c.200 Philocles, officer of Philip-V, sent from Caria to Attica, ravages country, tries to take Eleusis. 200 DGRBM 3-300
c.200 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, in Ionia blockaded in Bargylia Caria by ATTALUS of Pergamum and Rhodians from 201, breaks out into the Aegean, sails for Macedonia, chased by Attalus and Rhodians who stop short at Aegina island 201 BHS 2-33, LdHR 2-18
200 CAH 8-161, DGRBM 3-283, SORH
c.200 ATTALUS-I, ruler of Pergamum 241-197, king 230, and some Rhodians, invited by Athenians, go to the Piraeus, meet the Roman embassy, agree on a common line of approach to the Athenians.  They all go to Athens together and are greeted with enthusiasm.  Attalus, and Rhodians promise to help Athenians throw off Macedonian yoke. 201 LdHR 2-18
200 CAH 8-258, DGRBM 1-410, GHH
c.200 Bands of Acarnanians overrun Attica with impunity. 200 HRRP 2-18
c.200 Athens declares war on Philip-V. 200 CAH 8-258, atl3
c.200 Achaeans try to mediate between Philip-V and Rhodes, while remaining neutral. 200 SORH
c.200 ISOCRATES, eponymous archon of Athens from 201, ends.  NIKOPHON succeeds until 199. 200 wikEA
c.200 NICANOR, general of Philip-V, invades Attica, penetrates as far as the Academy, supports Acarnanians in attack on Athens.  Attica is devastated.  Roman embassy presents the senatus consultum to Nicanor.  Nicanor withdraws. 201 CCDC 104, atl3
200 CAH 8-161, 259, DGRBM 3-283, DGRG 1-258, HRRP 2-18, atl3
c.200 Senatorial legates:  C. Claudius Nero, P. Sempronius Tuditanus, M. Aemilius Lepidus, in Greece from 201/0, sail east, announce their senatus consultum in Aegean islands. 200
CAH 8-162
c.200 May PHILOPOEMEN strategos of 2nd Achaean League from May 201, ends.  CYCLIADAS (partisan of Philip-V) succeeds until May 199. 200 DGRBM 1-908, 3-319, atl3
c.200 PHILOPOEMEN, in Greece from 210, returns to Crete, and doesn't return to Peloponnese until 194. 200 DGRBM 3-319
c.200 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, learns of Roman ultimatim to stop attacking Greeks.  Turns attention to Thrace. 200 B76 8-384, CAH 8-163, 259, DGRBM 3-283
c.200 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, goes to Thrace. 200 July CAH 8,
spring DGRBM 3-283
c.200 MARONEIA Thrace taken by Philip-V. 200 DGRG 2-278
c.200 ELAEUS in Thracian Chereonese, surrenders voluntarily to Philip-V.  Under him until 190. 200 DGRG 1-809
c.200 AENOS Thrace betrayed by its governor Ganymedes to Philip-V. 200 DGRBM 2-230
c.200 Thracian coast, Ptolemaic from ?, siezed by PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179.  Maronea, Cypsela, Aenos, Chersonese all taken.  Philip crosses straits to the Troad. 200 BHS 2-33, CAH 8-163, 254, 259, DGRBM 3-283, SORH
c.200 CYRETIAE Perraebia plundered by Aetolians. 200 July DGRG 1-736
200 BCE
c.200 Rome/Macedonia, at peace from 205, 2nd MACEDONIAN WAR with ROME begins until 196Aetolians remain neutral until 197. 200 B76 I-634, VI-442, 15-1093, CDCC 52, DGRBM, DGRG 1-66, Dur 2-556, 3-20, GHH, HRR, LEWH 92, MCAW, OCD 928, OHG, SORH, bk, frH, lvG
c.200 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS, general & philhelene, crosses Adriatic against Macedonia. 200
Dur 3-85
c.200 P. SULPICIUS GALBA, with 2 legions (25,000 men), sails from Rome to Illyria, camps between Apollonia and Dyrrhachium, sends lieutenant L. APUSTIUS to ravage borders of Macedonia, sends C. Claudius Centho with 1,000 men in 20 ships to relieve Athens. 200 CAH 8-165, 261, DGRBM 2-204, LdHR 2-20, OCD 454, SORH, atl3, howW2M
c.200 P. SULPICIUS GALBA besieges CELETRUM, a town of the Orestiae in Macedonia, which submits.  He then returns to Dassaretia, and then regains Apollonia. 200 DGRG 1-580
c.200 L. APUSTIUS, legate of Galba moves into west Macedonia, takes some minor Macedonian towns and forts. 199
LdHR 2-21
c.200 Macedonian fortresses Codrion, Corragum, Gerunium, and Orgessus taken by L. APUSTIUS. 200 CAH 8-262, DGRG 1-641, 689 199 LdHR 2-21
c.200 ANTIPATRIA, a city of Daretis Macedonia, taken by L. APUSTIUS, plundered, burned, all males killed. 200 CAH 8-262, DGRG 1-641, 689 199 LdHR 2-21
c.200 Pleuratus king of Illyria, Amynas (Amynander) of Athamania, and Bato king of the Dardanians, all arrive at the Galba's camp and offer assistance.  Services of Pleuratus are declined. 201 DGRBM 3-413 200 CAH 8-262
199 LdHR 2-21
c.200 Macedonians based at Corinth and Chalcis attack Athens.  Athenians send word to Sulpicius Galba. 200
CAH 8-262
c.200 C. Claudius CENTO with 1,000 men in 20 triremes attacks Philip-V's major fortress at Chalcis, then sails to Athens, which is besieged by Macedonians. 200 CAH 8-261, DGRBM 1-769, 2-204, 3-283, LdHR 2-20
c.200 DAMOCRITOS becomes strategos of Aetolian League until ?. 200 DGRBM 1-936
c.200 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 sails to Demetrias Magnesia. 200
LdHR 2-21
c.200 Macedonian siege of Athens raised by C. Claudius CENTO and Roman fleet. 200 DGRBM 1-769, SORH
c.200 P. SULPICIUS GALBA defeats Macedonian troops at OTTOLOBOS (probably in Perraebia), forces the pass of Bantiza.  No big success, but wins Aetolian supportGalba is denied the chance for a second battle. 200
OCD 454 199 howW2M
c.200 ACARNANIA joins Philip-V against Romans. 200 OCD 2, SORH
c.200 BOEOTIA joins Philip-V against Romans. 200 SORH
c.200 Now that Philopoemen is gone, Nabis of Sparta makes war on 2nd Achaean League. 201 DGRBM 1-908
c.200 OREOS Euboea taken by C. Claudius Cento and Roman fleet. 200 DGRG 2-492
c.200 AMYNAS (Amynander), king of Athamania, allies with Romans, assigned task of winning over Aetolia until 199. no date: OCD 56
c.200 Roman envoys in Greece. 200 CAH 8
c.200 CHALCIS Euboea under Macedonia from 338, taken by C. Claudius Cento and Roman fleetSopater, Acarnanian commander of Macedonian garrison, is killed with most of his troops.  Chalcis comes under Rome until 192. 200 DGRBM 3-864, LdHR 2-21, rcSB3 198 CAH 8-266
c.200 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 leaves Heraclides in command of fleet at Demetrias Magnesia, crosses to Euboea. 200
LdHR 2-21
c.200 PHILIP-V, at Euboea too late to save Chalcis.  He cannot dislodge C. Claudius Cento from Chalcis, so he ravages the surrounding area. 200
LdHR 2-21
c.200 CORINTH, under Macedonia from 303, comes under tyrant ANDROSTHENES until 197. 200 rcPl
c.200 OLYMPIC GAMES add a pancration contest for boys. 200 atl3
c.200 With Philopoemen absent, 2nd ACHAEAN LEAGUE, under Cycliadas (partisan of Philip-V) meets at Argos to consult about raising a levy against Nabis of Sparta.  They ask Philip-V for help. 200 CAH 8-262, DGRBM 1-908, wikNb
c.200 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 goes from Euboea to Argos, tries to persuade Achaean League to join him.  Philip-V offers to fight the war against Nabis of Sparta for them, if the Achaeans give him troops for his garrisons in Chalcis, Oreos and Corinth.  Achaeans refuse, because by his offer Philip intends to commit the League to the new war with RomePhilip now tactlessly demands hostages to guarantee a commitment against RomePhilip now tactlessly demands hostages to guarantee a commitment against Rome. 200 CAH 8-262, DGRBM 1-908, LdHR 2-21
c.200 PHILIP-V returns from Argos to Macedonia. 200 LdHR 2-21
c.200 BATO chief of Dalmatians and/or Dardanians 206-176, joins P. Sulpicius Galba against Philip-V. 200 DGRBM 1-474
c.200 P. SULPICIUS GALBA retires to Apollonia Illyria for winter.  He solicits barbarian tribes to attack Macedonia. 200 DGRBM 2-204, 3-283, OCD 454
c.200 ACANTHOS Chalcidice, under Macedonia from 379, taken and sacked by Roman fleet, comes under Pergamum until 168. 200 DGRG 1-9, rcSB2
c.200 CELETRON (Castoria) on a lake in west Macedonia blockaded and taken by consul P. Sulpicius Galba, who then returns to Dassaretia Illyria. 200 DGRG 1-580
c.200 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, claims that Rhodes and Attalus of Pergamum had attacked him first.  He is not contradicted.  Same 198. 200
CAH 8-253
c.200 LARISSA Thessaly, taken by Apustius. 200 DGRG 2-127
c.199 Athens is Rome's only Greek ally.  With Rome support of Amynander, king of Athamania, and of the Dardanians, Galba plans a combined assault on Macedon for 199. 199 howW2M
c.199 May CYCLIADAS (partisan of Philip-V) strategos of 2nd Achaean League from May 200, ends.  ???? succeeds until May 198. 199 DGRBM 1-908, 3-319
c.199 BATO chief of Dalmatians and/or Dardanians 206-176, clashes with Macedonia to liberate Paeonia (north of Macedonia). 199 wikLRI
c.199 L. APUSTIUS, legate of Galba is detached with a fleet to go to Aegina and join Attalus, and the Rhodians and attack Philip-V's eastern possessions. 199
LdHR 2-21
c.199 Sulpicius GALBA, advances thru the country of the Dassaretii.  All towns and villages on his road surrender to him, only a few being taken by force. 199 CAH 8, spring DGRBM 2-204
c.199 PHILIP-V and 1st son PERSEUS, move west to counter P. Sulpicius Galba, but avoid battle with him, remembering that his phalanx needs favorable terrain to do well against Roman maniples. 199 B76 VII-889, CAH 8, LdHR 2-22
c.199 THAUMACI in Phthiotis Thessaly besieged by Philip-VA band of Aetolians under Archidamos arrives and forces Philip-V to abandon siege. 199 DGRBM 1-260, DGRG 2-1137
c.199 Assembly of Aetolian League decides to remain neutral in forthcoming war against Philip-V. 199 atl2
c.199 OREOS on coast of Euboea, under Sparta from ?, taken by Roman fleet, aided by Attalus-I of Pergamum. 199 DGRBM 1-410, atl2
c.199 Skirmishes between Philip-V and Roman army near Athacus upper Macedonia. 199 atl2
c.199 P. Sulpicius GALBA, general in Macedonia, invades Eordaea.  The hostile armies encamp a distance from each other, and fight several minor engagements, in one of which the Romans sustaine loss.  A regular cavalry battle follows.  The Romans are again beaten, but the Macedonians pursue carelessly, and are attacked on their flanks, and routed.  Philip-V is nearly killed. 199 DGRBM 2-204, atl2
c.199 After Eordea PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 sends a messenger to Galba to sue for a truce.  Galba defers his decision till the next day, but in the night following Philip and his army secretly leave camp.  Galba doesn't know what direction they went. 199 DGRBM 2-204
c.199 P. Sulpicius GALBA marches toward Pluvina in Pelagonia Macedonia, and encamps on the banks of the Osphagus.  He wastes time in petty conquests. 199 DGRBM 2-204
c.199 Consul P. Villius TAPPULUS arrives in Corcyra to take over command of Roman army. 199 DGRBM 3-975, atl2, 198 DGRBM 2-204
c.199 NIKOPHON, eponymous archon of Athens from 200, ends.  [?]PPOS succeeds until 198. 199 wikEA
c.199 ATHENS, encouraged by presence of Attalus, the Rhodians, and the Roman fleet, decrees all honors to Philip-V void, Philip-V and his family to be cursed in public prayers.  They transfer their adulation to Attalus. 199 LdHR 2-22
c.199 TRIBES of Athens, 13 from 224/3, decreased to 11 by subtraction of Demetrias and Antigonis, because Macedonians are no longer popular.  Remain 11 for a few months, then addition of Attalis (after Attalus of Pergamum) brings it to 12 until 124/5CE. 199 LdHR 2-22
no date: stoa
c.199 Combined fleets of Attalus, Rhodians, and Apustius occupy Macedonian possessions on coasts of Euboea and Thessaly.  Then Apustius retires to Corcyra, Attalus to Aegina. 199 LdHR 2-22
c.199 P. Sulpicius GALBA retires to Apollonia for winter, hands over his army to consul P. Villius TAPPULUS, who arrives too late to do anything but go into winter quarters. 199 fall CAH 8-263, DGRBM 2-204, SORH, howW2M
c.199 Now that Galba's back is turned, PHILIP-V and Perseus punish the Dardanians, and quickly return to Thessaly. 199
LdHR 2-22
c.199 Aetolians invade Thessaly. 199 LdHR 2-22, atl2
c.199 AMYNAS (Amynander), king of Athamania, invades Thessaly. 199 LdHR 2-22
c.199 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 defeats Athamanians in Thessaly, and drives them out. 199 LdHR 2-22, SORH
c.199 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 defeats Aetolians. 199 SORH
c.199/8 ATTALUS-I of Pergamum, in Greece from ?, rushes home to deal with Antiochus-III. 199/8 DGRBM 1-410
c.198 At the start of 198, PHILIP-V cannot afford to let the Romans invade Macedonia again without offering more serious resistance.  He takes up a strong defensive position in a gorge on the Aous River, blocking the best invasion route into Macedonia from the west. 198 howW2M
c.198 In early spring, PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 takes up a strong position by river Aous near the pass of Antigoneia Epirus, where it commands the direct route into Macedonia. 198 DGRBM 3-284, atl2
c.198 [?]PPOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 199, ends.  Successor unknown until 197. 198 wikEA
c.198 P. Villius TAPPULUS makes himself unpopular with Greeks by his ruthless punishment of some states. 198 atl2
c.198 Consul T. Quinctius FLAMININUS, and fleet commander Lucius cross the Adriatic to Corcyra. 198 CAH 8-264, CDCC 674
c.198 L. Villius TAPPULUS, commander in Balkans, learns from Epirote Charops that Philip-V had occupied the Aous gorge in Epirus, a major bottleneck on the main and most convenient invasion route into MacedoniaTappulus quickly marches up the Aous valley to a position 5 miles from Philip's, but is unable to force the pass.  While Tappulus contemplates what to do, his successor Flamininus arrives, and takes command. 198 spring CAH 8-264, LdHR 2-23, howW2M
CONFUSION ALERT!  Some sources say these events happened at a "gorge of Tempe" on the Aous river in Epirus.  This is probably a conflation with the real gorge of Tempe on the Peneios river in Thessaly.
c.198 L. Villius TAPPULUS, commander against Macedonia from 199, relieved by consul T. Quinctius FLAMININUS who commands until 194.  Galba and Tappulus become his legates. 198 DGRBM 3-975, OCD 441
197 DGRBM 2-204
c.198 CHAROPS, leader in Epirus, until now allied with Philip-V, helps T. Quinctius Flamininus against Philip-V by giuding 4,300 Roman troops over the heights above Philip's position at Aous gorge. 198
LdHR 2-24, OCD 228, SORH
c.198 XYNIA Thessaly, deserted from ?, plundered by Aetolians. 198
DGRG 2-1334
c.198 T. Flamininus and Philip-V sit at the Aous river 6 weeks.  Epirotes offer to mediate.  They negotiate.  Aetolian officer Phaeneas vehemently opposes demands of Philip-VFlamininus demands that Philip withdraw garrisons from all Greek cities, pay for past injuries, promise no future intervention.  Philip walks. 198
DGRBM 3-232, LdHR 2-24, atl2
c.198 Consul T. Quinctius FLAMININUS defeats Philip-V at AOUS river, in Epirus.  Philip-V loses 2,000 men, all of his baggage. 198 B76 8-384, 15-1093, CAH 8, DGRBM 1-690, DGRG 2-352, MCAW, SORH, atl2, howBA
c.198 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 Expects Flamininus to follow at once, employs scorched-earth tactics, back thru Thessaly toward Macedonia. 198 B76 8-384, 15-1093, CAH 8-265, DGRBM 1-690, DGRG 2-352, LdHR 2-24, MCAW, atl2
c.198 Flamininus does not follow.  His first priority is to secure his lines of communication to the west coast, which means putting diplomatic pressure on Epirus, whose territory controls critical routes across the Pindus Mountains. 198
CAH 8-265, LdHR 2-24
c.198 PHARSALOS briefly reoccupied by Philip-V. 198 lvG
c.198 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS overruns Epirus, stays there establishing good will. 198 LdHR 2-24, SORH
c.198 May ARISTAENOS becomes strategos of Achaean League until ?. 198 DGRBM 1-288
c.198 CYCLIADAS, Achaean partisan of Philip-V, is exiled to court of Philip-V. 198 DGRBM 1-908
c.198 EUBOEA, mostly under Macedonia, attacked by L. Quinctius FLAMININUS, Roman fleet commander, who takes Eretria and Carystos, then anchors at Cenchrae (east of Corinth) to influence the Achaean League assembly, which had met at Aegion. 198 LdHR 2-25, atl2
c.198 Consul T. Quinctius FLAMININUS helped by Aetolians and Athamanians, marches from Epirus into Thessaly. 198 CAH 8-265, LdHR 2-24, SORH, atl2
c.198 METROPOLIS Thessaly taken by Flamininus. 198 DGRG 2-352
c.198 GOMPHI, PHECA, and other Thessalian towns taken by AMYNANDER king of Athamania, ally of Romans 200-.  Amynander ravages Thessaly. 198 DGRBM 1-154, DGRG 1-1004, OCD 56
c.198 PHALORIA Thessaly, despite its 2,000-man garrison, is captured after a siege by Flamininus and burnt. 198 CAH 8-265
c.198 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS repulsed at Atrax on the Peneus River about ten miles southwest of Larissa Thessaly. 198 atl2
c.198 T. FLAMININUS marches from Thessaly to Locris, occupies Anticyra in Phocis and makes it his naval yard and main provisioning port. 198 CAH 8-265, DGRG 1-140,
LdHR 2-24, wikTQF
c.198 PANOPEUS Phocis taken by Romans on the 1st attack. 198 DGRG 2-543
c.198 ELATEA Phocis, a fortress commanding the main pass from Boeotia north, under Philip-V from ?, besieged and taken by Flamininus.  Though the town is plundered, the inhabitants are declared free, as the Roman sales pitch demanded. 198 CAH 8-266, CAH 8-266, DGRG 1-810, LdHR 2-24
c.198 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 takes steps to ensure loyalty of his allies and subjects, including imprisonment of his unpopular minister Heracleides. 199 DGRBM 2-389
198 atl2
c.198 Assembly of Achaean League under pro-Roman Aristaenos, meets at Sicyon to decide whom to side with.  L. Flamininus is present, supported by Pergamese and Athenians.  Reps of Philip-V are allowed to speak.  Meeting takes 3 days.  Reps of Dyme, Megalopolis, and Argos refuse to break ties to Philip-V, and walk out.  Ultimately Aristaenos convinces all to ally with Rhodes and Pergamum, and to send envoys to senate to negotiate alliance with Rome. 198 B76 I-56, CAH 8, CDCC 3, DGRBM 1-288, DGRG 1-16, HRR, LdHR 2-25, SORH, atl2
c.198 Assembly of Achaean League, under pro-Roman Aristaenos, induced by L. Flamininus to abandon alliance with Philip-V and make treaty with Romans including promise of support. 198 B76 I-56, CAH 8, CDCC 3, DGRG 1-16, GHH, HRR, SORH, atl2
c.198 After the Achaean League meeting, Argos accepts a Macedonian garrison.  Argos and Corinth, the most important cities of the League, are now with Philip-V.  Megalopolis remains petulant. 198 LdHR 2-25, atl2
c.198 ALEXANDER ISIUS, strategos of Aetolian League, at a meeting with Flamininus at Nicaea in Locris, says Philip-V should be compelled to quit Greece, and return all towns he took from Aetolians.  Boeotian Brachylles supports cause of Philip-V. 198 DGRBM 1-117, 502
c.198 ALEXANDER ISIUS, strategos of Aetolian League, leads an embassy to Rome to accuse Philip-V.  It includes Achaean Xenophon of Aegion. 198 DGRBM 1-117, 3-1297
c.198 L. Quinctius FLAMININUS, Roman fleet commander, sails from Malea island to Piraeos to join ships already there. 198 DGRBM 2-161
c.198 ANDROSTHENES tyrant of Corinth 200-197, defends Corinth against Romans. 198 DGRBM 1-177
c.198 ACHAEANS, with some opposition from Argos, ally with Romans until ?. 199 CDCC 674
198 B76 8-384, CAH 8, bk
c.198 PHILOCLES, an officer and friend of Philip-V of Macedon, at Chalcis Euboea, tries and fails to save Eretria, which the Roman fleet, the Rhodians, and Attalus are besieging, and which is taken by them shortly after the repulse of Philocles. 198 CAH 8-266, DGRBM 3-300
c.198 CARYSTOS Euboea taken by the Roman fleet, the Rhodians, and Attalus. 198
CAH 8-266
c.198 AETOLIANS ally with Romans against Philip-V until 197. 200 B76 I-117     199 CAH 8, CDCC 674, bk     198 B76 8-384, CAH 8
c.198 BOEOTIANS ally with Romans against Philip-V until ?. 198 bk
c.198 ATTALUS-I of Pergamum again joins Romans in Greece, winters at Aegina. 198 DGRBM 1-410
c.198 Before winter ELATEA Phocis, sides with Romans. 198 LdHR 2-25
c.198 Before winter all of Locris and Phocis, side with Romans. 198 LdHR 2-25
c.198 Negotiations begin at NICAEA in Locris and Thronium, near Thermopylae.  Reps of all concerned parties are present.  PHILIP-V stands on a ship, and T. Quinctius FLAMININUS on shore.  Flamininus repeats same demands with more specificity: that Philip evaccuate Greece, return parts of Illyria captured after 205 to Pleuratos, return to Ptolemy-V all Egyptian lands taken since death of P-IV in 204Flamininus' Greek allies then list grievances against Philip-V, demanding his withdrawal from Greece.  Alexander Isius, strategos of Aetolian League gets his friends to oppose any peace with Philip-V.  Philip makes concessions, but is unwilling to concede to all of senate's demands.  On the 3rd day they agree to a 2 months truce; and reps of all participants sail to Rome. 198 CAH 8-171, 266, LdHR 2-26, MCAW, SORH, atl2
197 DGRBM 1-117
c.198 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, claims that Rhodes and Attalus of Pergamum had attacked him first.  He is not contradicted.  Same 200. 198
CAH 8-253
c.198/7 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 finding it inconvenient to defend Argos himself, instructs Philocles to give up Argos to Nabis of Sparta, who, after having betrayed the people into an open expression of the hatred they felt toward him, is admitted by night into Argos.  Philocles extorts money from the citizens; then, to secure the support of at least one portion of the community, proposes cancelling debts, and repartitioning lands. 198 DGRBM 2-1134 197 atl2
c.198/7 Winter.  PHILIP-V and Flamininus continue competing for Greek support.  All Greece from Thessaly to the isthmus except Acarnania and Boeotia is with Flamininus, who winters in Locris and Phocis.  His task is to separate Acarnania and Boeotia from loyalty to Philip-V.  He delegates Acarnania to his bro Lucius. 198/7 LdHR 2-26, SORH
c.197 Appius CLAUDIUS PULCHER serves as military tribune under T. Quinctius Flamininus in Greece until 194. 197 DGRBM 1-769
c.197 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS accompanied by Attalus-I of Pergamum, marches toward Thebes, main city of Boeotia. 197 DGRBM 1-410
c.197 A meeting is held at THEBES to decide whether or not to submit to FlamininusAttalus-I of Pergamum speaks and collapses from apoplexy.  Thebes peacefully submits, to Flamininus, and comes under Romans until 146 197 B76 IX-928, 15-1-93, CAH 8-178, CDGRA 117, DGRBM 1-410, LdHR 2-26, OCD 144, 415, SORH, atl2
c.197 ATTALUS-I Soter, king of Pergamum from 291, dies of stroke at Thebes.  Son EUMENES-2 succeeds until 160. 197 B76 15-1-93, CAH 8-178, DGRBM 1-410, OCD 144, 415, atl2
c.197 An oracular response from Delphi predicts that Attalus' family will reign until time of his grandchildren. 197 atl2
c.197 BOEOTIA, forced by Flamininus and persuaded by Aristaenos strategos of Achaean League, allies with Romans. 197 DGRBM 1-288, atl2
c.197 LEUCAS island, under Macedonia from ?, blockaded by L. Flamininus and taken.  L. Flamininus defeats Acarnanians on it.  Leucas is separated from the Acarnanian Confederacy. 197 DGRG 2-168-9, atl2
c.197 ARISTAENOS strategos of Achaean League accompanies Flamininus to interview with Philip-V. 197 DGRBM 1-288
c.197 Proconsul T. Quinctius FLAMININUS with 2 legions leaves winter quarters.  With Aetolians, Athamanians, Achaeans, and others, over 30,000 men, they go to Thermopylae.  He picks up some Aetolian cavalry under Phaeneas at Thermopylae, and advances into Phthiotis straddling the eastern Thessaly/Greece border. 197 DGRBM 2-164, 3-232, LdHR 2-27, atl2
c.197 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS at Heraclea, marches 3 days and arrives at Xynia Thessaly. 197 DGRG 2-1334
c.197 ARGOS, independent from 224, acquired by Nabis of Sparta until 195. 197 B76 VII-157, LEWH 92, atl2 196 B76 I-506
c.197 THEBAE (now called Philipololis) in Phthiotis Thessaly attacked by T. Quinctius Flamininus unsuccessfully. 197 DGRG 2-1155
c.197 ANKYLOS becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 196. 197 wikEA
c.197 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 with an army of old men and boys, marches south into Thessaly. 197 LdHR 2-27
c.197 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS goes from Phthiotis past Demetrias, and camps on the plain near Pherae. 197 LdHR 2-27
c.197 PHILIP-V, arrives at Larissa, and learns that Flamininus is near Pherae. 197 LdHR 2-27
c.197 PHILIP-V, marches south from Larissa, halts near Pherae at the appearance of Roman scouts, finds the terrain unsuitable for his phalanx, falls back to Scotussa. 197 LdHR 2-27
c.197 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS marches from Pherae north towards Scotussa Thessaly, halts at Eretria between Pharsalus & Thebae. 197 DGRG 1-847
c.197 ChersoneseLYSIMACHIA in Chersonese is sacked and destroyed again by the Thracians during war of the Romans against Philip-V.  Ruined until 196. 197 atl2, wikLT
c.197 Most of THESSALY declared free by Flamininus. 197 DGRG 2-1169
c.197 500 troops from Gortyn Crete under Cydas join Flamininus in Thessaly. 197 DGRBM 1-910, DGRG 1-1005
197 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS defeats Philip-V at CYNOSCEPHALAE, a range of hills north of Skotussa.  Roman mobility (mainly Aetolian cavalry under Eupolemos) outflanks Macedonian phalanx carrying 21' spears and heavy shields.  Philip has more than 25,000 men, Flamininus has 2 legions, supported in infantry by 6,000 Aetolians, 1,200 Athamanians, 500 Cretans from Gortyn, and 300 Apollonians and 400 Aetolian cavalry8,000 Macedonians are killed, 7,000 captured700 Romans killed. 197 B76 I-117, IV-171, 8-384, 15-1093, CAH 8-268, CDCC 350, 674, CHJ 2-76, DGRA 1094, DGRG 1-726, 2-933, Dur 2-556, 3-85, GHH, HRR, LdHR 2-28, LEWH 92, MCAW, TTPC, atl2, bk, wikBoC, wikTQF
197 Roman maniple outmaneuvers the rigid Macedonian phalanx in 197 and 168. 197 MCAW, bk, wikHR
c.197 Immediately after the battle PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 sends Achaean Cycliadas and 2 other envoys to Flamininus, who grants a 15 day truce. 197 CAH 8-268, DGRBM 1-909
c.197 BRACHYLLES, Boeotian ally of Philip-V, who commanded Boeotian troops at Cynoscephalae, is sent home by Flamininus to conciliate Boeotia. 197 DGRBM 1-502
c.197 BRACHYLLES, helped by the pro-Macedonian party, is elected Boetarch until 196. 197 DGRBM 1-502
c.197 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 gives Rome 200 talents and hostages including younger son Demetrius for 4 months truce. 198 DGRBM 1-966 197 late CAH 8-269
c.197 Achaeans under NICOSTRATOS defeat Macedonians under ANDROSTHENES at Apelauros. 197 DGRG 2-1039
c.197 Praetor of the Achaean league NICOSTRATOS is present at a meeting at Mycenae, at invitation of Nabis, at which Flamininus and Attalus are also present.  On the part of the Achaeans Nicostratos enters a 4 month truce with Nabis. 197 DGRBM 2-1200
c.197 Praetor of the Achaean league NICOSTRATOS, at Sicyon with troops, by a skilfully devised stratagem he inflicted a severe defeat on forces of Philip-V, at Corinth under command of Androsthenes, while they were ravaging the lands of Pellene, Sicyon, and Phlios. 197 DGRBM 2-1200
c.197 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS fears that Antiochus-III might rescue Philip-V, grants truce at Tempe.  . 197 CAH 8-176, OCD 441
c.197  PEACE of TEMPE Philip-V agrees to senate's terms set at Nicaea 198, surrenders all land outside Macedonia, reduces army to 5,000, navy to 5 ships, not declare war without senate's permission, pay 1,000 talents over 10 yearsAetolians get Dolopia, Phocis, and east Locris, but not their former possessions in Thessaly.  Aetolian Phaeneas offends Flamininus by insisting on restitution of cities in Thessaly. 197
B76 I-117, CAH 8-176, DGRBM 3-232, TTPC, bk
c.197 Peace of Tempe results:  Aetolians are miffed at not getting former posessions in Thessaly etc.  All parties send delegates to Rome. 197
CAH 8-176
c.197 ChersoneseSESTOS in Chersonnese, under a Macedonian garrison from ?, liberated by insistence of Rhodians, who want free trade with Black Sea. 197 DGRG 2-970
c.197 ANDROSTHENES, Macedonian commander of Corinth from 200, defeated by Achaeans near Corinth. 197 DGRBM 1-177, atl2
c.196 2nd MACEDONIAN WAR with ROME from 200, ends.  Flamininus agrees to discuss peace terms with Philip. 197 Dur 3-20, GHH, OHG, atl2
196 B76 I-634, VI-442, CDCC 456, GHH, LEWH 92, OCD 928, frH
c.196 BRACHYLLES, pro-Macedonian Boetarch from 197, murdered by pro-Romans Zeuxippos and Pisistratos helped by T. Quinctius Flamininus. 196 DGRBM 1-502
c.196 PLEURATOS-III king of the Illyrian Ardiae 206-181, is rewarded by T. Quinctius Flamininus at the peace for his services by addition of Lychnidus and the Parthini (formerly under Macedonia) to his territory. 196 DGRBM 3-413, DGRG 2-38
c.196 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS attends Isthmian Games at Corinth, proclaims all Greeks free from Macedon, tribute, and Roman garrisons.  The cheer from the stadium is so loud that it is reported that birds flying over fell dead from the shock.  Philip-V is restricted to Macedonia, parts of Thessaly organized in federationsRome's main ally Aetolia gets some land, but remain unsatisfied. 196 B76 IV-171, 8-384, 15-1093, CAH 8-277, CDCC 350, DGRA 646, Dur 2-556, 3-85, MCAW, OCD 441, OHG, atl2, bk, wikTQF
c.196 PHOCIS comes under Aetolian League. 196 SORH
c.196 ANKYLOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 197, ends.  PLEISTAINOS succeeds until 195. 196 wikEA
c.196 Romans force Boeotians to agree to peace terms after murder of Macedonian sympathizer Brachylles. 196 atl2
c.196 Shortly after the peace with Boeotia, Ten Roman commissioners arrive in Greece with a senatus consultum to join with Flamininus in settling affairs.  At least 4 are ex-consuls and include Flamininus' predecessors P. Sulpicius Galba and P. Villius Tappulus.  Also included: P. Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus. 196 CAH 8-270, DGRBM 2-164, 204, 729, 3-975
c.196 10 Roman commissioners revise peace  treaty  with Philip-V, and monitor carrying out of terms.  All Greeks not subject to or garrisoned by Philip, in Anatolia or in Europe, shall be free and live according to their own laws.  Cities subject to Philip and garrisoned by Philip shall be handed over to the Romans before the Isthmian Games (June/July 196).  Philip shall withdraw his garrisons from and leave free Euromus, Pedasa, Bargylia, and Iasus, all in Caria, Abydos and Myrina in Mysia, Thasos island, and Perinthus Thrace.  Concerning the freedom of Cius Bithynia, Flamininus shall write to Prusias according to the senatus consultum.  All prisoners and deserters Philip shall restore to the RomansPhilip shall surrender his whole fleet to the Romans except for 6 ships, and limit his standing army to 5,000 men.  Philip shall pay 1,000 talents, half immediately and half in 10 annual installments, and deliver hostages including his son Demetrius.  Philip may not make alliances without Roman consent. 196 CAH 8-270, DGRBM 3-284, GHH, SORH, atl2
c.196 HEGESIANAX and LYSIAS, envoys of Antiochus-III are sent to Greece to meet the 10 Roman commissioners. 196 DGRBM 2-367, 864
c.196 OREOS Euboea under Romans from 200, declared free by T. Quinctius Flamininus along with other Greek states. 196 DGRG 2-492
c.196 OREOS and ERETRIA in Euboea are given to Eumenes-II by treaty of Romans with Philip-V. 196 DGRBM 2-90
c.196 The ORESTAE on the Epirus/Macedonia border, having been first to rebel against Philip, are declared free by the Romans in the peace with Philip. 196 DGRG 2-491
c.196 Aenos and Maronea on Thracian coast, under Philip-V from 200 taken by Romans. 196 CAH 8-285
c.196 THESSALY is divided into 4 independent confederacies. 196 SORH
c.196 Thessalians adopt new laws, and start electing annual magistrates; first to hold office is Pausanias of Pherae. 196 atl2
c.196 LARISSA Thessaly, under Macedonia from ?, under Philip from ? , given up to Romans until ? after Philip destroys all his important papers. 196
B76 VI-51
c.196 DEMETRIAS Magnesia, under Macedonia from ?, taken by Romans and garrisoned until 192. 196 DGRG 1-769
c.196 EUBOEAN LEAGUE, defunct from 338, revived by Flamininus intil 146. 196
OCD 412
c.196 CALPURNIUS CORNELIUS sent by senate to make alliance with Philip-V against Antiochus-IIIPhilip-V accepts. 196
CAH 8-185
c.196 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 at Abydos, crosses Hellespont into Thrace. 196 B76 1-825,
CAH 8-271, lvA, SORH
c.196 CHERSONESE, under Macedonia from ?, taken by Antiochus-III until ?. 196 CAH 8-271, DGRBM 1-197, GHH
c.196 LYSIMACHIA Thrace, in ruins from 197, restoration and fortification begun by Antiochus-III, who makes it his headquarters until 190. 196 CAH 8-271, SORH, atl2
c.196 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 at Lysimachia Thrace, claims rights in Thrace because of Seleucus-I's conquest in 281.  Says Philip-V usurped his land.  Says he will preserve rights of all free cities.  Declares marriage contract with Ptolemy-V. 196 Oct CAH 8-186
c.196 L. Cornelius LENTULLUS and 3 other Roman envoys meet Antiochus-III at Lysimachia Thrace, order him to evaccuate Europe and all cities belonging to Philip-V or Ptolemy-V. 196 mid B76 8-384, Oct CAH 8-186, DGRBM 1-197, wikC1
c.196 PARMENIO, one of the deputies from Lampsacus, appears before the Roman legates at Lysimachia to complain against Antiochus-III. 196 DGRBM 3-127
c.196 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 at Lysimachia in Chersonese, hears false rumor that Ptolemy-V has died, leaves son Seleucus in charge of Thrace at Lysimachia, sails toward Alexandria hoping to be king. 196 Oct CAH 8-186, DGRBM 3-774
c.196 ALEXAMENOS becomes strategos of Aetolian League until 192. 196 DGRBM 1-110
c.196 Calpurnius Cornelius and L. Villius Tappulus, envoys of Rome proceed from Macedonia to Anatolia to win back the Anatolians. 196 CAH 8-185, DGRBM 3-975
c.195 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS summons council of all Greek allies at Corinth, asks if they want him to liberate Argos from Nabis of Sparta.  Majority vote yes.  Alexander Isius, strategos of Aetolian League, speaks against Athenians, and insinuates that Romans are being deceptive. 195 May CAH 8-189, DGRBM 1-117, wikNb
194 CAH 8-277
c.195 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, with bigger army, returns to Thrace, sends envoy to T. Flamininus in Greece to negotiate friendship with Rome. 195 mid CAH 8-188
c.195 Rome declares war on Nabis of Sparta, authorizes T. Flamininus to deal with him any way he likes. 195 CAH 8, HRR, bk
c.195 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS orders Nabis of Sparta to give Argos back to the Achaeans, or face war.  Nabis refuses. 195 wikNb
c.195 ARISTAENOS strategos of Achaean League, with 10,000 inf and 1,000 cav, joins Flamininus against Nabis of Sparta. 195 DGRBM 1-288
c.195 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 sends a strong body of auxiliaries to help Flamininus against Nabis of Sparta. 195 DGRBM 3-284
c.195 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS, with allies from all Greek states except Aetolia, invades Laconia, attacks Nabis of Sparta. 195 May CAH 8-190, DGRBM 2-162
c.195 PLEISTAINOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 196, ends.  Successor unknown until 194. 195 wikEA
c.195 L. Quinctius FLAMININUS, Roman fleet commander, with 40 ships, helps bro against Nabis of Sparta by taking several coastal towns, then sails to Gythion, where Sparta stores weapons. 195 DGRBM 2-162
c.195 EUMENES-II of Pergamum sends fleet to help Flamininus against Nabis of Sparta. 195 DGRBM 2-90
c.195 AGESIPOLIS former king A-III of Sparta 219-15, leads Spartan exiles who join Flamininus attacking Nabis. 195 DGRBM 1-71
c.195 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS, with allies from all Greek states except Aetolia, advances to Argos, fails to surprise it, devastates Laconia.  Most fighting is at sea. 195 CAH 8-190, atl2
c.195 GYTHION, arsenal town of Sparta, under garrison commander Gorgopas, besieged by T. Flamininus, and blockaded by fleet of L. Flamininus, surrenders. 195 B76 V-976, DGRBM 2-162, DGRG 2-112, wikNb
c.195 Laconian coastal cities which had sided with Romans are taken from Sparta by T. Quinctius Flamininus, and given to Achaean League. 195 B76 V-976, DGRG 2-112
c.195 PERIOIKOI, an autonomous group of free but non-citizen inhabitants of Sparta are liberated by T. Quinctius Flamininus.  Sparts becomes a modest provincial town. 195 CDCC 839, no date: wikPr
c.195 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 sails from Thrace to Ephesus to meet Hannibal. 195
CAH 8-191
c.195 NABIS, usurper of Sparta 206-192, surrenders to Flamininus, cedes all property taken from Messenians back to them, cedes Argos, Argolis, Cretan possessions, and coastal towns to Greeks, plus 500 talents and hostages to Flamininus. 195 B76 15-1094, CAH 8-191, DGRG 2-345, SORH, atl2
c.195 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS, having conquered Sparta, insists that Sparta remain independent, i.e. not in Achaean League. 195 B76 15-1094
c.195 ARGOS, under Nabis of Sparta from 198, returned to Achaeans, joins Achaean League. 195 CAH 8-191, LEWH 92, SORH, atl2
c.195 ARISTOPHANES of Byzantium, becomes chief librarian of Byzantium until 180. 195 B76 I-515
c.195 CYTHERA island, under Sparta from 386, no longer so. 195 OCD 308
c.195 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS, recommends that senate recall army.  Senate agrees. 195
CAH 9-192
c.195/4 ERATOSTHENES of Cyrene, mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, music theorist, age 80, dies in Alexandria.
c.194 EUBOEA, mostly under Macedonia from ?, taken by Romans.  Cities given independence. 194 DGRG 1-873
c.194 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 sails from Ephesus back to Thrace. 194
CAH 8-199
c.194 DIONYSIOS becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 193. 194 wikEA
c.194 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS, addresses Greeks at a congress at Corinth, and announces withdrawal of Roman forces. 194 DGRBM 2-165, LdHR 2-33, atl2
c.194 THRACE comes under Antiochus-III Megas king of Syria 194 lvA
c.194 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas, king of Syria, protects Byzantium against Thracians. 194 atl2
c.194 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS in Greece from 198, withdraws all legions from Greece voluntarily, sails from Oricum to Brundisium, in Italy until 193. 194 B76 IV-171, 8-384, 15-1093, CAH 8-192, CDCC 350, DGRBM 2-165, LdHR 2-34, OCD 928, OHG, SORH, bk
c.194 PHILOPOEMEN, Achaean patriot, in Crete, from 200, returns to Greece.  The Megalopolitans are so angry at him for leaving them when his services were needed, that they nearly pass a decree depriving him of citizenship.  They are prevented by Aristaenos, general of the league. 194 B76 15-1094, DGRBM 3-319
c.194 Spartan garrison of Nabis, in Argos from ?, expelled by Archippos. 194 DGRBM 1-273
c.194 AETOLIAN LEAGUE decides to claim their alleged rights by war, make Thoas their strategos. 194
CAH 8-203
c.193 HEGESIANAX and MENIPPUS, envoys of Antiochus-III are sent from Thrace to Rome. 194/3 CAH 8-278     193 B76 IV-171, 8-384, CAH 8-200, DGRBM 2-367, 864, 1041, GHH, atl2
c.193 DIONYSIOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 194, ends.  PHANARCHIDES succeeds until 192. 193 wikEA
c.193 Aetolian League holds council at Naupactos.  Aetolian strategos Thoas urges Aetolians to war with Rome, and to send embassies to Philip-V and Antiochus-III. 193 CAH 8-280, DGRBM 3-1104
c.193 Envoys P. Sulpicius Galba, T. Villius Tappulus, and P. Aelius Paetus, return from Ionia for Rome by way of Greece. 193 CAH 8-279-80
c.193 Aetolian NICANDER sent as envoy to Philip-V, to urge him to join the league.  Unsuccessful. 193 DGRBM 2-1173
c.193 AETOLIAN LEAGUE invites Philip-V, Nabis of Sparta, and Antiochus-III to join them in war against Rome. 193 CAH 8-203, GHH 192 B76 8-384
c.193 AETOLIAN LEAGUE stirs up anti-Roman feelings in Greece. 193 CAH 8-280, atl2 192 B76 8-384
c.193 ACHAEAN LEAGUE prepares for war with Nabis of Sparta, elects PHILOPOEMEN their strategos until 183. 193 CAH 8-204
192 DGRBM 3-319
c.193 HEGESIANAX, LYSIAS, and MENIPPUS, envoys of Antiochus-III return from Italy by way of Greece, visit Delphi which is still controlled by the Aetolians. 193 CAH 8-280
c.193 Aetolian League sends DAMOCRITOS to NABIS of Sparta, to urge Nabis to make war on Romans. 193 DGRBM 1-936
c.193 NABIS, usurper king of Sparta 207-192, breaks treaty with Rome, incites his former possessions to rebel against Achaeans, regains all cities except Gytheum Laconia. 193 CAH 8-204
c.193 CARNEADES of Cyrene, extreme skeptic philosopher, comes to Athens. 193 MCAW
c.193/2 THOAS, strategos of Aetolian League, sails to Ephesus to meet Antiochus-III, urges his intervention in GreeceAntiochus agrees and sends rep Menippus back with Thoas to declare his intentions, thinking this will make Rome back down. 193 CAH 8-280, GHH 193/2 CAH 8-205-6 192 DGRBM 2-1041, 3-1104
c.192 Byzantium sides with Romans against Antiochus-III. 192 SORH
c.192 PHILOPOEMEN, strategos of Achaean League 193-83, invades Laconia, defeats Nabis of Sparta at Mt. Barbosthenes.  Almost destroys Nabis' army, blockades him in Sparta, ravages Laconia. 193/2 B76 VII-951, MCAW
192 CAH 8-204, GHH, atl2, wikNb
c.192 PHANARCHIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 193, ends.  DIODOTOS succeeds until 191. 192 wikEA
c.192 Megara defects from Boeotia and joins Achaean League. 192 atl2
c.192 Diophanes of Megalopolis serves under Philopoemen in fighting against Nabis. 192 atl2
c.192 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS, P. Villius Tappulus, and 2 other envoys return to Greece.  Flamininus imposes truce between Achaeans and Nabis 194 B76 IV-171
193 CAH 8-280
192 CAH 8-204, LdHR 2-38
c.192 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS goes to Aetolia to try to win them over.  Damocritos and the Aetolian majority oppose him. 192 DGRBM 1-936
c.192 MENIPPUS, rep of Antiochus-III, tells Assembly of Aetolian League (Flamininus present) that Antiochus-III will join Aetolians in restoring true freedom to Greece  (i.e. freedom from Romans).  Flamininus is barely permitted to speak.  His suggestion to negotiate in Rome rather than to involve Antiochus is answered by a decree, passed after he had withdrawn, inviting Antiochus to free Greece and to arbitrate between Rome and Aetolia. 192 B76 15-1093, CAH 8-206, 280-1, CDCC 31, atl2
c.192 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS negotiates with Antiochus-III, warns him not to interfere with the Greek states. 192 wikTQF
c.192 Roman envoys, including Gn. Servilius Caepio(2), P. Villius Tappulus, tour Greek cities, in an attempt to retain their support against Antiochus-III. 192 DGRBM 1-533, 3-975, atl2
c.192 Cruelty of Nabis at Sparta forces many of his opponents into exile. 192 atl2
c.192 NABIS, usurper king of Sparta 207-192, appeals to Aetolian League to send troops so that he might protect his territory against Romans and Achaean League. 192 wikNb
c.192 AETOLIANS, impatiently awaiting arrival of Antiochus-III, plan surprise attack on Achaeans.  Aetolian Diocles is to take Demetrias, Thoas to take Chalcis, Alexamenos to replace Nabis in Sparta, an ineffective ally. 192
B76 15-1093, CAH 8-206, 281
c.192 Aetolian praetor Thoas tries on his own account to reduce the important fortress of Chalcis. 192 DGRBM 3-1104
c.192 MENIPPUS, agent of Antiochus-III, commanding 3000 men to aid in intercepting all rescuers sent to Chalcis Euboea by Eumenes-II of Pergamum and the Achaeans, who contrived, however, to throw aid into the town before the passage there by sea and land had been barred by Syrian forces.  But, after Menippus had occupied the road to Antis, 500 Roman soldiers, also destined for the relief of Chalcis, arrive, and find themselves obliged to turn aside to Delium.  Here they are suddenly attacked by Menippus, and all slain except about 50, who are captured. 192 DGRBM 2-1041
c.192 ALEXAMENOS strategos of Aetolian League 196-92, marches to Sparta. 192 DGRBM 1-110
c.192 MICTIO, a pro-Roman leader in Chalcis Euboea opposed to the Aetolian party, defends Chalcis by a league between Chalcidians, Eretrians, and Carystians.  He rejects proposals of the Aetolians to remain neutral between Antiochus-III and Romans. 192 DGRBM 2-1083
c.192 MENESTAS of Epirus is one of the chief instigators of the Aetolians to their war, in conjunction with Antiochus-III, against Romans. 192 DGRBM 2-1041
192 NABIS dies.  Usurper king of Sparta from 206, ineffective ally of Aetolians, receives 1,000 inf and 300 cav from Alexamenos, which he believes to be reinforcements, murdered by Aetolian agent Alexamenos, who takes over Sparta, and is soon killed by Spartans. 192 B76 VII-157, 8-384, CAH 8-207, CDCC 603, DGRG 1-16, 110, Dur 2-570, GHH, LdHR 2-38, LEWH 92, atl2, wikNb
c.192 Magnesia sides with Antiochus-III against Romans. 192 SORH
c.192 DEMETRIAS Magnesia, under Romans from 196, surprised and taken by Aetolian Diocles, who kills the leader of the pro-Roman party, and restores anti-Roman Eurylochos as leader until 191. 192 CAH 8-207, DGRG 1-769, atl2
CONFUSION ALERT!  There are 3 MAGNESIAs:  a region in Thessaly, and 2 cities in Lydia:  on the Meander near the coast, and ad Sipylum northeast of Sardis.
c.192 EUTHYMIDAS of Chalcis Euboea is expelled by the pro-Roman party.  He trise unsuccessfully to bring it under the Aetolians. 192 DGRBM 2-124
c.192 Aetolian THOAS, is repulsed at Chalcis. 192 atl2
c.192 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, with only 10,000 men crosses Hellespont from Abydos into Thrace. 192 LdHR 2-35
c.192 Aetolian THOAS, after failing to take Chalcis, hurries to Thrace to inform Antiochus-III of success of other Aetolians, and grossly exaggerate the enthusiasm for Antiochus in GreeceAntiochus is unprepared and hesitates. 192 CAH 8-207, 281
c.192 LYSIMACHIA Thrace, having been destroyed by Philip-V, ordered rebuilt by Antiochus-III. 192 LdHR 2-35
c.192 Praetor A. Atilius SERRANUS is a fleet commander with 30 quinqueremes until 191, and sent with 2 legions from Italy to Peloponnese under pretext of helping the Achaeans against Nabis of Sparta, but really to threaten Antiochus-III. 192 CAH 8-280, 282, DGRBM 2-165, 3-788, SORH
c.192 Praetor A. Atilius SERRANUS recovers Gytheum Laconia and other coastal towns from Nabis. 192 CAH 8-204, OCD 143
c.192 PHILOPOEMEN, strategos of Achaean League 193-83, sees Sparta in anarchy, and with approval of Flamininus, siezes it, joins it to Achaean League until 189, promising no interference in Spartan government. 192 B76 15-1094, CAH 8-207, 291, DGRG 1-16, 2-1026, GHH, IDB 4-431 191 DGRBM 3-320, GHH
c.192 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, with only 10,000 inf, 500 cav, 6 elephants, accompanied by Hannibal sails from Thrace? to Demetrias Thessaly, expecting Philip-V to join him, and expecting his main force in spring.  Meets Aetolians at Lamia, disappoints his allies because of small army.  Many cities waver. 193/2 MCAW
192 B76 1-994, 8-384, CAH 8-208-9, 281, CDCC 53, DGRBM 1-197, 3-232, DGRG 2-677, GHH, SHWC 109, SORH, TTPC, atl2, bk
c.192 ANTIOCHUS-III, now in Greece, wins Philip-V to his interests by pretending to regard him as the rightful heir to the Macedonian throne, and holding out to him hopes of establishing him upon it. 192 DGRBM 3-271
c.192 EUBOEA taken and occupied by Antiochus-III until 191. 192 B76 1-994, OCD 412, atl2
c.192 CHALCIS Euboea taken by Antiochus-III. 192 GHH, SORH
c.192 Elean Callistratos approaches Antiochus-III at Chalcis Euboea to ask aid for Elis against Achaeans.  Antiochus-III sends Elis 1,000 men under Euphanes the Cretan. 192 DGRBM 1-578
c.192 SENATE declares war on Antiochus-III, sends M. Baebius Tamphilus with only a few troops to Illyria to see which way Philip-V will go. 192 B76 1-825, 8-384, CAH 8-212, CHJ 2, OCD 159, OHG, atl2, bk, lvA
190 DGRG 2-1187
c.192 M. Baebius Tamphilus meets Philip-V in Dassaretis Epirus during winter.  Baebius tacitly agrees that Philip-V might keep such places as he captures from the Aetolians and their allies. 192
CAH 8-283
c.192 Senate declares war on Antiochus-III.
ROME / SYRIA WAR begins until 189.
192 B76 1-825, CHJ 2, OHG, atl2, bk, lvA3     191 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-271,     190 DGRG 2-1187
c.192 CHAROPS, a chief of Epirus, is sent to Antiochus-III who is wintering at Chalcis Euboea to point out that Epirus is more exposed to Roman attack than Greece, and to ask him to excuse Epirus from siding with him unless he is able and willing to protect them.  Charops continues to the end of his life to cultivate the friendship of the Romans, and sends his grandson Charops to Rome for education after his son Machatas died. 192 DGRBM 1-690, wikCE
no date: CAH 8-283
c.192 Aetolians appoint Antiochus-III their general against the Romans. 192 atl2
c.192 Achaean League refuses to support Antiochus-III. 192 atl2
c.192 A Roman army detachment is defeated at Delium by troops of Antiochus-III, DELIUM, a small place with a celebrated temple of Apollo, on the coast in the territory of Tanagra in Boeotia. 192 DGRG 1-757
c.192 Boeotians and others support Antiochus-III. 192 atl2
c.192 EPIDROMOS leader of Thessalians for only 8 months, is replaced by EUNOMOS. 192 atl2
c.192 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 holds a council at Demetrias Magnesia.  Hannibal is present, but Antiochus fails to follow his advice, prefering that of Alexander the Acarnanian. 192 atl2
c.192 Rome / Aetolia War begins until 189.  Aetolia declares war. 192 B76 I-117, LEWH 92
c.192 T. Quinctius FLAMINIUS heads an embassy sent by senate back to Greece until 190.  They arrive in Greece before Atilius, and advise the Greeks to do nothing until the fleet arrives. 192 DGRBM 2-165
c.192 On beginning of war with Rome, Aetolian Archedamos goes to Achaeans to get help. 192 DGRBM 1-260
c.192 CHALCIS Euboea surprised by Romans who kill the inhabitants, but they have an insuficient force to occupy it permanently. 192 DGRG 1-600
c.192 GREECE SPLITS.  Philip-V, Achaean League, and Athens join Rome.  Elis, Boeotia, Amynander of Athamania, Messenia join Antiochus-III. 192 B76 8-384, SORH
c.192 M. Baebius Tamphilus and Philip-V join forces to fight enemies in Thessaly. 192 Dec CAH 8-213, GHH
c.192/1 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas, king of Syria, wintering at Chalcis, marries Euboea, dau of local Chalcidian Cleoptolemos. 192 DGRBM 1-803, GHH     191 atl2
c.192/1 M. Baebius Tamphilus is able to garrison Larissa, just as Antiochus-III is preparing to storm it. 192/1
CAH 8-283
c.191 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, accompanied by Hannibal captures many Thessalian cities, but fails to captures Larissa. 191 atl2
c.191 Appius CLAUDIUS PULCHER serves under M. Baebius until he leaves, and then under Glabrio until 1??. 191 DGRBM 1-769
c.191 Consul M' ACILIUS GLABRIO, with 20,000 inf, 2,000 cav, 15 elephants, sails from Brundisium to Apollonia Illyria, marches toward Thessaly.  He is in the area until 190.  Ti. Sempronius Longus is his legate.  M. Porcius Cato Censorinus is tribune under him, and remains in Greece until later 191. 191 B76 II-645, 1-994, Feb CAH 8-213, 454, DGRBM 1-639, 2-806, Dur 3-102, SORH, atl2
c.191 PHERAE Thessaly taken first by Antiochus-III, but recovered by M' Acilius Glabrio before the year is out. 191 DGRG 2-352, 595, 933
c.191 CRANNON Thessaly taken by Antiochus-III. 191 DGRG 1-699, 2-352
c.191 CYPAERA and METROPOLIS Thessaly taken by Antiochus-III after Crannon. 191 DGRG 2-352
c.191 CYRETIAE and ERITIUM in Perraebia taken by Antiochus-III, but recovered by M. BAEBIUS and Philip-V in same year. 191 DGRG 1-736, 850, 2-352
c.191 SCOTUSSA Thessaly, taken by Antiochus-III, then recovered by consul M' Acilius Glabrio. 191 DGRG 2-933
c.191 THAUMACI in Phthiotis Thessaly taken by consul M' Acilius Glabrio. 191 DGRG 2-1137
c.191 PROERNA in Phthiotis Thessaly, taken by Antiochus-III, then recovered by consul M' Acilius Glabrio. 191 DGRG 2-671
c.191 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, proceeds to Larissa. 191 DGRG 2-352
c.191 PELINNA Thessaly occupied by Athamanians, but soon recovered by Romans. 191 DGRG 2-568
c.191 DIODOTOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 192, ends.  TIMOUCHOS succeeds until 190. 191 wikEA
c.191 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, accompanied by Hannibal returns from Thessaly to Euboea to spend Feb. at headquarters at Chalcis. 191
CAH 8-212
c.191 MNASILOCHOS, a chief of the Acarnanians, is bribed by Antiochus-III. 191 DGRBM 2-1105
c.191 ACARNANIA, persuaded by chief Mnasilochos, sides with Antiochus-III, against Romans. 191 DGRG 1-10
c.191 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 sends ambassadors to Rome, with offers of support against Antiochus-III, who is now in Greece. 191 DGRBM 3-284
c.191 PHARSALOS Thessaly, under Antiochus-III from ?, surrenders to M' Acilius Glabrio. 191 DGRG 2-590, 933
c.191 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, marches to Acarnania because he has partisans there.  He learns that Philip-V, with Roman approval, is fast reconquering the Thessalian cities from him, and that Glabrio has entered north Thessaly. 191 Mar CAH 8-213, LdHR 2-40
c.191 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria occupies most of Acarnania. 191 atl2
c.191 Aetolians, after all their promises to Antiochus-III, now send him only 4,000 troops to Acarnania. 191 LdHR 2-40
c.191 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria disappointed in Acarnania, starts moving east, sends messages to his admiral Polyxenidas to send more troops. 191 LdHR 2-40
c.191 BAEBIUS and GLABRIO expell Syrians and Aetolians from south Thessaly and and capture numerous towns.  Philip-V expells Syrians and Aetolians from north Thessaly and and captures many towns. 191 CAH 8-214, LdHR 2-41, atl2
c.191 Aetolian envoy NICANDER falls into the hands of Philip-V, by whom he is treated with unexpected kindness. 191 DGRBM 2-1173
c.191 LIMNAEA in Histiaeotis Thessaly taken by Romans. 191 DGRG 2-192
c.191 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria captures son of Scipio Africanus. 191 atl2
c.191 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria occupies and fortifies pass at Thermopylae.  He sends his Aetolians to guard the mountain pass, so as not to be encircled like Leonidas 480.  These Aetolians are more concerned with plundering Trachinian Heraclea. 191
B76 IX-949, LdHR 2-40, SORH, atl2
c.191 Manius Acilius GLABRIO, arrives at Thermopylae, camps at the old Persian campground, sends M. Cato and L. V. Flaccus to force their way over the mountain pass. 192 LdHR 2-40-1
c.191 Manius Acilius GLABRIO, with M. Cato and L. V. Flaccus defeat Antiochus-III and Aetolians at THERMOPYLAE by repeating the Persian maneuver of 480. 192 MCAW     191 B76 II-645, 1-994, 8-384, 15-1093, CAH 8, CDCC 53, 172, DGRBM 1-197, 2-166, GHH, HRR, LdHR 2-41, LEWH 92, OCD 440, 467, Sdl 5-237, SORH, TTPC, atl2, bk
c.191 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, with 500 remaining troops flees from Thermopylae to Chalcis Euboea. 191 B76 1-994, LdHR 2-41, SORH
c.191 Buplagus, a soldier of Antiochus who was killed at Thermopylae, comes back to life and foretells Romans' success in Anatolia. 191 atl2
c.191 DAMOCRITOS, strategos of Aetolian League, is defeated by Romans at Heraclea near Mt. Oeta, and captured.  He and other leading Aetolians are sent to Rome. 191 DGRBM 1-936
c.191 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, flees from Chalcis Euboea to Ephesus.  But Aetolians continue to fight Glabrio. 191 Apr CAH 8, SORH, atl2
c.191 Aetolian envoys NICANDER and Thoas sent to Antiochus-III, now at Ephesus, to beg assistance.  They succeed.  12 days later they return to Phalara, on the Maliac Gulf of Thessaly. 191 DGRBM 2-1173
c.191 Trachinian HERACLEA west of Thermopylae, now under Aetolians, besieged by Manius Acilius GLABRIO 24 days and taken. 191 DGRBM 3-232, DGRG 2-1218, atl2
c.191 After fall of Heraclea, Aetolians send an embassy under Phaeneas to surrender to Glabrio.  But Phaeneas makes exorbitant demands, and the war is continued, though the Romans are first diverted against Antiochus-III. 191 DGRBM 3-232
c.191 After defeat of Antiochus-III, Aetolian Archedamos goes to Glabrio to sue for peace. 191 DGRBM 1-260
c.191 M. Porcius CATO, in Greece 191, sent by Glabrio to Rome to report victory. 191 LdHR 2-41, atl2
c.191 After defeat of defeat Antiochus-III, Epirus, Boeotia, Elis, Messenia make peace with Glabrio. 191 SORH
c.191 FLACCUS, dispached by Acilius Glabrio to subdue Aetolians. 191 LdHR 2-41
c.191 Acilius GLABRIO besieges Naupactos, naval base of Aetolians.  T. Flamininus arrives in his camp, and reminds him that Aetolia is necessary to maintain balance of power against Philip-VGlagrio abandons the siege. 191 LdHR 2-41
c.191 When the Aetolians sue for peace, M' Acilius Glabrio demands that Menestas of Epirus be delivered up, but the demand is not complied with. 191 DGRBM 2-1041
c.191 Aetolian envoy NICANDER reaches Hypata Aetolia when the Aetolians are deliberating peace, and by bringing some money from Antiochus-III, and the promise of further aid, he succeeds in persuading them to refuse the terms proposed by the Romans. no date: DGRBM 2-1174
c.191 Aetolians reject Roman peace terms. 191 atl2
c.191 DELPHI, under Aetolians from 290, freed by Romans until 188.  The amphictyony is reconstituted as a pro-Roman body. 191 rcSB3
191-88 CAH 8-302
c.191 ZAKYNTHOS island west of Peloponnese, under Philip from ?, siezed by Romans until ?. 191 B76 X-853, DGRG 2-1335, LdHR 2-42
c.191 T. Quinctius FLAMININUS orders Diophanes, general of Achaean League, to abandon siege of Messene, and stop fighting with Messenia and Elis, then orders Messenia and Elis to join Achaean League. 191 LdHR 2-41, atl2
c.191 CHALCIS Euboea votes divine honors to T. Quinctius Flamininus.  Other Greek cities follow suit. 191 CDCC 772
c.191 MESSENIA joins Achaean League. 191 DGRG 1-16
c.191 ELIS joins Achaean League. 191 DGRG 1-16
c.191 Aetolians, besieged in Naupactos by Glabrio agree to a truce.  Aetolian envoys including Pantaleon convey message to Glabrio.  Aetolians send embassy to Rome. 191 DGRBM 3-113, SORH, atl2
c.191 Aristaenos urges Achaean League to follow Romans' advice and restore Spartan exiles, but Philopoemen refuses to allow it. 191 atl2
c.191 AMYNANDER king of Athamania from ?, ally of Antiochus-III, ousted until 189 by Philip-V.  Flees with wife & kids to Ambracia. 191
OCD 56
c.191 ATHAMANIA overrun by Romans. 191 SORH
c.191 DEMETRIAS Magnesia, under Eurylochos and Aetolians from 192, taken by Philip-V, under Macedonia until 168. 191 DGRG 1-769, OCD 325
c.191 Eunomus retains his position as leader of Thessalians for another year. 191 atl2
c.191 DEMETRIUS, 2nd son of Philip-V, hostage in Rome from 196, returns to Philip-V, in Macedonia until 184. 191 atl2
no date: B76 15-1094

Balkan Peninsula 190-171