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c.200 HIERATIC SCRIPT, derived from earlier pictographic, used in carved or painted inscriptions in Egypt from the 1st Dynasty, less used than Demotic for secular purposes from 650, discontinued. 200
B76 V-32
c.200 BOLUS of Mendes publishes  Physica et Mystica  containing recipes for dyeing, coloring, and alchemy. 200
B76 1-433
c.200 ERATOSTHENES, librarian at Alexandria 235-195, writes  Geography . 200 DGRG 1-879
c.200 ARISTOPHANES of Byzantium becomes librarian of Alexandria until 183. 200 OHG 194 atl
c.200 The Jewish community of Alexandria has become large and sophisticated enough to require a translation of its Hebrew scriptures into Greek. by 200 CHJ 2-534
c.199 HORUNNEFER, pharaoh of Upper Egypt 205-199, ends.  ANKHUNNEFER succeeds until 186. 199 nar, resh
HORUNNEFER changes his name to ANKHUNNEFER. 200 lv5SW
199 lvPt5
c.199 Antiochus-III's attempt to attack Egypt fails. 199 lvPt5
c.199 Jewish tax-collector JOSEPH ben Tobias marries his niece at Alexandria. 199 atl2
c.199 SCOPAS, Egyptian commander in Coele-Syria, compelled by famine to surrender Sidon, flees to Egypt, where he still has high favor until 195. 199
CAH 8-173
c.197 LYCOPOLIS, chief revolt center of ANKHUNNEFER (Ankmachis), secessionist pharaoh of Upper Egypt, taken by ARISTOMENES, regent? for Ptolemy-V.  Amnesties are granted.  War between North and South continues until 185. 197
CAH 8-187 wikP5
c.197 PTOLEMY-V, under a regent from 203, comes of age (12-14), crowned at Memphis, rules until 181/0. 197 B76 VIII-281, 6-482, CHJ 2-76, GHH
c.197/6 PTOLEMY-V supresses insurrection in the Delta. 197 B76 VIII-281 197/6 lvPt5
c.196 PTOLEMY-V, king of Egypt 203-181, crowned and consecrated by his guardians in Egyptian style at Memphis.  Surnamed Epiphanes. 196 CAH 8, DGRBM 3-591, MCAW, lvPt5     195 LEWH 97
c.196 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 sails from Chersonese to Alexandria, learns that Ptolemy-V is still alive sails away. 196 Oct
CAH 8-186, DGRBM 3-774
c.195 Rosetta StonePriests of Memphis issue ROSETTA DECREE, enumerate privileges bestowed by government.   ROSETTA STONE  is written.  The upper text is Egyptian hieroglyphs, the middle, Demotic script, and the lowest Greek.  It presents the same text in all 3 scripts (with minor differences).  Believed to have originally been displayed in a temple, possibly at nearby Sais in honor of Ptolemy-V Epiphanes. 196 B76 VIII-281, CAH 7.1-97, DGRBM 3-591, IDB 4-129, MCAW, WERE 2, wikP3, wikRS
195 CAH 8-188
193 DGRG 1-418
Photo Captmondo
c.195 ROSETTA STONE contains decree honoring the 9th year Ptolemy-V Epiphanes. 196 Dur 2-584, FHBC 61
c.195 Peace with Antiochus-III; Ptolemy-V Epiphanes betrothed to marry Antiochus' daughter Cleopatra-I Syra and accepts the loss of all possessions outside Egypt, except for Cyprus and Cyrenaica. 197 GHH, atl2
195 B76 8-383, CAH 8, lvPt5, wikC1S
194/3 Sdl 5-236
c.195 SCOPAS, popular general, attempts coup, killed with family and accomplices by Aristomenes. 197 atl2
195 CAH 8-187
c.195 ERATOSTHENES, librarian of Alexandria measures circumference of Earth at 24,662 miles - 200 miles short. 194 atl2
c.195 ERATOSTHENES, designs an instrument to solve a mathematical problem concerning size of Apollo's altar at Delos. 194 atl2
c.195 5th SYRO / EGYPT WAR from 202, ends until 170. 200 frH     195 LEWH 93, 97
c.195/4 ERATOSTHENES of Cyrene, Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, music theorist, librarian of Alexandria from 246, age 80, suicides by starvation.  ARISTOPHANES of Byzantium succeeds until 180. 200 OHG, SHWC 95
196 DGRBM 3-299, TTS
195 BD 95, CAH 8, Dur 2-556, MCAW     195/4 wikEr
194 B76 III-937, 8-388, 10-1094, CDCC 326, OCD 114, 405, atl2
c.194 ACCENT MARKS added to Greek writing by Aristophanes of Byzantium. no date: MCAW 215
c.193 COELE-SYRIA, including Judea, under Antiochus-III from 198, given to his dau Cleopatra (Cleo-I) as a dowry, which means it should go to her husband Ptolemy-V Epiphanes, but Seleucids remain in control until 142. Antiq 12:4:1
193 DGRBM 1-799, Jud 5-603
There is no evidence for this. B76 VIII-281, wikC1
c.193 SYRO / EGYPT  TREATY  at RaphiaPTOLEMY-V Epiphanes, age 16, king of Egypt 197-81 marries CLEOPATRA-I, age 10, dau of Antiochus-III until 176. 194 CAH 8     194/3 B76 VIII-281, CAH 8-343, CHJ 2-76     193 B76 II-989, DGRBM 1-799, GHH, wikC1, wikP5, wikC1     192 IDB 3-966
Daniel 11:13-18 refers to these events. IDB 3-966
c.193 ARISTOMENES regent of Egypt executed by by Ptolemy-V.  He is replaced by POLYCRATES. 192 atl2, lvPt5
c.192 PTOLEMY-V, king of Egypt 203-181, sides with Romans against Antiochus-III. 192 SORH
c.190 PTOLEMY-V, king of Egypt 203-181, sends a fresh embassy to congratulate the Romans on their victory over Antiochus-III. 190 DGRBM 3-591
c.190 APOLLONIUS of PERGA, mathematician, "The Great Geometer", dies at Alexandria. 190 B76 I-448, BHM 141
c.188  ILIAD & ODYSSEY , having standardized text from 276, edited by Aristophanes, librarian of Alexandria. no date: MTNT 150
c.187 THEODORIDAS of Sicyon and LYCORTAS of Megalopolis sent by Achaean League to renew alliance with Ptolemy-V EpiphanesLycortas' young son, Polybius the historian accompanies.  Alliance is renewed. 187 DGRBM 3-1045, GHH, atl2     186 DGRBM 2-849
c.187 CLEOPATRA-I the Syrian, wife of Ptolemy-V 193-76 appointed vizir. 187 wikC1S, wikC1
c.186 PTOLEMY-V Epiphanes, king of Egypt 197-81, suppresses rebels held out in Upper Egypt. 187/6 B76 VIII-281 186 B76 8-383
c.186 ANKHUNNEFER (Ankmachis), rebel pharaoh of Upper Egypt from 199, conquered by Ptolemaic General Conanus, and executed.  Independent kingdom from 205 ends. 186 Shaw 411, atl2, lvPt5, nar, resh
185 DGRBM 3-592, wikP5
c.185 A synod of priests at Memphis transfers all honors that Ptolemy-V had received in 196 (written on Rosetta stone) to his wife Cleopatra-I. 185 wikC1
c.185 HYRCANUS ben Joseph goes from Judea to Alexandria, gains favor of Ptolemy-V. 187 GHH     185 atl2
no date: btst
c.184 Death of Aristonicus, a eunuch and general of Ptolemy-V. 184 atl2
c.184 PAUSIRAS is one of the leaders of the Egyptians in their revolt against Ptolemy-V.  The rebel chiefs had made themselves masters of Lycopolis, but can't hold out against Ptolemaic general Polycrates.  They surrender to the mercy of the king, who has them all executed. 184 DGRBM 3-163
c.184/3 Rebels in Lower Egypt surrender on basis of terms that Ptolemy-V had personally promised.  P-V then has them killed in a cruel manner. 185 DGRBM 3-592, OHG, atl2 184/3 wikP5
c.182 PTOLEMY-V Epiphanes plans to attack the Seleucid Empire. 182 lvPt5
c.181 Temple at Apollinopolis Magna begun by Ptolemy-V Epiphanes. 181 DGRG 1-160
c.181/0 PTOLEMY-V Epiphanes describes his friends as his "walking money-bags". 180 atl2
c.181/0 Son of P-III, PTOLEMY-V Epiphanes dies.  King of Egypt from 197, age 28, poisoned.  Eldest son, age 6, PTOLEMY-VI Philometor succeeds until 169.  His mom CLEOPATRA-I is regent until 176.  She immediately stops all war plans against under Seleucus-IV 181 CHJ 2, DGRBM 3-592, Dur 2-556, GHH, IDB 3-966, Jud 5-603, LEWH 97, MCAW, MRDK 290, bk, wikP5
181/0 CAH 8-283     180 B76 VIII-281, 8-382, CAH 8-343, Clay, DMoN, GEoP, JIAE, Murn, Shaw, ae, atl2, crst, frH, ktut, lvPt5, phou, pic, nar, rcE, resh, tig, treg, wikC1, wikP
c.180 ARISTOPHANES of Byzantium, librarian of Alexandria, accused of planning to flee to Eumenes of Pergamum. 179 atl2
c.180 ARISTOPHANES of Byzantium, librarian of Alexandria from 195, dies.  APOLLONIUS succeeds until 153. 180 CAH 8, Dur 2-556, MTNT 150, OCD 114     179 atl2
c.176 Dau of Antiochus-III & Laodice, CLEOPATRA-I SYRA dies.  Widow of Ptolemy-V, mom of Cleo-II, P-VI & VIII, regent for son Ptolemy-VI from 181, age 28, dies.  PTOLEMY-VI Philometor succeeds under corrupt regents Elulaeus (a eunuch) and Laenus until 172. 178/7 nar,     176 B76 VIII-281, CAH 8-343, DGRBM 2-87, frH, lvPt6, resh, wikC1, wikP, wikP6     175 atl2
173 DGRBM 3-592, GHH, IDB 3-966, Jud 5-603, bk
by 176 Temple of HORUS at EDFU, finished 212.  The decoration of the walls with reliefs and inscriptions, interrupted during the reign of Epiphanes, is resumed until finished in 147. by 176 plnt
c.174 ONIAS-III ben Simon, high priest of Jerusalem from 198, flees to Egypt. 175 CHJ 2-217, GHH, Jud 9-1292, 12-1403, af, gw, hifi, rcHL, wikHP     175/4 CHJ 2
174 BNTH 50, 103, CAH 8, HCC, IDB 2-804, atl2, bivu     173 Jud 3-74
c.173 5 Roman envoys, led by consular C. Valerius Laevinus, including Gn. Lutatius Cerco, M. Caecilius Denter, M. Cornelius Mammula, Q. Baebius Sulca are sent to Alexandria to renew alliance with Ptolemy-VI, then to the Macedonian court to watch Perseus, then return to Rome in 172. 173 CAH 8-306, DGRBM 1-672, 993, 2-711, 913, 3-933
c.173 ELULAEUS & LAENUS, regents for Ptolemy-VI 173-72, stir up the war party, which now becomes dominant. 173 CAH 8-503
c.173 APOLLONIUS, Syrian governor of Coele-Syria proceeds as ordered by Antiochus-IV to Egypt for coronation of Ptolemy-VI.  He learns that P-VI intends to recover Coele-Syria, which was given to his mom in 193. 2Mac. 4:21
172 atl2
c.173 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, king of Egypt 180-64, marries sis CLEOPATRA-II, makes anti-Seleucid union with their bro Ptolemy-VIII Euergetes-II Physcon. 175 lvPt6, wikC2, wikP6
173 B76 VIII-281, wikP
169 B76 8-383, Jud 5-603
c.172 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor under regents Elulaeus and Laenus from 173, comes of age (14), is king of Egypt and Cyprus until 164. 173 bk     172 1&2BM 23, Sdl 5-297
c.171 CLEOPATRA-II, wife of Ptolemy-VI Philometor, becomes co-ruler with P-VI until 164. 173 GEoP     171 wikC2, wikP     170 lvPt6, wikC2
c.170 ELULAEUS & LAENUS, regents for Ptolemy-VI 173-69, break Ptolemaic treaty with Seleucids by invading Coele-Syria. 170 1&2BM 23,
B76 8-383
170/69 CAH 8-344
c.170 SYRO / EGYPT WAR dormant from 195, resumes (6th) for control of Coele-Syria until 168. 171 GHH, IDB 3-199, LEWH 97, MCAW     170 1&2BM 23, B76 8-383, Sdl 5-238, frH, lvPt6, wikP6     169 CAH 8-305
c.170 Alexandrians crown P-VI's bro PTOLEMY-VIII Euergetes-II Physcon king of Egypt with better administration than the X-slave regents of Philometor. 170 B76 VIII-281, Clay, DGRBM 3-594-5, DMoN, GEoP, JIAE, Murn, Shaw, ae, atl2, crst, ktut, phou, rcE, tig, treg, wikP     169 CAH 8-505, GHH
c.169 COMANUS, envoy of Ptolemy-VIII Euergetes-II Physcon, sent to make peace with Antiochus-IV. 169 DGRBM 1-815
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 from Levant into Egypt for 1st invasion, defeats Egyptians at Pelusium, controls all Lower Egypt except Alexandria.  Ptolemy-VI joins him outside Alexandria.  A-IV demands that Ptolemy-VI receives other advisers (Comanus and Cineas), and becomes a puppet of Antiochus-IV. 173 DGRG 2-573     171 GHH 170 B76 VIII-281, CHJ 2, DHJ 484, IDB 2-56, Sdl 5-238, wikP8     169 1&2BM 23, B76 1-994, 8-383, CAH 8-283, 344, atl2, lvPt6, wikC2
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 advances without opposition as far as Memphis. 170 DGRBM 3-592
c.169 In Alexandria, people demand that Cleopatra-II and Ptolemy-VIII become rulers.  Ptolemy-VIII Euergetes-II Physcon claims to be king. 170 DGRBM 3-592
169 lvPt6
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 in Memphis, learns of insurrection of Ptolemy-VIII Euergetes-II Physcon, marches back to Alexandria. 170 DGRBM 3-592
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 besieges Ptolemy-VI Philometor in Alexandria, cuts off Alexandria from the rest of Egypt.  Envoys from Greece and Rhodes try to mediate. 1Mac 1:20
169 B76 8-383, CAH 8-283, 337, 506, GHH, bk
c.169 Achaean League sends ambassadors including Arcesilaos (Ariston?) of Megalopolis to to Egypt to facilitate peace between Antiochus-IV and Ptolemy-VI Philometor. 169 DGRBM 1-310
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 addresses envoys from Athens, Achaeans, Miletus, and Clazomenae, to justify his invasion of Egypt. 169 atl2
c.169 Ptolemy-VI Philometor comes out of Alexandria, joins Antiochus-IV, who promises to support P-VI against his bro P-VIII Euergetes, and sets up a rival seat of government at Memphis. 1Mac 1:20
169 B76 8-383, CAH 8-283, atl2, bk
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV declares his neph Ptolemy-VI Philometor king of Upper and Lower Egypt. 169 Sdl 5-297
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 withdraws from Egypt, leaving it divided until 164.
Ptolemy-VI Philometor and Cleo-II in Memphis.
Ptolemy-VIII Euergetes-II Physcon in Alexandria.  Antiochus-IV leaves a detachment at Pelusium.
170 IDB 3-966 170/69 CHJ 2 169 B76 8-383, CAH 8-284, 506
c.169 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, king of Egypt 181-64, tries to escape to Samothrace. 169 atl2
c.169 PTOLEMY-VIII Euergetes-II Physcon, king at Alexandria 170, reconciles and rules jointly with Ptolemy-VI Philometor and Cleo-II until 164. 170 B76 VIII-281 169 atl2, wikP 169/8 lvPt6, wikP6
c.169 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, king of Egypt 181-64, comes of age. 169 atl2
c.169/8 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, king of Egypt 181-64, makes 2nd appeal to Rome against Antiochus-IV. 169/8
B76 8-383
c.168 Embassy from Ptolemy-VI sent to Rome. 168 atl2
c.168 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 2nd invasion of Egypt.  Besieges Alexandria again, demands formal cession of Cyprus and Pelusium, occupies Lower Egypt. 2Mac 5:1       168 1&2BM 26, B76 1-994, 8-383, CAH 8-344, CHJ 2, DHJ 485, Sdl 5-238, 297, atl2, lvPt6
c.168 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 is crowned king of Egypt. 168 wikP6
c.168 Ptolemies V and VI appeal to Achaean League for 1,000 mercenaries. 168 DGRBM 3-1045
c.168 Achaean ambassadors including Archon of Aegira go to Egypt. 168 DGRBM 1-273
c.168 C. Popilius LAENAS, Roman envoy to Greece from 170, leads embassy including C. Decius to Egypt. 168 DGRBM 1-947, OCD 861
c.168 C. Popilius LAENAS, envoy to Egypt, at Eleusis, a suburb of Alexandria, orders Antiochus-IV to evaccuate Egypt and CyprusAntiochus asks for time to consider options.  Laenas draws a circle around him in the dirt, and demands an answer before Antiochus leaves the circle.  Antiochus agrees to comply.  This causes a rumor in Levant that he has died. 168 B76 1-994, 7-947, 8-383, 15-1095, 17-947, CAH 8-284, 344, CHJ 2, Dur 2-582, GHH, OCD 861, Sdl 5-238, SORH, atl2, bk, lvPt6     167 OHG
c.168 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 hears of fighting at Jerusalem, believes it is rebellion, hurries (with lots of Egyptian loot) to Judea. 2Mac 5:11
168 CAH 8-507, DGRBM 3-592, Jud 3-74, atl2
c.168 MENALCIDAS, a Lacedaemon adventurer, imprisoned by Philometor and Physcon from?, released at request of Popilius Laenas. 168 DGRBM 2-1029, atl2
c.168 SYRO / EGYPT WAR from 170, ends. 168 Sdl 5-238, frH
c.165 Native rebellion; birth of Ptolemy Eupator 165 lvPt6
c.165 Native Egyptian at Alexandria, Dionysius Petosarapis, claims that P-VI Philometor had tried to involve him in a conpiracy to kill his younger bro, rebels against P-VI, but is defeated. 165 atl2, lvPt6
c.165 Ptolemy-VI Philometor suppresses a rebellion around Thebes and captures Panopolis. 165 atl2
c.165 CTESIBIUS of Alexandria builds a "wind gun". 170-161 TTS
c.165 CTESIBIUS of Alexandria builds a nukterion horologion "night-time hour monitor" in the shape of a large klepsydra.  Water drops on wheels which are thereby turned.  The motion is transferred to a statue holding a pointer which, as the statue rises, points to progressive hours marked on a pillar. 135 DGRA 612
c.164 Fighting in the Fayum and around Thebes. 164 lvPt6
c.164 T. Manlius TORQUATUS is envoy to Egypt to mediate between the 2 Ptolemies.  He favors P-VIII Physcon. 164 DGRBM 3-1164, IDB 3-259
c.164 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, king of Egypt 172-64, expelled from Alexandria until 163 by Ptolemy-VIII Physcon, goes to Rome until 163P-VIII is sole ruler until 163. 164 B76 VIII-281, CAH 8-284, CHJ 2, Clay, DGRBM 3-592, DMoN, GEoP, LEWH 97, MCAW, ae, atl2, crst, ktut, lvPt6, nar, pic, rcE, resh, wikC2, wikP6, wikP8     163 SORH
c.163 CLEOPATRA, mother of Philopator (future P-VII?), marries P-VIII Physcon 163-27. 163 GEoP, wikP
c.163 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, king of Egypt 181-64, in Rome from 164, escorted back to Alexandria, reinstated as king of Egypt until 145Ptolemy-VIII Physcon is made king of Cyrene until 116Romans accomplish this without military action. 163 B76 VIII-281, CAH 8-284, CHJ 2, Clay, DGRG 1-100, DMoN, GEoP, Jud 5-603, Murn, ae, atl2, crst, ktut, lvPt6, nar, pic, rcE, tig, treg, wikP, wikP6
c.163 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, king of Egypt 181-64, 163-45, declares amnesty for rebels, offers asylum to Jews who are fleeing from the war between Antiochus-IV and the Maccabees. 163 lvPt6
c.163 Ptolemaic territories of are divided between Ptolemy-VI and Ptolemy-VIII Physcon. 164 GHH 163 atl2
c.163 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon persuades senate to award him a larger share of Ptolemaic territories. 163 atl2
c.162 Embassy includes P. Apustius sent to younger Ptolemy. 162 DGRBM 1-252
c.162 COMANUS, envoy of Ptolemy-VIII Physcon, sent to Rome to complain that Ptolemy-VI Philometor refused to grant Cyprus to Physcon. 162 DGRBM 1-815
c.162 Gn. MERULA sails from Anatolia to Alexandria, negotiates with Ptolemy-VI Philometor unsuccessfully, returns to Rome. 162 DGRBM 2-149
c.162 ONIAS-IV, Zadokite high priest of Jerusalem from 163, flees to Egypt, where Ptolemy-VI sets him up in Heliopolis. Antiq 12:9:7, Wars 1:1:1
162 CAH 8-517, Jud 12-1403, atl2
c.161 ONIAS-IV, former high priest of Jerusalem 163-2, tells Ptolemy-VI and Cleo-II that Isaiah had predicted that a Jew would build a temple to Yahweh in Egypt.  (No such writing of Isaiah is known.)  P-VI & C-II believe him and grant permission solely for that reason. Antiq 13:3:1
c.161 ONIAS-IV is given a place at Leontopolis near Heliopolis, authorized to build a temple to continue the Zadokite priesthood.  Building begins until 152. Antiq 12:9:7, 13:3:1, Wars I:1:1
168-5 CHJ 2     167 GHH     165 IDB 4-484     162 CAH 8-517, atl2
161 BNTH 5,     160 1&2BM 221, CHJ 2-50, IDB 4-465     145 Jud 12-1403
It was Onias-3 in 169/8 IDB 3-603
c.154 Ptolemy-VIII Physcon, king of Cyrene, accuses Ptolemy-VI Philometor of attempted murder.  Takes his complaint to Rome. 156/5 wikP8     155/4 lvPt6
154 CAH 8-284, DGRG 1-731
c.154 ANDROMACHUS, envoy of Ptolemy-VI Philometor, is sent to Rome. 154 DGRBM 1-173
c.154 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, king of Egypt & Cyprus 163-45, tries to appease bro bro Ptolemy-VIII Physcon by offering him an engagement to his dau Cleopatra Thea. 154 lvPt6, lvPt8 no date: wikP8
c.154 Senate sends Ptolemy-VIII Physcon home with 5 legates, but no Roman army, but P-VI Philometor, anticipating him, had already occupied Cyprus with a large force. 154 DGRG 1-731
c.154 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, king of Egypt & Cyprus 163-45, arrests bro Ptolemy-VIII Physcon, but treats him well to avoid conflict with Rome.  Then lets him go back to Cyrene. 154 CAH 8-284, atl2
c.154 Senate refuses to hear answer of Ptolemy-VI Philometor to charges of Ptolemy-VIII Physcon.  Orders allies to take Cyprus from P-VI and give it to P-VIII.  Allies do little or nothing. 154 CAH 8-284
c.154 Coalition of Ptolemy-VI, Attalus of Pergamum and Ariarathes of Cappadocia against Demetrius-I of Syria. 154 CAH 8
c.153 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, king of Egypt & Cyprus 163-45, dispatches army under Gelastes thru Levant to Syria to support Alexander Balas. 153 B76 VIII-281, IDB 3-966
152 CAH 8-523
c.153 APOLLONIUS, librarian of Alexandria from 180, ends.  ARISTARCHUS of Samothrace succeeds until 145. 153 B76 I-514, OCD 109, wikAS     152 atl2
c.152 PTOLEMY EUPATOR, son of P-VI Philometor is sent to Cyprus, but is dead before the end of the year. 152 lvPt6, wikP6
c.152 Temple at Leontopolis near Heliopolis, begun 169, finished.  Lasts until 73CE. 152 CHJ 2-464
145 B76 10-313, Jud 12-1403
c.150 ALEXANDER BALAS, pretended son of Antiochus-IV, asks Ptolemy-VI for a daughter in marriage.  P-VI agrees and proposes a meeting at Ptolemais. Antiq 13:4:1
c.150 Though PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, king of Egypt & Cyprus 163-45, had supported the coup of Demetrius I Soter, he now backs Alexander Balas. 150 lvPt6
c.150 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor and dau Cleopatra Thea sail to Ptolemais.  CLEO THEA marries ALEXANDER BALAS, king of Syria 150-45 at Ptolemais. 1Mac 10:57, Antiq 13-4-1
150 1&2BM 139, B76 8-383, 17-948, CAH 8-524, DGRBM 1-800, GHH, IDB 3-966, Jud 2-577, lvPt6
c.150 ARISTOBULUS of Paneas, Hellenistic Jew philosopher at court of P-VI at Alexandria, 1st to try to reconcile Judaism with Greek philosophy, tries to prove that the best Greek literature is indebted to Jewish inspiration.  Asserts that Pythagoras and Plato knew the Law of Moses.  1st to try an allegorical interpretation of objectionable verses in the Pentateuch. 180-45 CHJ 2-201
160 AΨΨ 370, wikAP
150-00 OCD 111
c.150  COMMENTARY on PENTATEUCH  by Aristobulus of Paneas, Jew at court of P-VI, earliest evidence of contact between Alexandrian Jews and Greek philosophy.  Tries to show that Homer, Hesiod, etc. down to Plato borrowed from a supposed translation of the Torah into Greek. 160 AΨΨ 370
150-00 OCD 111 no date: OCD 111
c.150  SEPTUAGINT , begun 250,  books of Kings, Chronicles, and Job  translated to Greek, and added to it. 150
AΨA 669
150±50 1st ESDRAS (Greek Ezra or 3rd Book of Ezra) written in Aramaic or Hebrew by an Egyptian Jew.  Contains a confused history of 721-444. after 333 AΨA 5 200-100 B76 III-958 200-50 ODCC 470     125 lvCrn
c.150  ILIAD & ODYSSEY :  2 critical editions published by Aristarchus of Samothrace, librarian of Alexandria. no date B76 I-514
c.150 HYPSICLES of Alexandria writes an additional  Book 14 to Euclids Elements  300.  Contains relations between a regular dodecahedron and an eicosahedron inscribed in the same sphere.  1st proposes a 360° circle. 150 OCD 536
c.150 AGATHARCHIDES of Knidos, Ptolemaic geographer, flourishes. 150 OHG
c.147 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, king of Egypt & Cyprus 169-64, 163-45, makes son PTOLEMY-VII Philopator Neos co-king. 147 B76 VIII-281
by 147 Temple of HorusTemple of HORUS at EDFU, decoration of walls with reliefs and inscriptions resumed 176, is finished.  Dedicated 142. by 147 plnt

Photo Hedwig Storch
c.146 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, king of Egypt & Cyprus 163-45, leads army along Levant coast to support Alexander Balas. 1Mac 11:1
147 bk
c.146 Political events disrupt the Museum at Alexandria. 146 CAH 8
c.146 APOLLODOROS of Athens, in Alexandria from ?, goes to Pergamum until ?. 146 B76 I-448
c.145 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor supports Jews of Alexandria against Samaritans. 145 atl2
c.145 Son of P-V & Cleo-1, PTOLEMY-VI Philometor dies.  Co-king of Egypt & Cyprus with bro P-VII 169-64, 163-45, returns from Syria, dies of wounds from Oenoparas riverSon PTOLEMY-VII Philopator Neos is proclaimed king in Alexandria under regency of mom Cleo-II. 1Mac 11:18       146 AΨΨ 372, DGRBM 1-800, 3-594, IDB 3-966, MCAW, SORH, frH     145 B76 VIII-281, CAH 8, 9-310, CHJ 2-143, Clay, DMoN, Dur 2-556, GEoP, JIAE, Jud 5-603, LEWH 97, MRDK 290, Murn, Sdl 5-250, Shaw, ae, atl2, bk, crst, frH, ktut, lvPt6, nar, pic, rcE, tig, treg, wikP, wikP6
c.145 PTOLEMY-VIII Euergetes-II Physcon, bro of P-VI, king of Cyrene 163-45, in Syria 145, returns with army to Egypt, meets army of Onias-IV at Alexandria. 145
Jud 5-603, wikP8
c.145  Book of Daniel , written 150, translated into Greek for Septuagint. 145 CHJ 2-445
c.145 PTOLEMY-VIII Euergetes-II Physcon, bro of P-VI, king of Cyrene 163-45, proposes joint rule and marriage with Cleo-II, both of which she accepts, and becomes his wife until 116. 145 wikP8
c.145 Leontopolis, a military colony in the delta, supports Cleopatra-II with a small force at Alexandria. 145 1&2BM 140
c.145 Clash between government and Jews at Alexandria, who side with Cleopatra-II. 145 Jud 5-603
c.145 ARISTARCHUS of Samothrace, librarian of Alexandria from 153, and other Alexandrian intellectuals flee to Cyprus.  Ammonius (Cydas) succeeds until . 145 OCD 109, OHG, atl2, wikAS
c.145 AGATHARCHIDES of Knidos, Ptolemaic geographer, is probably exiled by Ptolemy-VIII Physcon. 145
c.145 Bro of P-VI, PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon, king of Cyrene 163-45, marries sis CLEOPATRA-II, murders her son PTOLEMY-VII Neos Philopator during the wedding feast.  P-VIII Physcon becomes king of Egypt until 131. 146 GHH     145 CAH 9-310, Clay, GEoP, IDB 3-966, Jud 5-603, Murn, OCD 307, Shaw, ae, bk, crst, frH, lvPt6, lvPt8, pic, resh, tig, wikC2, wikP8     144 B76 VIII-281
c.145 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon, king of Egypt 145-31, takes revenge on intellectuals of Alexandria who had opposed him.  These include Aristarchus of Samothrace and Apollodorus of Athens.  He holds mass purges and expulsions. 145
OHG 418, wikP8
c.144 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon, king of Egypt 145-31, crowned at Memphis, timed to coincide with birth of his new wife's child, named Memphites. 144 CAH 9-310
c.144 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon, king of Egypt 145-31, declares amnesty for all former enemies. 144 lvPt8
c.144 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon, king of Egypt 145-31, travels south to Upper Egypt. 144 CAH 9-310
c.144 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon, king of Egypt 145-31, has himself proclaimed pharaoh. 144 wikP8
c.142 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon, king of Cyrene 163-45, Egypt 145-31, already married to sis CLEO-II, marries niece CLEO-III, dau of P-VI and Cleo-II, until 131. 142 Jud 5-603, wikP, wikC2 141/0 lvPt8     140 atl2, nar 139 wikC3
c.142 CLEOPATRA-II sis/wife of P-VIII Physcon, repudiated.  Begins getting support of Alexandrians. 142 CAH 4-384
c.142 Inner temple complex of Horace at Edfu, finished 147, dedicated by PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon. 142 CAH 9-310, atl2
c.140 Foundation of the pronaos of temple at Edfu.  Finished 124. 140 atl2, nar
c.140  SIBYLLINE ORACLES , an immitation of ancient Greek oracles, eventually comprising 15 books.  Earliest oracle contained in book 3 written by a Jew in Alexandria.  Books 3-5 contain Jewish propaganda, including a messianic hope.
Book 3-96:  "Yet after leaving one root which the destroyer shall cut off, (97) he shall put forth a side shoot of 10 horns."
140 AΨΨ 386, B76 2-936, CHJ 2-149, 201,
ENBD 1061, IDB 3-928
160-00 HCC
c.140/39 Courtier Galestes gathers exiles from Egypt and attempts a coup, unsuccessfully.  . 140/39 lvPt8 138 atl2
c.140/39 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS heads an embassy including Spurius Mummius and L. Caecilius Metellus Calvus, sails from Rhodes to Egypt, where his companions privately express contempt for Ptolemy-VIII.  They sail up the Nile to Memphis. Diodotus 33.28b 143 GHH, SORH 140 B76 16-395 140/39 CAH 9-311 139 CAH 8-376, atl2
c.140/39 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS heads an embassy including Spurius Mummius and L. Caecilius Metellus Calvus, sails from Egypt to Cyprus. no date: Diodotus 33.28b
c.139 Ptolemy-VIII and Cleopatra-III seek support from native Egyptians. 139 lvPt8
c.132 Grandson of Jesus ben Eleazar ben Sirach, author of Ecclesiasticus (Sirach) 180 arrives in Egypt.  translates Ecclesiasticus into Greek.  He dates it in the 38th year of Ptolemy-VIIThe original Hebrew manuscript is soon lost, which possibly accounts for its failure to be canonized at the Synod of Jamnia. 132 AΨA 271, 293, BBP 93, 159, CHJ 2-393, 416, DHJ 526, IDB 1-499, 2-14, 4-275, Sdl 5-252, atl2
c.132 Ptolemy-VIII and Cleopatra-II begin civil war. 132 lvC3, lvPt8, wikC3
c.132 HORSIESE (Harsiesi) rebels until 130. 132 CAH 9-311, lvPt8, nar     131 pic
c.132  SCRIPTURE  in Prolog to Ecclesiasticus (Sirach) is divided into 3 parts: Law, Prophets, and other books of the fathers.  These all exist in Greek translation. 132 BBP 93, IDB 1-499, 511, 4-275, Jud 4-821 132-116 AΨA 293
c.131 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon, king of Egypt 145-31, makes himself unpopular with his subjects by his many lawless acts. 131 atl2
c.131 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon, king of Egypt from 145, driven from Alexandria by Cleo-II until 130, goes to Cyprus with niece/wife Cleo-III.  Sis/wife CLEOPATRA-II sole rule until 129. 131 B76 VIII-281, CAH 9-311, 384, GEoP, atl2, bk, ktut, lvPt8, wikC2, wikP     130 MCAW, wikC3
c.131 Ptolemy Memphitis, son of P-VIII and Cleo-II, age 12 (apparently now on Cyprus), proclaimed king by Cleo-II until 130. 131 GEoP, wikP
c.130 Ptolemy Memphitis, only child of P-VIII and Cleo-II, age 13, murdered by father on CyprusP-VIII dismembers his body and sends head, hands and feet home to Cleo-II for her birthday. 131/0 CAH 9-311 130 CAH 9-384, wikC2
Memphites may be identical to Ptolemy-VII Neos Philopator. wikC2
c.130 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon, exiled on Cyprus from 131, apparently leaves niece/wife Cleo-III on Cyprus until 127, returns to Egypt, defeats opponents. 130 lvC3, lvPt8
c.130 HORSIESE (Harsiesi) rebeling from 132, ends. 130 lvPt8
c.130/29 KERKEOSIRIS, a south Fayum agricultural village, receives 1st settlement of Ptolemy-VIII Physcon's troops - 8 cavalrymen (one with 30 arourai (7.5 hectares) and 7with 20 arourai (5 hectares)) and 30 infantrymen with 7 arourai (1.75 hectares). 130/29 CAH 9-313
c.128 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon, former king of Egypt 145-31, restored to Alexandria as king of Egypt until 116.  Has CIVIL WAR with sis/wife CLEOPATRA-II until 118. 130 lvPt8
129 B76 VIII-281, CAH 9 127 GEoP, MCAW, wikP
c.128 CLEOPATRA-II, supported by troops of Demetrius-II Nicator, tries to recover her position, but the Seleucid expedition fails near Pelusium. 128 atl2, lvPt8
c.128 CLEOPATRA-II, at war with her bro Ptolemy-VIII Physcon, offers throne of Egypt to her son-in-law, Demetrius-II Nicator, king of Syria 129-25. 129 CHJ 2-327, atl2
c.128 Syrians, dissatisfied with sickly king DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, ask Ptolemy-VIII Physcon to send another Seleucid to rule SyriaP-VIII chooses ALEXANDER ZEBINA, pretended son of Alex Balas, pretended son of Antiochus-IV Antiq 13-9-3 128 CHJ 2-327, lvPt8
c.127 CLEOPATRA-II, queen of Egypt from 130, flees to Syria, joins dau Cleo Thea and son-in-law Demetrius-II Nicator until 124. 127 lvC3, wikP
c.127 CLEOPATRA-III, 2nd wife of P-VIII Physcon, on Cyprus from 131, returns to Egypt, restored as regent of Egypt until 116. 127 lvC3, wikP, wikC3
c.127 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon violently decimates population of Alexandria, and replaces them with Greeks. 127 CHJ 2-173, atl2,     127/6 lvPt8
c.126 ALEXANDER ZEBINA, son of an Alexandrian broker, is incited by Ptolemy-VIII Physcon to claim the throne of Syria, as son of Alex Balas. 125 GHH
c.125  NASH PAPYRUS  written in Hebrew.  4 extant fragments comprise a single sheet.  Contains the Ten Commandments in Hebrew, followed by the start of the Shema Yisrael prayer.  Commandments have parts from Exodus 20:2-17 and parts from Deuteronomy 5:6-21. 150-100 wikNP
no date:
B76 10-312
c.124 Temple of HATHOR at Dendera begun.  It will not be finished until 60CE. 124 Shaw 430
c.124 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon, king of Egypt 145-31, 129-16, puplicly declares reconcilliation with Cleo-III. 124 wikC2
c.124 Pronaos of temple at Edfu, begun 140, is completed. 124 atl2
c.124  Letter  from Jerusalem to Jews in Egypt telling them to observe the festival commemorating a Hasmonean victory on 25th of Kislev.  Letter does not mention John and is dated by the Seleucid era.  It contains a discreet allusion to the temple at Leontopolis built by Onias-IV 179-52. 124 B76 2-934, CHJ 2-325, 463, Sdl 5-357, atl2
c.124 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon, king of Egypt 145-31, 129-16, sends 2nd dau by Cleo-III, TRYPHAENA, to Syria to marry Antiochus-VIII. 124 wikP8
c.124 CLEOPATRA-II, in Syria from 127, reconciled with Ptolemy-VIII Physcon, returns to Egypt, rules jointly with P-VIII and Cleo-III until 116. 124 wikC2, wikC3, wikP8
c.123 Small-scale raids on local dykes of Crocodilopolis by villagers from Hermonthis at time of Nile flood in September.  Priests of Souchos complain to a local official that the land has gone unsown.  Their temple and the royal interest suffer. 123 CAH 9-313
by 122 Temple of HORUS at EDFU, finished in decoration of walls in 147, a large vestibule decorated with reliefs is added by P-VIII Physcon.  More will be added in 116. by 122 plnt
c.120 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon, king of Egypt, 145-31, 129-16, sponsors Greek navigator EUDOXOS of Cyzicus to explore a sea route, via Red Sea to India.  He is guided by a Hindu who knows the "Law of the Monsoons".  Probably the 1st European to sail directly to India and back. 130 B76 8-389 120 CAH 9-385 117 B76 VIII-281 116 atl2
c.119/8 PTOLEMY LATHYRUS, son of P-VIII and Cleo-III, marries sis CLEOPATRA-IV until 115. 119/8 wikC4
c.119/8 At Kerkeosiris in the South Fayum 43% of the cleruchic land of the military settlers is sown with wheat in compared with only 24% in 116/15, and derelict land is 24%. 119/8
CAH 9-314
c.118 GOLD COFFIN of ALEX-III the Great, in a tomb in Alexandria from 322, snatched by Ptolemy-VIII Physcon, who puts the corpse in a glass case for public display. 118 DGRG 1-98
c.118 CIVIL WAR from 128 ends.  PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon and sis/wife CLEOPATRA-II reconcile until her death 116.  Amnesty restored thruout Egypt, P-VIII institutes reforms, but insufficient to improve the government's relationship with the country. 124 wikP
118 B76 VIII-281, CAH 9-314, 384, CHJ 2, wikP8
c.117 PTOLEMY-IX Soter-II LATHYRUS flees to Cyprus until 116. 117 GHH
c.116 Dau of P-V & Cleo-I, CLEOPATRA-II dies.  Sis/widow of P-VI 169-45, sis/wife of P-VIII from 145, mom of P-VII, Cleo-III, Cleo Thea, dies, leaving PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon and niece/wife CLEO-III rulers, but P-VIII soon dies. 116 B76 6-483, CHJ 2, GEoP, MRDK 290, wikC2, wikP
P-VIII dies first. wikC2
by 116 Temple of HORUS at EDFU, its vestibule decorated with reliefs finished by P-VIII Physcon in 122, the forecourt with its colonnades, the enclosure walls and the "great pylon" are begun. by 116 CAH 9-317
c.116 Parasite Hierax of Antioch is executed by P-VIII Physcon. 116 atl2
c.116 Son of P-V & Cleo-I, PTOLEMY-VIII Euergetes-II Physcon dies. King of Egypt, 145-31, 129-16, king of Cyrene from 163, Egypt from 128, dies, willing Egypt to niece/wife CLEOPATRA-III as regent until 110 over whichever of their sons she prefers, LATHYRUS or ALEXANDER.
wills Cyrene to APION (bastard by a concubine) until 96.
117 DGRBM 3-595-6, MCAW, SORH     116 B76 6-483, 8-386, CAH 9-314, CHJ 2-143, Clay, DMoN, GEoP, JIAE, MRDK 290, Murn, Shaw, ae, atl2, bk, crst, frH, ktut, lvC3, lvPt8, nar, phou, rcE, tig, wikC3, wikP, wikP8
c.116 PTOLEMY-IX Soter-II LATHYRUS, on Cyprus from ?, leaves sis/wife Cleo-IV on Cyprus, returns to Alexandria. 116 lvCT, lvPt9
c.116 Romans intervene in Egypt. 116 wikP8
c.116 EUDOXUS of Cyzicus sails from Egypt to India. 116 atl2
c.116 CLEOPATRA-III regent of Egypt 116-10 chooses to rule with younger son Alexander, but is compelled by the people to enthrone elder son (age 14) Lathyrus.  PTOLEMY-IX Soter LATHYRUS succeeds until 110Younger son ALEXANDER is made governor of Cyprus until ?. 116 CAH 9-, CHJ 2-328, DMoN, GEoP, IDB 3-967, JIAE, Murn, Shaw, ae, atl2, ktut, lvC3, lvPtX, nar, phou, pic, rcE, resh, tig, treg, wikP, wikP8, wikP9
c.116 CLEOPATRA-III regent of Egypt 116-10, presents herself to the Egyptians as goddesses Isis and Maat. 116 lvC3
116/5 At Kerkeosiris in the South Fayum only 24% of the cleruchic land of the military settlers is sown with wheat compared with 43% in 119/18, and the derelict land rises from 24% to 58% of the area.  By 113/12 only 34% of this land registered as derelict and 34% under wheat, the major crop of the country 116/5 CAH 9-314
c.115 PTOLEMY-IX Soter-II LATHYRUS, king of Egypt under regent CLEO-III 116-10, is forced by her to divorce wife Cleo-IV, now on Cyprus. 117
DGRBM 1-800 115
B76 VIII-281, CAH 9, lvCT, lvPt9
CLEO-IV learns that she has been divorced, assembles an army and offers her hand to Seleucid prince Antiochus-IX, and sails to Syria.
c.115 PTOLEMY-IX Soter-II LATHYRUS, king of Egypt marries Selene, dau of P-VIII & Cleo-III.  She takes the name CLEOPATRA SELENE, and remains his wife until 107, but is not made co-ruler. 115 wikCS1
c.114 PTOLEMY-IX Soter LATHYRUS, king of Egypt under regent CLEO-III 116-10, starts to call himself king. 114 DGRBM 3-596, lvPtX
c.114  Book of ESTHER  arrives in Egypt, and is immediately translated into Greek. 114
AΨA 669
c.113/2 At Kerkeosiris in the South Fayum only 34% of the cleruchic land of the military settlers is derelict, compared to 24% in 116/15.  34% is now under wheat, the major crop of the country. 113/2 CAH 9-314
c.112 Roman senator visits Egypt. 112 CAH 9-316
c.112  Song of the Three Young Men  written.  An apologetic work written to give the Jews encouragement in facing persecution.  Presents the Jews as loyal supporters of the Ptolemies. 125-100 CHJ 2-496
c.110 PTOLEMY-IX SOTER-II LATHYRUS ends.  King of Egypt from 116, is deposed by mom Cleo-III and younger bro Alexander.  PTOLEMY-X ALEXANDER succeeds until 109. 110 B76 VIII-281, 6-483, Clay, DMoN, GEoP, Murn, ae, lvC3, lvPt9, lvPtX, rcE, tig, treg, wikP, wikP9, wikPX
108/7 CHJ 2     107 IDB 3-967, ktut
c.110 CLEOPATRA-III, regent from 116 for son PTOLEMY-IX Soter LATHYRUS, king of Egypt, is deposed by son Ptolemy Alexander. 110
Jud 2-922
c.110  Letter of ARISTEAS  written by a philosophical Alexandrian Jew, who claims to be an officer of Ptolemy-II Philadelphus to his bro Philocrates, supposedly during the translation of the Septuagint.  A possibly fictional account of a banquet at the court of Ptolemy-II.  Describes Greek translation of Hebrew Law by 72 interpreters sent to Egypt from Jerusalem at request of the librarian of Alexandria, resulting in the Septuagint translation.  Commends Judaism to Helenists and gentiles. 267 CAH 7.1-73
130-70 AΨΨ 86 120-100 CHJ 2-391 110 lvCrn
100 B76 2-935, 10-313, CHJ 2-495, 499, ENBD 1061
100-50 HCC
no date: wikLA
c.109 PTOLEMY-X ALEXANDER ends.  King of Egypt from 110, ousted by bro LATHYRUS, former king of Egypt 116-10.  PTOLEMY-IX Soter LATHYRUS recovers throne until 107, but is again dominated by Cleo-III. 109 B76 VIII-281, 6-483, Clay, GEoP, Murn, ae, lvC3, rcE, tig, treg, wikP, wikP9, wikPX
c.108 PTOLEMY-IX Soter LATHYRUS sends 6,000 soldiers to aid Antiochus Cyzicenus co-ruler of Syria 120-96. 108 atl2
c.108 P-X ALEXANDER briefly replaces P-IX LATHYRUS, but this 2nd attempt fails too, and P-IX Lathyrus returns. 108 B76 VIII-281, lvC3, lvPt9, lvPtX
c.108 EUDOXUS of Cyzicus 2nd voyage, visits Ethiopia. 108 atl2
c.107 PTOLEMY-IX Soter-II LATHYRUS ends.  King of Egypt from 109, under Cleo-III 116-10, accused by mom Cleo-III of trying to kill her, leaves wife Cleo Selene and his children behind, flees a 3rd time to Cyprus until 89CLEOPATRA-III is regent until 101 for son Alexander.  PTOLEMY-X ALEXANDER succeeds until 88. 108/7 CAH 9-386, CHJ 2
107 B76 VIII-281, CHJ 2-329, Clay, DGRBM 3-595-6, DMoN, GEoP, JIAE, Jud 5-603, Murn, Shaw, ae, atl2, frH, ktut, lvC3, lvPt9, lvPtX nar, phou, pic, rcE, resh, tig, treg, wikC3, wikP, wikP9, wikPX     107 CAH 9-315
c.107 A naval expedition from Cleo-III forces Ptolemy-IX to flee from Cyprus to Seleucia, but he soon returns. 107 lvPt9
c.107 CLEO-III allies with one of the warring Syrian kings, Antiochus-VIII Grypus, giving him Cleo Selene as his wife. 107 lvPt9
no date: wikCS1
c.105 PTOLEMY-X ALEXANDER marries Cleopatra Berenice-III, dau of P-IX and Cleo-IV. 105 lvPtX
c.105/4 PTOLEMY-IX Soter LATHYRUS, priest of the dynastic Alexander cult from ? in Alexandria, replaced by Cleo-III.  Queenly power peaks. 105/4 CAH 9-315, lvC3
c.103 PTOLEMY-XII AULETES, sent by father P-X Alexander and grandmother Cleo-III with bro ??? and P-XI Alexander-II to Kos island for safe-keeping. 103 B76 VIII-282, CAH 9-315, lvPtX
c.103 Cleo-III helps Alexander Jannai against Ptolemy-IX Lathyrus. 103 GHH
c.103 PTOLEMY-X ALEXANDER, invades Levant, reaches Damascus, and returns. 103 lvC3, lvPt9, lvPtX
c.103 Propaganda of an Egyptian Jew survives in the  letter  (2 Mac. 1:10 to 2:18) .  Cleo-III's commanders, Chelkias and Ananias, are sons of priest Onias-IV, who had emigrated and founded a temple in Egypt.  Now they might have pressed their claims to high priesthood against the upstart Hasmoneans.  Instead, they sympathize with the Jewish king.  Chelkias falls in battle.  Ananias defends Jannai's cause when Cleo-III wants to annex Judea.  Cleo-III is induced to ally with Jannai.  The Jewish king may have allowed himself to accept alliance with Egypt (condemned by the prophets) thinking that now Egypt was no broken reed.  Surely some Jews condemn this. late 103 CHJ 2-337
c.102 PTOLEMY-IX Soter LATHYRUS, ruler of Cyprus 107-89, tries to invade Egypt, but is repulsed by Cleo-III's navy, returns to Cyprus. 102 CAH 9-387, atl2 101 DGRBM 1-117
c.102 Jewish generals Chelcias and Ananias remain loyal to Cleo-III in war against Ptolemy-IX. 102 atl2
c.102 CLEOPATRA-III regent for son Ptolemy Alexander 107-01, returns from Palestine to Egypt. 102 CAH 9, 387, 399
c.102 CLEOPATRA-III defeats PTOLEMY-X ALEXANDER near Pelusium. 102 lvC3, lvPt9
c.101 PTOLEMY-X ALEXANDER, orders the killing of Cleopatra-III and continues as sole ruler. 101 lvC3, lvPtX
c.102 CLEOPATRA-III regent for son Ptolemy-X Alexander 107-01, fears attack by son Ptolemy-IX Soter Lathyrus, sends land army into Palestine and son Ptolemy Alexander by sea to Phoenicia.  Cleo-III sails to Ptolemais. Antiq 13-13-1
c.101 1st dau of P-VI & Cleo-II, CLEOPATRA-III dies.  Widow of uncle P-VIII 142-16 regent for son P-X Alexander from 107P-IX ALEXANDER succeeds.  Cleo BERNICE-III is co-ruler both until 88. 101 B76 VIII-281 6-483, CAH 9-295, 315, atl2, bk, frH, ktut, lvC3, nar, resh, wikB3, wikPX
murdered by P-X. atl2, wikC3, wikPX
c.100 Cleo Berenice-III accepts Ptolemy-XI Alexander, who is still on Kos, as son; the boy is recognized as king, but stays in Greece. 100 lvPtX
c.100  Wisdom of Solomon  written by an Alexandrian Jew in Greek.  Artistic Greek style expressing Hebrew and Greek thought modes.  Main theme: praise of wisdom.  Ch 1-5: Blasts apostate Jews.  Ch 6-12 & 16-19: Defense of Judaism.  Ch 13-15: Blasts pagan gods. 150-50 Sdl 5-277 100-0 B76 IX-338 50-30 IDB 4-863
c.100 Egyptian Jew ARTAPANUS writes  On the Jews .  His writings are only known to us 2nd and 3rd hand.  Tries to prove that Egyptian culture is based on Abraham, Jacob, Joseph, and Moses.  Abraham taught the pharaoh astrology.  Jacob established the Egyptian temples at Athos and Heliopolis.  Joseph was appointed viceroy of Egypt and initiated agrarian reforms to ensure that the powerful would not dispossess the weak of their fields.  Identifies Moses with the Greek Musaeus and the Egyptian Hermes-Toth. 200-100 encArt
B76 10-313, CHJ 2-401
c.100  2nd Book of MACCABEES  written not in Judea but Egypt by unknown author.  A Greek synopsis of a history of the Maccabean Revolt down to 161, written in Hebrew by Jason of Cyrene. 100 IDB 3-209
125-150CE AΨA 129
41-44CE B76 VI-432
c.100 PURGATORY foreshadowed.  Judas Maccabee "made propitiation for them that had died that they might be released from their sin." 2 Mac 13-39-45