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c.200 DAIRE, king of Ulster from 272, ends.  EADHNA-I succeeds until 195. 200 rcI
c.200 4 LEAF CLOVER made sacred by Druid priests in Britain, who think a person who has one can sight demons and thwart them by incantations. 200
EOET 8
c.200 Carn Euny CARN EUNY iron age village in Cornwall: first timber huts there are built. 200 wikCE


Photo Andy Wright
c.200 BELGAE begin settling on south coast of Britain until 43CE. 200 wikPB
c.200 SHIPS in Scandinavia, still don't have sails, oarlocks, or outriggers. 200 Dur 3-20
c.200 TEUTONS between the Rhine & Elbe from 1000, reach the Main tributary to the Rhine. 200
LEWH 157
c.200 BASTARNAE, living between the Carpathian mountains and the Dnieper 1st appear on lower Danube. 200 OCD 162
c.200 HEMP grown in the Rhine valley is traded to the Mediterranean coast for ropes to use on ships. 200 B76 15-1145
c.200 Western SARMATIA, northwest of Black Sea, under La Tene Celts from 280, comes under the Bastarnae until 50. 200 rcEB
c.200 DACIA, under La Tene Celts from 300, comes under Dacians until 106CE. 200 rcEB
c.200 DACIA extends from Tisza river to lower Danube until 31. 200 B76 2-615
c.200 CELTS of Prague from 500, end. 200 B76 14-944
c.186 Transalpine Gauls move into Istria peninsula until 181. 186 OCD 90
c.183 3 Envoys including L. Manlius Acidinus Fulvianus, Q. Minucius Rufus, are sent to Transalpine Gaul. 183 DGRBM 1-13, 3-675
c.183 L.(1) Julius CAESAR is made praetor and sent to Cisalpine Gaul, and ordered to prevent the Transalpine Gauls from building Aquileia. 183 DGRBM 1-537
c.183 Gauls near Aquileia from 186, are ordered to leave by consul M.(5) Claudius Marcellus, who confiscates any movable property they had brought with them.  He says their property will be returned when they are about to leave Italy.  They quietly cross the Alps under the inspection of 3 senators (including L. Furius Purpurio), who are well received by the Transalpine Gauls. 183 DGRBM 3-606,
DGRG 1-944, LdHR 2-56, atl2
c.183 Consul M.(5) Claudius Marcellus in Venetia writes and asks permission of the senate to lead his legions into Istria, which is occupied by weak Transalpine Gauls.  Without waiting for reply, he marches into Istria.  Then he gets permission. 183
DGRG 1-944, LdHR 2-56
c.181 AQUILEIA on north Adriatic founded as Latin colony by 3 commissioners including C.(2) Flaminius, P.(7) Scipio Nasica, with 3,000 colonists.  They are given unusually large land allotments (pedites 50 iugera, centuriones 100 iugera, equites 140 iugera) to control the Veneti and the passes threatened by the Gauls.  The colony disturbs the Istri. 183 DGRG 1-944, SORH
181 B76 7-960, 15-1096, CAH 8-206, 505, CDCC 53, DGRBM 2-168, 3-751, DGRG 1-170, 2-1273, MCAW, OCD 90, atl2
c.181 Transalpine Gauls in Istria from 186, expelled by Romans. 181 CAH 8, OCD 90
c.177 TERGESTE Istria comes under Rome. 177 B76 X-121
c.177 ISTRIA conquered by consul C.(4) CLAUDIUS PULCHER, who takes 5,632 prisoners and the equivalent of at least 350,000 denarii.  Istrian towns Nesaetium, Mutila, and Faveria are taken. 177 CAH 8-116, DGRG 2-73, 643, HRR, LdHR 2-56, SORH
c.177 ISTRIA fully subdued by consul C.(4) Claudius Pulcher and annexed by Rome. 177 CAH 8, DGRG 2-89, GHH, OCD 556, 928, atl2
c.175 Britain southeastEssex, Hertfordshire, and Kent begin developing advanced pottery-making skills. 175 wikPB
c.169 AQUILEIA colony on north Adriatic from 181, receives 1,500 more families, under supervision of 3 men: M. Cornelius Cethegus, T. Annius Luscus, P. Decius Subulo. 169 DGRBM 1-675, 2-842, 3-930, DGRG 1-170
c.166 Consuls C.(2) GALLUS (Galba) and M.(7) Marcellus cross southwest Alps into Gaul.  On the west slopes they subdue Gauls and Ligurians. 166 DGRBM 2-229, LdHR 2-101
c.156 DALMATIANS occupy coast lands between Istria peninsula and Illyria. 156 LdHR 2-101
c.156 The Deciates a Ligurian people, besiege Antipolis (Antibes) and Nicaea (Nice). 156 LdHR 2-101
no date: DGRG 1-757, 953
c.154 MASSILIA Gaul, attacked by Ligurian Deciates and Oxybii, asks protection from Rome, which sends some commissioners, who land at Aegitna 3km north of Antipolis in the territory of the Oxybii; but the Oxybii, who heard that they came to order them to raise siege, wounds one of the commissioners. 154 B76 7-960, CAH 8, 9-23, DGRG 1-757, 953, 2-672,
OCD 609, SORH
c.154 NICAEA and ANTIPOLIS on the coast of Liguria, besieged by Ligurian Oxybii and Deciates. 154 DGRG 2-424
c.154 Consul Q. OPIMIIUS is sent to Gaul.  He fights the Oxybii and Deciatae, Ligurian tribes who live west of the Varus River. 154 DGRBM 3-33, DGRG 2-185
c.154 Consul Q. Opimius defeats the Ligurian Oxybii and Deciates, and gives part of their country to Massalia. 154 DGRBM 3-33, DGRG 1-757, 2-887, GHH, LdHR 2-101, SORH, atl2
c.152 Roman success in Gaul. 152 atl2
c.150 Metal COINS begin in Britain. 150 brtT
c.150 TREVERI, a Celtic speaking Belgic tribe who claim Germanic descent, occupy the lower Moselle valley.  Central city is Augusta Treverorum (Trier). 150 wikTr
c.150 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS passes thru Massilia and other cities, and makes enquiries about British IslesPolybius accompanies. 150 atl2
c.146 POLYBIUS sails in the Atlantic. 146 B76 8-389
c.129 People of Massilia send ambassadors to Rome to intercede for Phocaea, which the senate had ordered destroyed. 129 atl2
c.125 the Deciates??? are again in arms with the Salluvii (Salyes). 125 DGRG 1-757, HRR
c.125 Massilia is attacked by the Salluvii. 125 CAH 9-23
c.125 Massilia appeals to Rome for help against the Salluvii. 125 atl2
c.125 Consul M. Fulvius FLACCUS is sent to help Massilia against the Salluvii.  He defeats Salluvii same year. 125 B76 7-960, CAH 9-24, DGRBM 2-155, DGRG 1-954, 2-887, LEWH 103, MCAW, OCD 440, SORH, atl2
c.125 Consul M. Fulvius FLACCUS subdues the Transalpine Ligurians. 125 CAH 9-24, DGRBM 2-155
c.125 Consul M. Fulvius FLACCUS campaign against the Vocontii on the east bank of the Rhone. 125 B76 7-960, CAH 9
c.125 A Gaul named LUCERIUS (Lucernius) is so wealthy he drives a chariot, scattering gold and silver among the Celts who follow him.  He fenced a space of 12 furlongs square, in which he erected wine-presses, full of expensive liquors.  He prepared so much food that for many days anyone was welcome to enjoy it, being waited on without interruption or cessation.  Once he invited to a banquet, a poet from some barbarian tribe.  The poet came too late and met him on the way, and sung a hymn in which he extolled Lucerius' magnificence, and apologized for having come too late.  Luernius called for a bag of gold, and threw it to the poet as he was running by his chariot. 125 atl2
c.124 Consul Sextius Calvinus advances west over Alps into Gaul land.  War with the Arverni and Allobroges until 121.  Begins ground work for Transalpine Gaul. 124 CAH 9
121 DGRG 1-229
c.124 SALLUVII (Salyes) and allies north of Massilia, defeated by C. SEXTIUS CALVINUS, proconsul of Transalpine Gaul until . 124 B76 7-960, OCD 610, 947 123 DGRBM 1-585, atl2
c.124 C. SEXTIUS CALVINUS, proconsul of Transalpine Gaul, defeats the Allobroges. 124 SORH
c.124 M. Fulvius FLACCUS again campaigns against the Vocontii on the east bank of the Rhone. 124 B76 7-960, SORH
c.124 ARELATE, capital of the Salluvii from ?, destroyed by C. Sextius CALVINUS, proconsul of Transalpine Gaul.  Comes under Rome until ?.  Called ARLES. 124 OCD 610, 947 123 DGRG 1-196, wikAr
c.124 M. Fulvius FLACCUS defeats the Vocontii, and Salluvii. 124 SORH
c.123 C. SEXTIUS CALVINUS, proconsul of Transalpine Gaul 123-2, defeats the Ligurii, Vocontii, and Salluvii. 124 CAH 9-24
123 DGRG 2-185, 887
no date: DGRG 1-169, OCD 197
c.123 Aquae Sextiae ENTREMONT, a Celto-Ligurian hilltop fort from 350? 19 miles north of Massillia in Salluvii territory, is refounded as AQUAE SEXTIAE (later Aix), 1st Roman fort in Transalpine Gaul, by C. Sextius Calvinus, proconsul of Transalpine Gaul. 123 B76 I-169, OCD 89
122 DGRG 1-169, 954, 2-672, 887, GHH, HRR, MCAW, SORH, atl2
no date: DGRBM 1-585, OCD 197
c.122 VIENNE on Rhone river in Gaul becomes Roman town, under Rome almost uninterruptedly until 275. 122 B76 X-426
no date: OCD 197
c.122 Consul Gn.(3) Domitius AHENOBARBUS arrives in Transalpine Gaul to fight Allobroges and Arverni until ?. 122 B76 7-960, DGRBM 1-84, SORH
c.122 Consul Gn. Domitius AHENOBARBUS defeats Allobroges near confluence of Rhone and Sorgue  TEUTOMALIUS, king of the Saluvii, flees to the Allobroges. 122 B76 7-960, DGRBM 3-1015, DGRG 1-954
c.122 Consul Gn. Domitius AHENOBARBUS demands extradition of Salluvii chiefs. 122 B76 7-960, DGRG 1-954
c.121 The Allobroges allied with the Arverni and Ruteni are at war with the Aedui. 121 DGRG 1-229
c.121 AEDUI, Gallic tribe in Burgundy, oppressed by the Arverni, Salluvii, and Allobroges, appeal to Rome. 122 SORH, atl2 121 OCD 12
c.121 The Arverni under Betuitus and the Ruteni are defeated by Q. Fabius Maximus, but their territory is not made a province. 121 DGRG 2-860, SORH
c.121 ALLOBROGES are completely defeated.  Romans adopt the Greek practice of erecting TROPHIES on the battlefield. 121 CDGRA 656, DGRG 1-954, GHH, HRR, SORH
c.121 Allobroges and Arverni under Bituitus begin preparations for another war. 121 DGRBM 1-491
c.121 Achaean League sends troops to join Domitius Ahenobarbus(3)' army in Gaul. 121 atl2
c.121 Consul Q. Fabius MAXIMUS and proconsul Gn. Domitius AHENOBARBUS-3 in south Gaul, defeat Allobroges and Bituitus, king of the Arverni at Vindalium at the confluence of the Rhone and either the Isere or Sulgas.  120,000 Arverni killed. 121 B76 7-960, CAH 9, DGRBM 1-84, 491, DGRG 1-229, OCD 36, 128, 429, SORH, atl2, bk     118 GHH
c.121 BITUITUS, chief of the Arverni, tricked and captured by Gn. Domitius AHENOBARBUS-3.  His son Congeniatus is also captured.  Both are sent to Rome. 121 B76 7-960, CAH 9, DGRBM 1-491, OCD 36, 128, 429, atl2
c.121 TRANSALPINE GAUL (Narbonese Gaul) between Pyrenees and Alps becomes a province under Q. Fabius and Gn. Domitius AHENOBARBUS-3.  Safe land route to Hispania. 122 MCAW     121 CAH 9, HRR, OCD 47, OHG 235, SORH, wikTAR     118 GHH
c.121 VIA DOMITIA begun from the Rhone to the Pyrenees. 121 SORH
c.121 Achaean League sends troops to join Domitius Ahenobarbus(3)' army in Gaul. 121 atl2
c.121 Romans help Contoniatus to establish himself as a chieftain in Gaul. 121 atl2
c.118 Narbo Martius (Narbonne) in province of Nearer Spain founded by Q. Marius.  1st transmarine colony with citizen rights. 118 GHH, SORH
The part of the province north of the Pyrenees now becomes province of Gallia Narbonensis. guess
c.115 Consul M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS pushes east across Julian Alps, campaigns against the Taurisci, Karni, and others, establishes Roman influence. 115 CAH 9-108, DGRBM 3-736, SORH
c.113 More than 500,000 Germanic CIMBRI and TEUTONS migrate southward thru Gaul into Noricum. 114 MCAW
113 DGRG 2-1133, HRR, atl2
c.113 AMBRONES of Germany, TECTOSAGES of southwest Gaul, and TIGURINES of Switzerland all join the CIMBRI . 113 LdHR 2-240
c.113 Germanic CIMBRI and TEUTONS move down the Danube and into Illyria 113 GHH, HRR, atl2
c.113 TIGURINI, 300,000 fighting men, plus women and children, appear in Noricum. 113 DGRBM 2-954
CIMBRI are called such by the Romans because "cumfhi" is the Celtic word for a league of tribes. MCAW 233
In central Germany, "cimbri" comes to mean robber. LdHR 2-240
c.113 Celtic BOII of Bohemia 191, repel attack by Cimbri. 113 B76 3-1074
c.113 Germanic CIMBRI and TEUTONS from east of the Rhine (300,000 fighting men with families, animals, wagons, etc.) move into the Roman Alpine region until 112. 113 Dur 3-118, LdHR 2-240, LEWH 105
c.113 CIMBRI and TEUTONS WAR with Rome begins until 101. 113 Dur 3-110, GHH
c.113 Consul Gn. Papirius CARBO crosses Alps against the Cimbri and Teutons. 113 DGRG 1-954
c.113 Consul Gn. Papirius CARBO after coming to terms with the barbarians, treacherously attacks them, but he is defeated by the Cimbri at Noreia (unknown location in Noricum), loses much of his army, and narrowly escapes. 113 DGRBM 1-655, DGRG 1-955, 2-447, Dur 3-118, HRR, LdHR 2-240, LEWH 105, MCAW, SORH
c.113 Main body of CIMBRI move to west of the Rhine and Jura rivers. 113 LdHR 2-240, SORH
c.112 The SCORDISCI of Belgrade attacked by CIMBRI. no date: B76 III-1074
c.112 Germanic CIMBRI and TEUTONS, in Noricum from 113, move west into HELVETI land until 110.  They are joined by Gauls and Helveti. 112 GHH, HRR
no date: OCD 240
c.111 HELVETI, Celtic tribe between Rhine and Jura.  Some of them join the CIMBRI. 111 OCD 496
no date: OCD 240
c.110 Germanic CIMBRI and TEUTONS, in Helveti land from 112, move west into Rhone valley.  Cimbri remain until 104.  Teutons remain until 102. 110 GHH, HRR
no date: OCD 240
c.110 Germanic CIMBRI and TEUTONS, in Helveti land from 112, invade Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis. 110 B76 I-480
c.110 CONTONIATUS, king of the Iontora in Gaul, maintains friendly relations with Romans. 110 atl2
no date: OCD 240
c.109 Germanic CIMBRI ask to settle on Roman land.  Senate refuses. 109 LdHR 2-240, atl2
c.109 Consul M. Junius SILANUS is sent to Transalpine Gaul.  He is defeated by the Cimbri. 109 CAH 9-24, DGRBM 1-655, 2-955, 3-819, DGRG 1-954, GHH, HRR, LdHR 2-240, MCAW, SORH, atl2     no date: OCD 240
c.108 Consul M.(1) Aurelius Scaurus is defeated by the Cimbri. 108 SORH
c.107 Consul L. Cassius LONGINUS arrives in Transalpine Gaul. 107 DGRG 1-954
c.107 TIGURNI of Helvetia under chief Divico move down the Rhone. 107 LdHR 2-240
c.107 TOLOSA, capital of the Volcae Tectosages, under Romans from ?, rebels. 107 SORH
c.107 Consul L. Cassius LONGINUS is defeated by the Helvetian Tigurini under chief Divico near near Agendicum by lake GenevaCaptured Roman soldiers are ordered to pass under a yoke. 107 CAH 9-24, DGRBM 1-655, 1057, 2-955, DGRG 1-954, GHH, HRR, wikHlv
c.107 Consul L. CASSIUS LONGINUS is killed by the Tigurini in Gaul.  C. Popillius saves the lives of the remaining soldiers at the price of a humiliating agreement.  Remnants of army are allowed to escape after surrendering possessions. 107 CAH 9-92, DGRBM 2-955, DGRG 1-954, HRR, SORH, atl2, wikHlv
c.106 Q. Servilius CAEPIO recaptures TOLOSA, capital of the Volcae Tectosages, and removes sacred treasures from its temple: over 50,000 15-pound bars of gold and 10,000 15-pound bars of silver.  Border of Provence is now extended to Tolosa. 106 DGRBM 2-1209, DGRG 1-955, 2-672, SORH, atl2
106/5 DGRG 2-1216 105 LdHR 2-241
c.105 Consular legate M. Aurelius SCAURUS defeated and captured by Cimbri.  When brought before the leaders, he warns them not to cross the Alps, and is thereupon killed by Boiorix, one of the chiefs. 107 GHH
105 DGRBM 3-738, atl2
c.105 Q.(2) Servilius CAEPIO, made proconsul in Transalpine Gaul. Cisalpine 105 wikQSC
c.105 Consul Gn. Mallius Maximus sent to reinforce proconsul Q, Servilius Caepio-1 105 B76 I-480, DGRG 1-955
c.105 Q.(2) Servilius CAEPIO, proconsul of Gaul, refuses to cooperate with novus homo consul Gn. Mallius Maximus against the Germanic Cimbri. 105 DGRBM 1-534, OCD 188, atl2
104 LdHR 2-241
c.105 ArausioConsul Gn. Mallius Maximus, and proconsul Caepio, are camped separately at ARAUSIO on the Rhone.  The Cimbri and Teutons storm one camp after the other.  Caepio's army is destroyed.  The treasure he took from Tolosa is lost.  80,000 troops and 40,000 camp followers are killed.  Q. Sertorius, escapes by swimming over the Rhone in his armor. 105 B76 I-480, 11-504, 15-1101, CAH 9-24, DGRBM 2-955, 3-788, DGRG 1-955, 1080, 2-1216, Dur 3-110, GHH, HRR, LEWH 105, MCAW, OCD 188, 240, SORH, TTPC, atl2, bk, wikGM, wikHlv     104 LdHR 2-241
105 After Arausio, Q.(2) Servilius CAEPIO and consul Gn. Mallius MAXIMUS advance against Germanic tribes: Teutoni, Cimbri, and Tigurini/Marcomanni/Cherusci. 105 wikQSC
105/4 Q.(2) Servilius CAEPIO, proconsul of Transalpine Gaul 105, fired from command, returns to Rome, accused of many things. 105 atl2
winter 105/4 OCD 188
c.104 Germanic CIMBRI, in Rhone valley from 110, ravage the country between the Rhone and Pyrenees, then enter Spain until 102.  They conflict with the Celtiberi. 105 SORH     105/4 GHH, HRR 104 atl2     no date: DGRG 1-955, 1080, OCD 240
c.104 COPILLUS, leader of Tectosages, captured by L. Cornelius SULLA FELIX. 104 atl2
c.104 C. Marius with new army enters Gaul and remains defensive. 104 SORH
c.104 ARLES (formerly Arelate) Gaul, under Rome 123-?, rebuilt.  Canal dug to Mediterranean. 104 wikAr
c.103 Germanic CIMBRI, in Spain from 104 expelled by the Celtiberi, return to Rhone valley.  Cimbri ally with Helveti and Teutons for joint invasion of Cisalpine Gaul. 104 HRR     103 DGRG 1-1080, SORH, atl2,     102 Dur 3-119
no date: OCD 240
c.103 Germanic CIMBRI approach Italy. 103 GHH, HRR
c.103 Consul C. MARIUS marches army from Rome to Transalpine Gaul.  L. Sulla is his legate. 103 CAH 9, DGRG 1-955
c.103 Consul C. MARIUS trains army in Transalpine Gaul.  Having recruited a motley mob with lavish promises, he now has to discipline them harshly into an army.  Homosexuality is punished with death. 103 CAH 9 102 MCAW
c.103 C. LUSIUS, neph of C. Marius, military tribune in the Cimbri war from 111, killed by his tent-comrader Trebonius for attempting a homosexual assault on him.  Marius acquits Trebonius and rewards him with a crown, an honor usually reserved for a soldier who saves another in battle. 106 DGRBM 2-843
104 atl2
no date: wikTT
c.103 Consul C. MARIUS, at war with the Cimbri and Teutons, sends a letter to test the loyalty of the Gauls and Ligurians.  Letter commands them in the first part not to open the inner part, which is sealed, before a certain date.  Afterwards, before that date had arrived, he demands the letter back, and finds all seals broken. 103 atl2
c.103 C. MARIUS, in Gaul 103, has to return to Rome to manage elections, because consul Orestes has died. 103 wikGM
c.102 Consul C. MARIUS returns to Gaul until 101. 102 implied
c.102 Consul C. MARIUS fortifies his camp and digs a new channel at mouth of the Rhone. 102 atl2
c.102 L. Cornelius SULLA Felix defeats the Tectosages, who were in arms against the Romans, and takes their king Copill prisoner. 103/2
DGRG 1-955
c.102 SULLA, now at odds with Marius, gets himself transferred to the staff of consul Catulus. 102 MCAW
c.102 CIMBRI and TEUTONS decide to approach Italy by different routes. 102 atl2
c.102 Consul C. Marius entrenches himself near the junction of the Rhone and the Isere. 102 DGRG 1-955, LdHR 2-244
c.102 TEUTONS under king Teutobodus, and AMBRONES in the Rhone valley from 110, move toward Alps, pass camp of camp of Marius.  Neither attacks.  They ask the Romans if they have any messages for their wives.  They take 6 days to get past the camp. 102
DGRG 1-955, Dur 3-119, LdHR 2-244, atl2
c.102 Q. SERTORIUS, soldier under Marius, goes as a spy into camp of Teutons. 102 DGRBM 3-788, atl2
c.102 Consul C. MARIUS attacks rear of a column of Teutons under Teutobodus and defeats them in 2 battles near AQUAE SEXTIAE 20 km northeast of Massilia.  200,000 Teutons killed, 90,000 captured.  King Teutobodus is either killed or captured. 102 B76 I-169, 7-960, 8-40, 11-504, CAH 9, DGRBM 3-1015, DGRG 1-169, 955, 2-1120, 1133, Dur 3-110, 119, GHH, HRR, LdHR 2-246, MCAW, OCD 648, SORH, TTPC, atl2, wikTAR     102/1 B76 15-1101
c.102 After Aquae Sextiae Consul C. MARIUS burns a pile of German weapons in sacrifice to Mars.  While doing this, he receives news of his re-election as consul for 101. 102 MCAW
c.102 6,000 Teuton survivors settle between the Maas and Schelde rivers, become ancestors of the Aduatici. 102 DGRG 2-1133
c.102 Consul C. MARIUS sells off plunder from Teutons. 102 atl2
c.102 Consul C. MARIUS defeats Ambrones. 102 bk
c.101 Germanic CIMBRI, in Rhone valley, cross east thru Helveti land, cross eastern Alps by Brenner Pass, some sliding down the slopes on their shields, into Venetia. 101 DGRBM 2-956, DGRG 1-945, LdHR 2-247
no date: OCD 240
c.101 C. MARIUS, in Gaul 102, crosses back into Italy because the Cimbri are there. 101 DGRBM 2-956
c.101 Germanic CIMBRI withdraw from Italy to north of Alps. 101 guess
c.101 Tigurini retreat after defeat of Cimbri. 101 atl2
c.100 CAMULODUNUM emerges in southeast Britain. 100 CDCC 160
c.100 Carn Euny CARN EUNY iron age village in Cornwall flourishes until the Roman period.  Timber huts from 200 are replaced with interlocking stone court-yard houses  An underground chamber runs just below the surface and is roofed with massive stone slabs.  It is possibly used for storage or defense.  People live from agriculture, livestock, trade, and perhaps tin mining. 100 brtT


Photo Andy Wright
c.100 Iron bars began to be used as currency in Britain.  Internal trade and trade with continental Europe flourishes, largely due to Britain's extensive mineral reserves. 100 wikPB
c.100 LA TENE Period-C ends.  Began 300Period-D begins until c.30.  Celt power diminished by constant Germanic pressure and invasions from north, and by Romans from south.  Popular items include standard peasant implements.  Silver coins based on Greek and Romans prototypes increase. 100 B76 VI-67
c.100 Belgae begin Kingdom of CASSIVELAUNUS. 100 OCD 164, 181
c.100 West Europe:  Large fortified settlements with houses, craft shops, storehouses develop. 100 PW 17
c.100 VANDALS, Germanics in south Scandinavia from ?, move to south coast of Baltic Sea until ?. no date: OCD 1107
c.100 Southern BELGAE, German/Celts between Seine and Rhine, migrate to Britain. 100 OCD 164, 181
c.100 MARCOMANI, in Saxony and Thuringia from ?, migrate south to middla and upper Main valley until 9. 100 OCD 647
c.100 STEERING improved on 4 wheel carts by Celts.  Front wheels are made to swivel. 100 TTT