Yaweh.  Request that the temple at Mt. Gerizim be rededicated to Zeus Hellenius. Antiq 12:5:6
168 guess
c.168 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 issues royal decree prohibiting practice of Jewish religion and demanding worship of Greek gods. 168 CAH 8-349
c.168 Athenian senator sent by Antiochus-IV, to Judea to forbid practice of Judaism (including circumcision) and enforce Hellenization, to transform Jerusalem into a Greek city.  The Temple is dedicated to Zeus Olympicus.  The Mt. Gerizim temple is dedicated to Zeus Xenios (the Hospitable). 2Mac 6:1
168 B76 17-948, Jud 3-74
167 B76 11-225, Sdl 5-299
c.167 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 concludes that the Jews' religion is what made them rebels, returns from Antioch to Jerusalem. Antiq 12:5:4
167 CAH 8-505, CHJ 2-293
c.167 In 2Mac Jason, the deposed high priest, tries to regain his position in the confusion of the war.  Antiochus on his return from Egypt, drives Jason out of Jerusalem again.  However, 1Mac places Jason's failed coup later and says that Antiochus came to Jerusalem to collect 1800 talents.  This causes the people to revolt and a blood bath ensues. 2Mac 5
167 lvMM
c.167 CITADEL (called fortress AKRA) built just south of the Temple by Antiochus-IV.  It is occupied by Syrians, Hellenists, and other foreigners until 141. Antiq 12:5:4
168 Jud 2-222 167 CAH 8-507-8
c.167 FORCED HELLENIZATION:  Temple is filled with revelry, debauchery, prostitution.  Unclean animals are sacrificed.  Jews are required to eat sacrificial offerings and participate in the feast of Dionysius wearing ivy.  Birthday of Antiochus-IV is celebrated monthly.  Death to recalcitrants. 2Mac 6
167 CHJ 2-517, Dur 2-582, Jud 3-74, Sdl 5-239, bk
c.167 Law of Moses declared null & void by Antiochus-IV. 167 VDJD 71
c.167 ELIEZER, a scribe, has pork forced into his mouth.  He spits it out and goes to be tortured.  Those in charge take him aside and offer to give him kosher meat to eat publicly, while pretending it's pork.  He refuses, and is therefore tortured and killed. 2Mac 6:18
167
Sdl 5-300
c.167 A mother and 7 sons are arrested and tortured to get them to eat pork.  The sons are mutilated one at a time by scalping, and amputation of tongue, hands, and feet.  They are then burnt alive. 2Mac 7
167 guess
c.167 In spring 167 Seleucid soldiers under Apollonius, are unexpectedly garrisoned at Jerusalem.  Shortly afterwards 1Mac says Antiochus-IV issues a decree that causes a revolt by the people.  Conversely, 2Mac 6 describes the decree as being issued in response to the revolt.
Reconciliation?:  Revolt was already smoldering, in 2Mac, and when Antiochus issues the decree, Judea explodes, as reported in 1Mac.  This reconstruction is plausible, but it contradicts both sources.
167
VDJD 71, atl2, lvMM
c.167 ABOMINATION of DESOLATION:  ANTIOCHUS-IV kills pigs on the altar, erects something (image of Zeus Olympios?) on the altar.  This is explained to the Jews as the BAAL SHAMIN "Lord of Heaven". 1Mac 1:54, 2Mac 7
168 B76 IX-881, DHJ 487, HCC     167 1&2BM 31, BNTH 4, CAH 8-508, CHJ 2-514, DBANE 264, Jud 2-98, Sdl 5-241, VDJD 71, bivu
Antiochus-IV kills a pig on the altar and soils the holy scrolls with its grease. Posidonius of Apamea fragment 109
c.167 FESTIVAL of LIGHTS:  Pagan holiday celebrating rebirth of the sun.  Jewish sacrifices are ceased. 2Mac 7
167 CAH 8-508
c.167 GAZARA (Gezer), under Seleucids from 198, comes under Judea until 63. 167 rcCan
c.167 GATH, under Seleucids from 198 becomes part of the coastal Pentapolis until 67. 167 rcHL
c.167 HEBRON, under Edomites from 587, comes under Judea until 63. 167 rcCan
c.167 MODIN Judah:  Syrian officer Apelles urge priest MATTATHIAS ben Jonah to sacrifice on a pagan altar.  Matt refuses.  A Jew goes to comply.  Matt kills him, kills the Syrians, destroys the altar.  He and his sons, John, Simon, Judas, Jonathan, and Eleazar ride thru Modin inviting the zealous to follow them to exile in the mountains.  "Whoever is zealous for Torah, and maintains the covenant, let him come forth after me!" 1Mac 2:1, 27, Antiq 12:6:1,
Wars 1:1:2
167 CHJ 2, DHJ 491, DGRBM 2-878, GHH, IDB 1-150, MCAW, TTPC, wikJM
c.167 December 167 the daily sacrifices in the Temple are suspended.  Ten days later the first heathen sacrifice took place there.  A pig is slaughtered on the altar.  At the same time the Temple is dedicated to Zeus Olympius, and a cult statue of the god is placed in the Temple together with statues of the king, whose birthday is to be celebrated by monthly sacrifices.
168 GHH
167 CHJ 2-286, E2LM 93
c.167/6 Royal officials in Samaria applied the new regulations to the Samaritans of Shechem, regarding them as Jews.  The Samaritans responded by sending a petition to the king, pointing out that the custom of observing the Sabbath and the construction of their anonymous temple on Mount Gerizim were propitiatory measures introduced by their forefathers after a severe drought. 167/6 CHJ 2-287
c.167/6 Syrian garrison at Jerusalem learns of incident at Modin, sends a detatchment which catches about 1,000 on a Sabbath.  They refuse to surrender or fight.  Syrians wipe them out. 1Mac 2:31, Antiq 12:6:2
167 GHH
c.167/6 MATTATHIAS ben Jonah learns of the Sabbath massacre, decides to fight on the Sabbath. 1Mac 2:39, Antiq 12:6:2
167 GHH     166 atl2
c.166 A band of HASIDIM joins Mattathias, and remain with Maccabees until 163. 1Mac 2:42
167 GHH
c.166 Samaritans disown kinship with Jews. 166 atl2
c.166 Apollonius and Seron, during summer 166 ended with Jewish victories and undoubtedly strengthened the influence of the insurgents in Judea. 166 CHJ 2-287
c.166 According to 1Mac, Apollonius tries to attack Judas with troops from the city of Samaria but is defeated.  2Mac says Judas was in Jerusalem when Apollonius marched into the city with his garrison of soldiers from Mysia and that he fled. 2Mac ??
166 lvMM
c.166 Mattathias and his rebels begin raiding Hellenistic villages, kill Hellenizers, circumcise Jewish boys. 1Mac 2:44
166 atl2
c.166 APOLLONIUS, Syrian commander of Jerusalem, defeated by JUDAS ben Mattathias, who takes Apollonius' sword and uses it the rest of his life. 1Mac 3:10, Antiq 12:7:1
167/6 Sdl 5-306     166 B76 11-225 Dur 2-584, GHH     165 atl2
c.166 MATTATHIAS ben Jonah dies.  Rebel leader from 167.  He is buried at Modin.  3rd son JUDAS assumes leadership until 160. 1Mac 2:70, Antiq 12:6:4, Wars 1:1:2
168/7 IDB 3-301     167 rcHL     167/6 Sdl 5-304     166 1&2BM 42, B76 VI-695, 11-225, 17-948, CHJ 2, GHH, MCAW, MRDK 354, TTPC, ds, hifi, wikJM     165 atl2
c.166 SERON, Syrian strategos of Coele-Syria from ?, invades Judea, defeated by JUDAS at Beth Horon, and killed.  Remnant of his army flees to Philistia.  Seron is succeeded by PTOLEMY son of Dorymenes until 164. 1Mac 3:13,
Antiq 12:6:4
166 1&2BM 48, GHH, Sdl 5-306 165 atl2
c.166 JUDEA, under Seleucids from 198 goes virtually independent, but is not granted independence until 142. 167 rcHL 166 bivu
c.166 According to 1Mac Judas first engages with Seron and is defeated at Beth-Horon, while 2Mac says nothing about this battle but mentions a man called Geron who supervises the executing of the decree. 2Mac ??
166 lvMM
c.166 PHILIP of Phrygia, Syrian governor of Jerusalem 168-, writes to Ptolemy, strategos of Coele-Syria asking for help. 2Mac 8:8
c.165 IDUMEA, under Seleucids from 200 goes independent until 109. 165 hifi 160 rcHL
c.165  Book of DANIEL  written in Judea.  Ch 1 and 812 in Hebrew, ch 27 in Aramaic.  Ch 16 show a progression from Babylonian to Median times, which begins again (Babylonian to Persian) in ch 712.  The historical setting is clear from ch 11, where the prophecy is accurate down to Antiochus-IV, oppressor of the Jews, but not accurate in its prediction of his death 164.  There is no evidence of time lapse between ch 1012 and ch 8-9.  Ch 7 may have been written a few months earlier.  12:1-2 contains the only O.T. reference to resurrection. 168 AΨA 629,
IDB 4-39
167-64 B76 2-929, wikBD
166 CAH 8-510, Dur 2-556
166/5 IDB 1-767 165 DHJ 530, IDB 3-89, MCAW, lvCrn
164 IDB 1-509, bk 160 AΨA 656
c.165 LYSIAS, viceroy of west for Antiochus-IV, sends generals Nicanor and Gorgias with 40,000 inf and 7,000 cav into Coele-Syria to help strategos Ptolemy. 1Mac 3:38, 2Mac 8:9
166 IDB 3-546
c.165 PTOLEMY, Syrian strategos of Coele-Syria 166-, sends generals Nicanor and Gorgias with 40,000 inf and 7,000 cav to destroy Judea and take slaves. 1Mac 3:38, 2Mac 8:8
166/5 DHJ 493
165 CAH 8-515, Jud 7-809
c.165 JUDAS gathers army at Mizpah, fasts, prays, sackcloth & ashes, etc., organizes army, sends home newly weds, vineyard planters, and frightened people, moves south of Emmaus. Syrian generals NICANOR & GORGIAS camp near Emmaus, promise local merchants 90 slaves for 1 talent.  Idumeans and Philistines join Syrians at Emmaus. 1Mac 3:40-46
2Mac 8:10-12
165 Sdl 5-307, atl2
Judas defeats 2 Seleucid armies at Emmaus in summer 165, as reported in 1 & 2Mac.  But the books don't agree on the sequel.  1Mac says how, at Beth Zur, the insurgents defeated another army under Lysias.  Judas then advanced on Jerusalem and in December 164 purified the temple.
The sequence of events according to 1Mac is:  victory at Emmaus, defeat of Lysias, purification of the temple and death of Antiochus-IV, a bragging story according to which the Jews liberated themselves.
In 2Mac, first is the victory at Emmaus, then death of Antiochus-IV, then purification of the temple.  Lysias then undertook his military campaign and was defeated at Beth Zur, and finally, we have a letter from the new king, Antiochus-V Eupator, in which he recognises the Jewish rites of worship at the request of Menelaus.
The contraction can be explained.  The letter was dated 11 April 164, which means that it was written half a year before the death of Antiochus-IV.  The author of 2Mac mixed up the namesakes of the king.  This proves that the document was not an invention and that the persecutory decree was revoked before Judas re-consecrated the temple.
165 IDB 1-150, lvMM no date: 1&2BM 286
c.165 Syrian general GORGIAS near Emmaus, learns of Jews camped south of Emmaus, takes 5,000 inf and 1,000 cav, to surprise them by night.  JUDAS learns of it, breaks camp, and circles to attack Emmaus.  Gorgias finds the empty camp, thinks they fled to the mountains, goes to the mountains. 1Mac 4:1-5, Antiq 12:7:3-4
An angel revealed Gorgias' plans to Judas. 1 Enoch 90:14
c.165 JUDAS, with 3,000 men, routs Nicanor near Emmaus, pursues then to Gazara, Ashdod, and Jabneh.  He cautions his men not to plunder the camp until Gorgias is defeated.  Gorgias sees smoke from the Emmaus camp, and Judas ready to attack.  Gorgias flees to Philistine land.  Judas plunders his camp, robs slave buyers, gets enough money to equip an army. 1Mac 4:6, 19, 23, 2Mac 8:25
165 CHJ 2-288, DGRBM 2-1177, GHH, Jud 4-763 164 Jud 11-658
c.165 ASHDOD (Azotus), under Seleucids from 198. taken by JOHN Maccabee, remains under Judean control until 67. 165 Jud 3-696 100 rcHL
c.165 Bacchides and Ammonite Timothy invade Judea, but are defeated with a loss of 20,000. 165 GHH
c.165 JUDAS and JONATHAN leave Joseph and Azariah in charge of the camp with instructions not to attack until they return, go to help rebels in Gilead and Galilee. 165 Jud 10-224
c.165 Beth Zur CITADEL taken by Judas, and rebuilt until 160. 1Mac 4:34     165 CHJ 2-8, GHH, Jud 4-783
c.165/4 LYSIAS, viceroy of Syria for Antiochus-IV, with general Gorgias, 60,000 inf and 5,000 cav invades Judea, camps at Beth Zur.  Judas with 10,000 defeats him, killing 5,000. 1Mac 4:29-35, Antiq 12:7:5 165 1&2BM 49, DGRBM 2-864, GHH, IDB 1-23, 404
165/4 CHJ 2-288
164 CAH 8-515, DGRBM 2-879, Jud 11-659, Sdl 5-308
Chronology of the period becomes easier if we discard this expedition as a fiction created to balance the Jewish defeat at Beth Zur in 163. CHJ 2-288
c.164 Lysias negotiates with Jews LETTER  from LYSIAS at Beth Zur to the council of elders and the rest of the Jews, offers amnesty and cessation of persecution if they would lay down their arms within 15 days.  The letter ignores Judas and ambassadors John and Absalom and mentions Menelaus as the Jew spokesman.  Lysias returns to Antioch. 1Mac 4:35, 2Mac 11:16-33 165/4
1&2BM 61
164
CHJ 2-301
c.164 In spring 164, unfortunately too late, Antiochus-IV tries to redeem his errors by rescinding the decree concerning the persecution of Judaism and proclaiming amnesty for the rebels.  Anyone who returns before Mar. 29, 164 is forgiven. 164 CHJ 2-291, E2LM 117
c.164 200 Jews at JOPPA are induced to board ships in the harbor, and then drowned. 164 IDB 2-971 163 GHH
c.164 PTOLEMY son of Dorymenes, Syrian strategos of Coele-Syria from 166, relieved by viceroy LYSIAS, who appoints PTOLEMY MACRON (who is friendly to Jews) until ?. 2Mac 10:12
164 CAH 8-516
c.164 Ammonites, Idumeans and others ally against Judea. 164 GHH
c.164 Judas carries out punitive expeditions against Idumea. 164 CHJ 2-290 163 GHH
c.164 GORGIAS, governor of Idumea, flees to Mareshah for refuge. 2Mac 12:35
164 IDB 3-264
c.164 After negotiations between Lysias and Judas, Roman legates, Q. Memmius and T. Manius, enroute to Antioch, write to Jews (now negotiating with Lysias), and promise their advice. 2Mac 11:34
165 IDB 3-259
164 CAH 8-354, atl2
c.164 After negotiations between Lysias and Judas, Antiochus-IV writes to Jews.  Letter says Jews may have their own laws and eat their own food.  The Maccabees are not mentioned. 2Mac 11:27-32
164 E2LM 117, Sdl 5-310, atl2
c.164 JERUSALEM, under Seleucids from 198, recovered by JUDAS Maccabee, but Syrian garrison and high priest Menelaus and Hellenistic Jews retreat to the citadel, and hold out until 141.  Judas besieges the citadel. 1Mac 4:36
165 CAH 8-349, TTPC     164 B76 11-225, 17-948, MCAW     163 GHH
Jerusalem is held by Antiochus-IV 3 years and 3 months. Wars, Preface-7
c.164 JUDAS Maccabee, leader of Jews 166-60, decides to purge the Jerusalem Temple, suddenly advances on Jerusalem (now without walls), finds the Temple gates burnt and weeds growing in the court, priest's chambers demolished. 1Mac 4:36
165 GHH 164 E2LM 119
c.164 ALTAR, defiled in 167, is dismantled by JUDAS Maccabee.  The stones are stored on the Temple mount awaiting a prophet to tell the Jews what to do with them. 1Mac 4:43
c.164 NEW ALTAR, of uncut stones, is built by JUDAS Maccabee, who also makes new Temple furnishings and a new curtain. 1Mac 4:47
 DANIEL  12:11:  From the time that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away and the abomination that makes desolate set up [167] shall be 1,290 days.  [removal of abomination 164]  12:12:  Blessed is he that waits and comes to the 1,335 days. [dedication]
164
Dec. 14
DEDICATION (Hanukkah) of the HOUSE (Ha Bayit) by Judas Maccabee.  An 8 day celebration.  TEMPLE front is decorated with gold crowns and shields.  Greek Jews continue to use the name "Feast of Lights".  Daily sacrifices are resumed. Chislev 25 1Mac 4:52, Antiq 12:7:7
165 DHJ 494, Dur 2-556, GHH, IDB 1-151, 812, 2-523, TTPC     164 1&2BM 63, B76 17-948, CAH 8-515, CHJ 2-290, 398, MCAW, Sdl 5-311, atl2, bivu, bk, wikJM
From Abomination to Dedication is three and a half years. Antiq 12:7:6     atl2
Josephus will say Daniel predicted this 408 years previously. Antiq 12:7:6
It will later be said that the Maccabees found only enough oil to keep a lamp burning 1 day, but it lasted 8 days.
2Mac 9, 10:23 says Antiochus-IV died in the months before the temple cleansing.  1Mac says he died after it. 1&2BM 64
c.164 Mt. ZION fortified with high walls and towers. 1Mac 4:60
c.164 BETH ZUR fortified by Judas as a defense against Idumea.  Remains under Jews until 163. 1Mac 4:61, Antiq 12:7:7
164 1&2BM 63, IDB 1-404
c.164 LYSIAS, viceroy of Syria and young ANTIOCHUS-V, invade Coele-Syria and Judea 1st time together. 164 CAH 8-350, IDB 3-193
c.164  Book of Dream Visions, 4th part of 1 ΛEnochV , written.  A history of the Jews from beginning of Creation.  Israelites are symbolized by bulls, and then, from Jacob onwards, by sheep, lambs and rams.  Israel's enemies are represented by elephants, camels, donkeys etc., even birds of prey.  Thus the book is sometimes known as the 'Vision of Animals'.  From I Enoch 90:6 onwards the author deals with the origin of the Hasidean party (90:6-7); the murder of High Priest Onias-III (90:8); and the exploits of the Maccabees (90:9).  90:13-15 says the battle of Beth Zur was won by Judas, thanks to intervention of a heavenly horseman. 165-60 lvCrn     164 CHJ 2-430
c.163 At beginning of 163, the Syrian government unconditionally grants the Jews religious freedom and the right to live as their ancestors had.  The relationship between the crown and the nation that had existed from 200 to 168 is restored. The new government sacrifices Menelaus.  He is executed and replaced by Alcimus 163 CAH 8-350
163 Mar Sabbatical Year begins. 1Mac 6:49
163 Diaspora Jews of Ammon, Idumea, Gilead persecuted by local gentiles. 1Mac 5:1
c.163 JUDAS Maccabee, leader of Jews 166-60, attacks and defeats Idumeans at Akrabatta in western Idumea. 1Mac 5:3, Antiq 12:8:1
164 IDB 2-26
163 1&2BM 68
c.163 JUDAS Maccabee, leader of Jews 166-60, crosses into Ammon, has many battles with Timothy, siezes JAZER and villages, takes women & kids, burns cities, returns to Judea. 1Mac 5:6-8, Antiq 12:8:1
164 IDB 4-650, Jud 4-292
163 1&2BM 68
c.163 ESSENES first appear.  20 years before the "Teacher of Righteousness" becomes prominent in sect; date rests on assumption that "Teacher of Righteousness" lived at time of Jonathan. 163 atl2
c.163 Jews in Galilee attacked by gentiles from Gilead, flee to Dathema, petition Maccabees for help. 1Mac 5:9-10
c.163 Q. MEMMIUS is senatorial legate to Judea until 162. 163 DGRBM 2-1026
c.163 SIMON Maccabee sent by Judas with 3,000 men to rescue Galilee, chases Syrians to gates of Ptolemais. 1Mac 5:17-22
c.163 JUDAS Maccabee, leader of Jews 166-60, leaves Joseph ben Zechariah and Azariah in charge of Judea.  Goes with Jonathan and 8,000 men to Gilead. 1Mac 5:18
c.163 JUDAS and Jonathan Maccabee and 8,000 men cross Jordan, march 3 days, find some Nabataeans who report on condition of Jews in north Gilead.  Judas turns east, surprise attacks Bozra in Bashan, burns it.  Marches 30 miles by night to Dathema, which is besieged by Timothy.  Routs Timothy, frees Jews in Dathema, makes it his base of operations. 1Mac 5:24, Antiq 12:8:1
164 DHJ 496
163 Sdl 5-312
c.163 JUDAS Maccabee attacks Joppa and Jabneh in retaliation for attacks against Jews.  Destroys Joppa, kills inhabitants. 2Mac 12:3-9
163 GHH, atl2
c.163 JABNEH (Jamnia) taken and burnt by Judas Maccabee. 2Mac 12:8
164 IDB 2-780
c.163 The HASIDIM, with the Maccabees from 166, separate. 163 IDB 3-776
c.163 SIMON Maccabee with 3,000 men is successful in Galilee, pursues gentiles to Ptolemais, brings loot and freed Jews back to Judea. 1Mac 5:21, Antiq 12:8:2
163 Sdl 5-313, atl2
c.163 Joseph ben Zechariah and Azariah in charge of Judea, with orders not to attack, Jabneh and are defeated by Gorgias, and lose 2,000 men. 1Mac 5:57, Antiq 12:8:2, 6 163 Sdl 5-314
c.163 Ammonite Timothy and army return, camp at Raphon in Gilead.  They are defeated there by Judas and retreat to Carnaim.  Raphon is taken by Judas, who goes to Carnaim and defeats Timothy again.  Carnaim is taken by Judas, temple burnt.  Judas now controls north Gilead. 1Mac 5:52-37-44, Antiq 12:8:3-4
163 Sdl 5-313, atl2
c.163 JUDAS and JONATHAN take MIZPAH, BOZRAH, CASPHOR, MAKED, BOSOR, and CARNAIM, then head for home. 1Mac 5:52-9, Antiq 12:8:3
c.163 EPHRON taken by Judas and Jonathan returning from Gilead. 1Mac 5:46, Antiq 12:8:5 163 Sdl 5-313
c.163 JUDAS and Jonathan return to Jerusalem before Feast of Weeks without losing a man.  Judas then learns of the defeat of Joseph and Azariah by Gorgias. 1Mac 5:54, 2Mac 12:31, Antiq 12:8:5-6
163 1&2BM 76, Sdl 5-313
c.163 JUDAS and bros attacks Idumeans and other enemies on the borders, invade Idumea, take Hebron, Maresha, and Ashdod. 1Mac 5:63-8, 2Mac 12:35-37, Antiq 12:8:6    163 1&2BM 68, Sdl 5-314, GHH, atl2
c.163 JUDAS and bros are defeated by Gorgias at Mareshah and withdraw to Judea. 2Mac 12:35-37
163 1&2BM 78, Sdl 5-314, GHH, atl2
c.163 JUDAS and bros go to Adullam (12km northwest of Beth Zur), spends Sabbath.  While burying their dead, they find forbidden tokens of Jabneh idols on some Jewish corpses, and assume that's why the men died.  He prays for them and sends a sin offering for them to Jerusalem, thus initiating the practice of praying for the dead. 2Mac 12:38-45
c.163 JUDAS and bros sack Ashdod and returns with loot to Jerusalem. 1Mac 5:68
163 Sdl 5-314
c.163 JUDAS Maccabee, leader of Jews 166-60, builds catapults and a siege tower, besieges Menelaus and the Syrian remnant in the Jerusalem citadel, but fail to capture.  Some Syrians escape, and report the siege to Antiochus-V and LYSIAS.  Judas abandons siege and camps at Beth Zur. 1Mac 6:18-32, 2Mac 13:1
163 1&2BM 85 163/2 CHJ 2-306, Sdl 5-314
162 AΨA 88, CAH 8-517
c.163 JUDAS Maccabee, leader of Jews 166-60, night attack on Syrian camp near Modin, kills 2,000 by daybreak. 2Mac 13:9-17
163 atl2
c.163 General LYSIAS and ANTIOCHUS-V, with 100,000 inf, 20,000 cav, 32 elephants, marches south on east side of Jordan River, to Idumea, then attacks Beth Zur from south.  Judas Maccabee retreats from Beth Zur 8km north to Beth Zechariah. 1Mac 6:28,
Antiq 12:9:4
163 1&2BM 60, DHJ 497, GHH, IDB 1-151 2-83 163/2 Sdl 5-315
This 2nd campaign is omitted by 2Mac, and may not have happened. 1&2BM 60
c.163 General LYSIAS and ANTIOCHUS-V, leaves siege of Beth Zur, leads army 8km north to attack Judas Maccabee at Beth Zechariah. 1Mac 6:33
163 E2LM 123 162 CAH 8-517
c.163 5th son of Mattathias, ELEAZAR dies.  He sees an elephant with gold armor, assumes Antiochus-V is riding it, fights his way to it and stabs it from underneath.  It falls on him and kills him. 1Mac 6:43, Antiq 12:9:4,
Wars 1:1:5     163 B76 11-225, E2LM 124, GHH     163/2 Sdl 5-315     162 CAH 8-517
c.163 General LYSIAS and ANTIOCHUS-V, defeats Judas Maccabee at Beth Zechariah.  Judas flees to Gophnas 1Mac 6:47, Wars 1:1:5
163 Jud 11-627, atl2 162 IDB 1-404
c.163 JUDAS Maccabee, leader of Jews 166-60, retreats from Antiochus-V to Jerusalem. 1Mac 6:47, Antiq 12:9:5
162 CAH 8-517
c.163 General LYSIAS and ANTIOCHUS-V, send part of the army to besiege Beth Zur, proceed with the rest to besiege Judas Maccabee in Jerusalem. 1Mac 6:48,
Antiq 12:9:5
163/2 Sdl 5-315
c.163 BETH ZUR, under Jews 163, besieged by general Lysias and Antiochus-V, starved to surrender.  Under Syrians and Hellenistic Jews until 144. 1Mac 6:49, Antiq 12:9:5, Wars 1:1:5    163 Jud 4-783
162 IDB 1-404
c.163 MENELAUS ends.  Benjamite high priest from 171, deposed by General LYSIAS and ANTIOCHUS-V, deported to Beroea near Aleppo until death 162.  Son of O-III, ONIAS-IV succeeds until 162. 2Mac 4:32, Antiq 12:9:7     165 af     164 IDB 3-603
163 CAH 8-517, af
162 E2LM 106, Sdl 5-316 bivu, gw, hifi, rcHL, wikHP
c.163 ELIAKIM, Aaronite neph of Jose ben Joezer, a Hellenist who calls himelf ALCIMUS, is legitimate claimant to high priesthood, but is prevented from ruling by Judas Maccabee until 162. 163
CAH 8-517 162 wikHP
c.163 General LYSIAS and ANTIOCHUS-V, hear that Philip has returned to Antioch, and is trying to take the throne.  They promise religious freedom and make peace with Judas Maccabee in Jerusalem.  Judas agrees to surrender Jerusalem. 1Mac 6:61
163 B76 17-948,
CAH 8, DHJ 504,
IDB 1-151, atl2, wikJM
163/2 Sdl 5-315-6
162 E2LM 125
c.163 General LYSIAS and ANTIOCHUS-V, breaks oath to Judas Maccabee, destroys the wall around the Temple in Jerusalem.  Judas is left as a vassal with the Temple cult intact, but now including a burnt offering to Antiochus-V. 1Mac 6:55-63,
Antiq 12:9:7
163 B76 17-948, atl2
162 CAH 8-517
c.163 MENELAUS, Benjamite former high priest 171-63,deported to Beroea near Aleppo from 163, executed. Antiq 12:9:7
163 CAH 8, atl2
162 Jud 11-1351, af
c.163/2  Book of BARUCH  written, parts A & B in Hebrew, part C in Greek.  Named after Baruch ben Neriah, Jeremiah's scribe. 163/2 lvCrn
164-150 IDB 1-363
after 70CE AΨA 574
no date: wikBB
The 3 parts of the book were probably written at different times. mb
c.162 General LYSIAS and ANTIOCHUS-V, appoints HEGEMONIDES strategos of south Palestine and returns to Antioch to deal with Philip. 1Mac 6:63
162 CAH 8-517, Sdl 5-316
c.162 DEMETRIUS-I, son of Seleucus-IV in Lycia, sails army to Tripolis Syria. 1Mac 7:1, 2Mac 14:1, Antiq 12:10:1
162 CAH 8-518, IDB 4-711, RAI3
c.162 ELIAKIM, Aaronite neph of Jose ben Joezer, a Hellenist who calls himelf ALCIMUS, legitimate claimant to high priesthood, visits Demetrius-I in Tripolis?, complains that Judas Maccabee persecutes the Hellenists, asks for and receives appointment as high priest.  Sent back with Syrian troops under Bacchides. 1Mac 7:5, 2Mac 14:3, Antiq 12:10:2
163 CAH 8, GHH
162 GHH, Jud 2-549, af, gw     161 BNTH 59, 70, DGRBM 1-102, Sdl 5-317, bk
c.162 ALCIMUS, Hellenist high priest 162-59, is supported by the Hasidim and the Zugoth:  Jose ben Joezer & Jose ben Johanan because he is an Aaronite.  He is opposed by Judas Maccabee because he comes with Syrian troops. 1Mac 7:8, Mish 1-506
162 Jud 2-549
c.162 BACCHIDES, Syrian general installs high priest Alcimus by force. 1Mac 7:8
161 atl2
c.162 ONIAS-IV ends.  Zadokite high priest from 163, flees to Heliopolis EgyptALCIMUS succeeds until 159. Antiq 12:9:7, Wars 1:1:1
163 GHH     162 CAH 8-517,
Jud 12-1403, bivu     160 DHJ 612
c.162 ALCIMUS, Hellenist high priest 162-59, arrests and executes 60 Hasidim in 1 day. 1Mac 7:16
162 GHH, Jud 2-549
c.162 Λ Book of ENOCH V chapters 83-90 written in Hebrew or Aramaic.  Consists of 2 visions:  Ch 83-84: Flood was the 1st judgment.  Ch 85-90: a dispensational world history to the Maccabean period, and predicts a Jewish leader, a final battle, destruction of the enemy, new Jerusalem established, apostate Jews punished, a Messiah appears symbolized by a white bull, good guys get resurrected, whole world converts to Judaism. 166-61 je 165-60 lv1E 163-30 IDB 2-104-5 pre-161 AΨΨ 171
c.162 The future MESSIAH becomes (among other things) a lamb. 1 ENOCH 90:38
AΨΨ 260
c.162/1 BACCHIDES, Syrian general supporting high priest Alcimus, withdraws from Jerusalem, camps at Beth Zaith (7km northeast of Beth Zur), executes many opponents. 1Mac 7:19
161 IDB 1-404
c.162/1 BACCHIDES, Syrian general leaves a detachment to support high priest Alcimus, returns to Syria until 160. 1Mac 7:20, Antiq 12:10:2
162/1 Jud 2-549
c.161 JUDAS Maccabee, leader of Jews 166-60, persecutes partisans of high priest Alcimus, drives him out of Jerusalem. 1Mac 7:23
162 GHH
161 Jud 2-549
c.161 ALCIMUS, Hellenist high priest 162-59, appeals to Demetrius-I for military aid against Judas Maccabee. 1Mac 7:25, Antiq 12:10:3     161 CAH 8-519, Jud 2-549, Sdl 5-318
c.161 NICANOR, general with a large Syrian force enters Judea. 1Mac 7:26-32, Antiq 12:10:4
161 1&2BM 99 DHJ 501,
Jud 2-549, atl2
c.161 SIMON Maccabee defeated by Nicanor's troops, near Dessau village. 2Mac 14:16
161 Sdl 5-319
c.161 Syrian general NICANOR asks Judas Maccabee for a peaceful meeting.  Judas agrees, discovers a trap, flees. 1Mac 7:27, Antiq 12:10:4     162 GHH
c.161 Syrian general NICANOR, defeated by Judas Maccabee at Capharsalma 6km north of Jerusalem, loses 500 men, flees to Jerusalem. 1Mac 7:29-33,
Antiq 12:10:4
161 CAH 8, IDB 3-200 Sdl 5-319, atl2
c.161 JUDAS Maccabee, leader of Jews 166-60, sends envoys under Eupolemus and Jason to Rome to establish alliance and aid against Syria. 1Mac 8:17     166 CHJ 2-640 161 CHJ 2-310, Jud 4-44 161/0 DHJ 501
160 CHJ 2-397, GHH
no date: Sdl 5-320
c.161 Senate makes  defense treaty  with Judas Maccabee of Judea:  No trade with enemy of either.  Jews may be judged by their own laws.  Tells Demetrius-I to lay off.  But gives no material support. 1 Mac 8-23, Antiq 12:10:6
161 CAH 8-519, 290, CHJ 2, Dur 2-584, E2LM 134, MCAW, SORH, wikJM    161/0 DHJ 501 160 GHH, atl2
c.161 Syrian general NICANOR, goes to the Temple, demands that the Jews surrender Judas Maccabee or he will burn the Temple.  He camps at Beth Horon. 1Mac 7:33, Antiq 12:10:5
161 atl2
161/0 Sdl 5-319

Levant 160-131
V