Asia Go to Balkans Go to Europe Go to Anatolia Go to Syria - Armenia Go to Mesopotamia Go to Persia Go to India Go to East Asia
c.200 West Ukraine (later Ruthenia), under La Tene Gauls from 300, comes under Dacians until 225CE. 200 rcU
c.200 SCYTHIANS withdraw to Crimea, make capital at Neapolis, impose heavy tribute on Greek colonies. 200 T1H
c.200 DAGESTAN, between Caucasus and Caspian coast, under the Legae or Durdzuks from ?, comes under Alans until 360CE. 200 rcCau
c.200 OLBIA, republic on north coast of Black Sea from 500, becomes a vassal to Scythians until 107. 200 rcU
c.200 EUTHYDEMOS, king of Bactria & Sogdiana from 223, ends.  Sons DEMETRIUS-I and EUTHYDEMOS-II succeed together until 190.  Their realm includes Sogdiana, Ferghana, Margiana, and Aria to the south or east. 200 CAH 8-420, CDCC 17, MRDK 392, OCD 158, 347, frH, rcCAS, wikGB
200/195 hifiB
190 HCIP 2-105
c.200 Area presently called MOLDAVIA, northwest of Black Sea, under La Tene Celts from 280, comes under the Bastarnae until 50. 200 rcEB
c.200 HYGIAENON, 5th Spartocid king of Bosporus from 220, ends.  SPARTOCUS-V succeeds until 180. 200 CAH 6-503, MRDK, rcCrm     215 OCD 1008
c.200 Arsacid Parthians firmly established between Caspian Gate and region of Meshed east of Hyrcania. by 200 RAI3 418
c.200 GANDAHAR, under Seleucids from 240, comes under Bactria until 175. 200 rcCAS
CONFUSION ALERT!  KANDAHAR is in Arachosia.  GANDAHAR is in Gandara.
c.195 EUTHYDEMOS-II, Seleucid ruler in Bactria 200-190, makes ANTIMACHOS-I co-king. 195
CAH 8-420
c.190 EUTHYDEMOS-II, son of E-I, Seleucid ruler in Bactria from 200, dies.  Co-king ANTIMACHOS-I continues 195-80.  Co-king DEMETRIUS-I continues 200-185. 190 CAH 8-420, CDCC 17, MRDK 392, frH, rcCAS
189 RAH 410     185-80 hifiB
c.190 After 190 there is no sign that any Bactrian ruler was a dependent of the Seleucid king.  Bactria and the adjacent satrapies, Sogdiana, Margiana, and Aria are lost to the king of Syria, while remaining under independent Seleucids. 190 CAH 8-351
c.185 GANDARA conquered by DEMETRIUS & MENANDER, Seleucid kings of Bactria. 185 lvGan, wikGn 184 livB
c.185 East PUNJAB conquered by DEMETRIUS & MENANDER, Seleucid kings of Bactria. 185 TAWH 17, wikGn     184 livB
c.185 DEMETRIUS-I, son of Euthydemus-I, Seleucid co-king in Bactria-Sogdiana from 200, dies.  Son PANTALEON succeeds until 175. 185 CAH 8-420, CDCC 17, MRDK 392, OCD 158, 325, frH     180 hifiB     171 wikMKI
c.185 ANTIMACHOS-I, Seleucid co-king in Bactria from 195, ends.  Son DEMETRIUS-II Antiketos succeeds until 175.  Co-king PANTALEON continues 185-80. 185 CAH 8-420,     180 B76 9-353, CDCC 17, MRDK 392, OCD 158, frH, rcCAS
c.185 COINS with both Greek and Indian writing appear from Bactria to Taxila until 170. 185 wikGB
c.180 SPARTOCUS-V, son of Leucon-II, 6th Spartocid king of Bosporus from 200, ends.  Bro PAERISADES-III succeeds until 150. 180 MRDK 271, rcCrm
c.180 Southern Afghanistan is absorbed by Demetrius-II of Bactria. 180 wikGn
c.180 Seleucid Bactrians militarily occupy parts of Mauryan north India. 180 wikGB 175 bk
c.180 PANTALEON, son of Demetrius-I, Seleucid ruler in Bactria-Sogdiana from 185, ends.  AGATHOCLES succeeds until 165. 190 wikGB
180 CAH 8-420, rcCAS 175 MRDK 392, frH
c.175 COMASARYE, son of ??, 4th Spartocid king of Bosporus from 215, ends. 175
OCD 1008
c.175 BAGHUR (called Mao-Tun by Chinese) chanyu (chief) of the Xiongnu, orders his son Laoshang, Wise King of the Right, to attack the Yuezhi again on an greater scale.  This time the Yuezhi are routed.  After this defeat the Yuezhi could no longer hold their position in Kansu corridor, and split into 2 groups: the Great and Small Yuezhi.  The Small Yuezhi retreat into the southern Chilien Mountains (bordering the Kansu corridor), and mix with the Chiang people.  The Great Yuezhi go west and settle in the Ili River valley. 177 ICMH 139     175 CHEIA 127, spks
c.175 DEMETRIUS-II, son of Antimachus, Seleucid ruler in Bactria-Sogdiana from 185, deposed by Eucratides.  Bro AGATHOCLES continues 180-65. 180 CAH 8-420, wikGB     175 CDCC 17, CHI 554, frH     165 MRDK 392, frH
c.175 GANDAHAR, under Bactria from 200, comes under Parthia until 80. 175 rcCAS
CONFUSION ALERT!  KANDAHAR is in Arachosia.  GANDAHAR is in Gandara.
c.173 The WUSUN are overrun by the YUEZHI.  Nandoumi, kunmo (chief) of the Wusun, is killed.  Some time later, his infant son Liejiaomi is left in the wild.  According to a legend in the  Hanshu  (a sequel to Sima Qian's Shiji ), Liejiaomi is suckled by a she-wolf and fed meat by ravens.  Liejiaomi will be eventually found by the Xiongnu. 173 spks
c.171 EUCRATIDES, cousin of Antiochus-IV, overthrows Euthydemid dynasty and usurps throne in Bactria until 155. 181 DGRBM 2-75, DGRG 1-365, GHH     175 CHI 554, WNHI 71     171 B76 8-380, CAH 8-420, CDCC 17, HCIP 2-108, MRDK 393, bk, frH, hifiB, wikE1     170 LEWH 96, wikGB, wikE1     170-65 B76 III-988
Coinage proves at least 2 Bactrian kings named Eucratides are incorrectly merged by ancient sources. CAH 8-404
c.171 NISA (18 km southwest of present Ashgabat) Parthia founded by Mithridates-I of Parthia as capital, royal residence, and necropolis. 171 B76 3-1133
c.170 The YUEZHI (Yueh Chih), Indo-Scythians in the Tarim Basin from ?, driven out by the Xiongnu, migrate west to the urban civilization of the "Ta-Yuan" (probably Seleucid possessions in Ferghana), and resettle north of the Oxus until 140. 176 wikYu
170 CAH 12-107, icH     165 HCIP 2-136     162 wikGB
c.170 Oxus treasureA temple on the Oxus river buries its treasure.  It contains about 180 surviving pieces of gold and silver metalwork, including a gold model of a chariot and horses. 170 MCAW
no date: wikOT
c.170 Seleucid Bactrians extend kingdom as far east as the Punjab. 170 wikAfg
c.170 EUCRATIDES, a king in Bactria 171-55, seems to have occupied territory as far east as the Indus, and his successors until 150. 170 wikGB
c.170 Chinese metal exports, particularly iron, for trade is attested by kings Euthydemos, Euthydemos-II, Agathocles, and Pantaleon issuing cupro-nickel (75/25 ratio) coins, an alloy known only by the Chinese at this time under the name "White copper".  Copper-nickel coinage will not be used again until the 19th century. 170 wikGB
c.169 Seleucid army invades Bactria. 169 bk
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 sends cousin EUCRATIDES-I, ruler in Bactria 171-55, to recover the eastern provinces. 169
RAH 412
Both western and Indian sources cite only 8 or 9 Seleucid kings of Bactria, but their coins bear at least 31 names of kings and 2 of queens.  Historians conclude that some names represent more than one king, thus increasing their number to 40 or more.  They cover about 200 years with territories extending, at one time or another, from Sogdiana to the Punjab.  The only way the time and space can be rationalized is by assuming simultaneous rule of multiple kings, not always belonging to the same family, sharing roles of power. CAH 8-394
c.168 EUCRATIDES, a king in Bactria 171-55, defeats Demetrius of India, and annexes his dominions. 168 GHH
c.167 HERAT, city and fertile region in northwest Afghanistan, under Bactria from 256, taken by Parthians until 130. 176 CDCC 647
175 Dur 2-556 167 wikM1P
c.165 AGATHOCLES, son of Demetrius-II, Seleucid ruler in Bactria from 180, killed by EUCRATIDES, who takes over his area until 155. 180 wikGB     175 CHI 643
167 or 65 B76 III-456, 165 B76 9-353, CAH 8-420, CDCC 17, MRDK 392, OCD 158, 326, frH, rcCAS
c.165 MENANDER-I, son of Demetrius-II, becomes ruler of part of Bactria until 130. 165 wikIGK, wikM1
c.163 LO SHANG, chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu 174-60, jointly with the Wusun (a state northeast of the Tien Shan Mountains, which had just been conquered by the Xiongnu), attacks the Great Yuezhi again, kills the king of the Great Yuezhi and makes his skull into a drinking cup.  The Wusun then move into the Hi Valley themselves, while the Great Yuezhi go west to the Ili River Valley near mountain lake, Issyk Kul north of Kang-chu (Sogdiana).  Great Yuezhi drive out the Sakas and remain there until 132. 165 CHI 565, wikYz
163 ICMH 141 162 CHEIA 127, 155, spks, wikHXW 160 ICNH 141
c.159 EUCRATIDES-I, Seleucid king in Bactria 171-55, is defeated by Parthians. 159 atl2
c.156 The WUSUN break away from the Xiongnu. 156 ICHM 142
c.155 EUCRATIDES-I, Seleucid king of Bactria from 171, marching home to Bactria, murdered on a battlefield by a son.  Son PLATO succeeds until 145.  Mother? Agathocleia is regent until ?.  Other son Heliocles-I is rival king until 145. 159 B76 III-988     155 CAH 8-420, CDCC 17, CHI 554, MRDK 393, OCD 158, atl2, bk, frH, rcCAS
150 HCIP 2-110     145 hifiB, wikE1 143 GHH     136 HCIP 2-108
c.155 MENANDER, son of Demetrius-II, king of part of Bactria 165-30, gains control of Gandara and Punjab, becomes king until 130. 165 wikGB     161 wikIGK     155 B76 9-353, CAH 8-420, CDCC 17, MRDK 393, OCD 158, frH, rcCAS
c.150 PAERISADES-III, son of Leucon-II, 7th Spartocid king of Bosporus from 180, ends.  Son PAERISADES-IV succeeds until 125 190 OCD 1008
150 MRDK 271, rcCrm
c.150 SOGDIANA, under Eucratid Bactrians from ?, overrun by Scythians and Yuezhi. 150 wikSog
c.150 Successors of Eucratides in Bactria, having occupied territory as far as the Indus from 170, now lose it. 150 wikGB
c.150 KABUL, under Mauryan India from 312, comes under Menander's part of Bactria until 125. 150 rcCAS
c.147 MITHRIDATES-I, Arsacid king of Parthia 171-38, conquers large areas of the East, as far as borders of India. 147 atl2
c.145 ALEXANDRIA on the Oxus burnt by Yuezhi. 145 wikYz
c.145 PLATO, king in Eucratid Bactria from 155, ends.  Bro Heliocles-I continues until 140. 145 hifiB
c.141 WU TI, Han emperor 140-87, expands into Asia. 141 TAWH 18, 81
c.141 XIONGNU in west Kansu pushed west by the Han. 141 B76 9-597
c.141 Seleucid-Bactrians seem to have allied with Demetrius-II to fight again against Parthians. 141 wikGB
c.140 YUEZHI (Yueh Chih, called TOCHARIANS in the West), of central Asia from 170, driven south by Xiongnu, establish kingdom in Transoxiana, clash with Sakas in Sogdiana. 150 LEWH 96
141 B76 9-597, icH 131 TAWH 78
c.141 HYRCANIA, under Parthia from ?, invaded by Bactrians until 140. 141 CAH 8-580, Sdl 5-332
c.140 Bactrians, in Hyrcania from 141, driven out by Mithridates-I, of Parthia, who then returns to Babylonia. 140 CAH 8-580 139 CAH 8-528
c.140 Part of the Massagetae tribal alliance, headed by the Turkish Usunes, invades Bactria, defeats the Seleucid-Bactrian army and settles on its territory. 140 vrb
c.140 AI KHANOUM, Seleucid-Bactrian city, possibly the historical Alexandria on the Oxus, destroyed by nomadic invaders, probably Scythians. 145 wikAK 140 wikGB
c.140 HELIOCLES-I, son of Eucratides-I, Seleucid ruler of Eucratid Bactria from 155, sole ruler from 145, probably the last Seleucid-Bactrian to rule on both sides of the Oxus, ends.  Son EUCRATIDES-II succeeds until 130. 143 GHH     140 CAH 8-413, CHEIA 161, MRDK 393, OCD 158, frH, rcCAS     130 hifiB     125 CAH 8-420
c.138 Pushed by the Yuezhi, some Scythians (Saka, or Sacaraucae of Seleucid sources), cross the Oxus at points near its central bend and, moving westward, harass the Parthians until 124. 140 wikGB
138 CAH 8-413
c.138 MITHRIDATES-I, Arsacid king of Parthia 171-38, occupies Indian territory between the Indus and the Hydaspes. 138 wikGB
c.135 BACTRIA destroyed by Parthians, Scythians, Yuezhi, and Turkish tribes.  All Bactria is occupied by different nomadic tribes.  Cities are plundered and depopulated. 136 DGRG 2-49
135 icH, vrb
127 DGRBM 2-373
c.132 The WUSUN under Liejiaomi, out of revenge from a conflict in 173, and backed by Xiongnu, attack the Yuezhi. 132 wikYz
c.132 The YUEZHI, in the Ili River Valley near mountain lake, Issyk Kul north of Kang-chu (Sogdiana) from 163, driven out by the Wusun, move south across the urban civilization of Dayuan in Ferghana and settle on the north bank of the Oxus, in Transoxiana until 131. 132 spks, wikYz     130 wikWs
c.131 The YUEZHI, in Ferghana from 132, move into Sogdiana. 131 spks
c.130 SOGDIANA, under Bactria from 256, comes under Scythians until 20. 130 rcCAW
c.130 PHRAATES-II, Arsacid king of Parthia from 138-28, fights Sakas until ?. 130 CAH 9-581-2, GHH
c.130 EUCRATIDES-II, son of Heliocles-I, king of Eucratid Bactria from 140, ends.  Son ARCHEBIUS succeeds until 120. 130 CAH 8-413, 420, rcCAS
c.130 MENANDER-I, son of Demetrius-II, king of part of Bactria from 165, Gandara and Punjab from 155, dies.  Son ARCHEBIUS succeeds until 120.  Dynasty retains east Punjab until 75.  There are no historical recordings of events in the Indo-Seleucid kingdom after Menander's death. 155 wikGB     140 wikGn
135 B76 VI-780     130 B76 9-353, CAH 8-411, 420, CDCC 17, MRDK 393, OCD 158, bk, frH, rcCAS, wikGB, wikIGK, wikM1
c.130 ZOILUS-I, son of Demetrius-I, becomes ruler of part of Bactria until 125. 130
CAH 8-420
c.130 AGATHOCLEIA and STRATO-I, son of Menander, become rulers of part of Bactria until 120. 130
CAH 8-420
c.130 SAKAS, ousted by the Yuezhi, move into Bactria. 128 MCAW, lvGan
c.130 YUEZHI (Yueh Chih, called TOCHARIANS in the West), in Sogdiana from 140, occupy Bactria, subjugate Seleucids. 130 GHH, atl2, frH, icH 128 B76 9-597, icH
Central Asian Kushans 130 wikGn
c.130 POLYXENUS & EPANDER, Seleucid rulers in Bactria from ?, end.  ANTIMACHUS-II succeeds until 125.  ARCHEBIUS succeeds until 120.  STRATO-I succeeds until 95. 130 MRDK 393, frH, rcCAS
c.130 SAMARKAND, under Bactria from 256, comes under northern nomads until 20. 130 rcCAW
c.130 HERAT, city and fertile region in northwestern Afghanistan, under Parthia from 167, comes under northern nomads until 30. 130 rcCAS
c.130 Seleucid-Bactrian kingdom destroyed by Sakas and Yuezhi.  Splinter kingdoms remain until ?. 130 livB
c.128 PHRAATES-II dies.  6th Arsacid king of Parthia from 138, killed fighting Sakas.  Uncle ARTABANUS-II succeeds until 124, futilly fighting invasion of Sakas. 128 B76 VII-971, 9-843, CAH 9, DGRBM 1-355, HCIP 2-121, MRDK 381, OCD 123, RAI2, RAI3, atl2, hifiP     127 LEWH 95, wikP
c.125 CHANG CHIEN (Zhang Qian), explorer for Han emperor 138-26, visits Yuezhi capital in Sogdiana, tries to obtain their alliance to fight the Xiongnu.  They are not interested.  Chang reports that the Yuezhi live 8321,247 km west of Dayuan (Ferghana), north of the Gui (Oxus).  Yuezhi have between 100,000 and 200,000 mounted archers, with customs identical to those of the Xiongnu.  The Sogdians (called Kang-chu by Chinese) are again reduced to quasi-independent status acknowledging nominal sovereignty to the Yuezhi in the south and to the Xiongnu in the east. 129/8
CAH 8-418 128
CHEIA 174 127 wikBk
126 ICMH 149, wikGB, wikYz
125 HCIP 2-137, 139
c.125 CHANG CHIEN, explorer for Han emperor 138-26, introduces apricots and peaches to the west, brings grapes (wine), pomegranites, and walnuts into China. 126 TTS
no date: TTPC
c.125 CHANG CHIEN (Zhang Qian) visits Bactria, reports presence of Chinese products in Bactrian markets.  "When I was in Daxia (Bactria), I saw bamboo canes from Qiong and cloth made in the province of Shu (southwest China).  When I asked the people how they had gotten such articles, they replied, 'Our merchants go buy them in the markets of Shendu (India)'."
He portrays a demoralized country whose political system had vanished, though its urban infrastructure remained.  "Its people cultivate the land and have cities and houses.  Their customs are like those of Dayuan (Ferghana).  It has no great ruler but only a number of petty chiefs ruling various cities.  The people are poor in the use of arms and afraid of battle, but they are clever at commerce.  After the Great Yuezhi moved west and attacked Daxia, the entire country came under their sway.  The population of the country is large, numbering some 1,000,000 or more persons.  The capital is called the city of Lanshi (Bactra) and has a market where all sorts of goods are bought and sold."
126 wikGB
c.125 PAERISADES-IV, son of P-III, 8th Spartocid king of Bosporus from 150, ends.  Son PAERISADES-V succeeds until 108 125 MRDK 271, rcCrm
PAERISADES-IV ends 160.   PAERISADES-V succeeds 150. OCD 1008
c.125 The Yuezhi settle in Bactria. 125 wikYz
c.125 KABUL, under Menander's part of Bactria from 150, comes under Sakas until 50. 125 rcCAS
c.125 ANTIMACHUS-II, son of Demetrius-II, ruler in Bactria from 130, ends.  Son PHILOXENUS succeeds until 115. 125 CAH 8-420, MRDK 393, frH, rcCAS
c.125 ZOILUS-I, son of Demetrius-I, ruler of part of Bactria from 130, ends. 125 CAH 8-420, rcCAS
c.124 ARTABANUS-II dies.  7th Arsacid king of Parthia from 128, killed fighting Sakas.  Son MITHRIDATES-II succeeds until 88.  Other son HIMERUS governs Mesopotamia. 126 GHH, wikP     125 GHH
124 B76 VII-774, CAH 9-584, CHEIA 158, LEWH 96, RAI3, hifiP     124/3 B76 VI-945, 9-843, OCD 123     123 HCIP 2-121, MRDK 381, RAI2, atl2, bk, wikGB     121 wikM2P
c.124 The Yuezhi war against Parthia. 124 wikYz
c.124 MITHRIDATES-II, king of Parthia 124-88, repels invasion of Sakas.  Consolidates Parthia. 124 CAH 9, GHH
c.124 MITHRIDATES-II, king of Parthia 124-88, makes treaty with Rome. 124 obsolete website
94 brit, hwp, thngn
c.122 CHANG CHIEN, explorer for Han emperor Wu Ti from 138, sent west again, goes to Sogdiana. 122 MCAW
c.120 ARCHEBIUS, son of Eucratides-II, ruler in Bactria from 130, ends.  HELIOCLES-II, son of H-I, continues 120-15.  . 125 CAH 8-420
120 CAH 8-413, 420, MRDK 393, frH, rcCAS
c.120 STRATO-I ruler in Bactria 130-95, gains more territory. 120 CAH 8-420
c.120 AGATHOCLEIA and STRATO-I, son of Menander, rulers of part of Bactria from 130, end. 120 CAH 8-420
c.120 YUEZHI (Yueh Chih, called TOCHARIANS in the West), in Transoxiana, begin 2nd expansion southward into Bactria. 120 wikGB
c.120 LYSIAS, son of Zoilus-I, becomes ruler of part of Bactria until 110. 120 CAH 8-420, frH, rcCAS
c.115 CHANG CHIEN, explorer for Han emperor Wu Ti, again goes to secure alliances against the Xiongnu, to central Asia, and to land of Wusun, valley of the Ili river valley southeast of Lake Balkhash.  He tries and fails to persuade the Wusun to relocate. 115 GHCC, wikHXW
c.115 HELIOCLES-II, son of H-I, ruler of Eucratid Bactria from 120, ends.  Son ANTIALCIDAS succeeds until 100. 120 CHI 522     115 CAH 8-413, 420, MRDK 393, frH, rcCAS, wikAnt
c.115 STRATO-I, son of Menander, king of Gandara and Punjab 130-95, makes bro APOLLODOTOS co-ruler until 95. 115 MRDK 393, frH 110 CAH 8-420
c.115 PHILOXENUS, son of Antimacus-II, ruler in Bactria from 125, ends.  ANTIALCIDAS, son of Heliocles-II, succeeds until 100. 130 wikAnt     115 MRDK 393, coin, frH, rcCAS     110 KIH 108
c.115 THASOS, son of ?, becomes a ruler in Bactria until 110. 115 CAH 8-420
c.115 EPANDER, son of ?, becomes a ruler in Bactria until 110. 115 CAH 8-420
c.115/4 Hellenistic Bosporan kingdom of the Crimea, oppressed by Scythians, appeal to Mithridates-VI of Pontus. 114 MCAW
c.114 MITHRADATES-VI of Pontus crosses Black Sea, intervenes in conflict between the Hellenistic Bosporan kingdom and the Scythians north of it. 115/4 lvA 114 MCAW
c.114 MITHRADATES-VI of Pontus drives Scythians from the Tauric Chersonese in Crimea. 114 GHH 112 GHH
c.114 MITHRADATES-VI of Pontus, gets control of the Crimea, including the grain and timber trade around the Black Sea and up the Danube. 114 MCAW
Silk Road
c.114 SILK ROAD crosses central Asia without trespassing on agricultural lands and arousing hostility.  Links Chang'an to Ecbatana, which already has the Royal Road 500 to the Aegean. 129 aheSR     114 wikSR     112 TAWH 18
by 111 The WUSUN of central Asia ask Han for a princess.  Han court complies, thus gaining Wusun as an ally. 110
ICMH 160
c.110 SCYLURUS, Scythian chief, establishes domain at Neapolis in Crimea until 106. 110
B76 16-439
c.110 PAERISADES-V last Spartocid king of Bosporus 125-08, asks help from Mithridates-VI of Pontus. 125
OCD 1008
c.110 GANDARA taken by Sakas. 110 lvGan
c.110 MITHRADATES-VI of Pontus, at invitation of Paerisades Spartocid king of Bosporus, invades Crimea. 110 B76 II-178, OCD 1008, atl2 109 MRDK 271
c.110 BOSPORUS, under Spartocids from 438, taken by Mithridates-VI of Pontus until 81.  Paerisades-V becomes vassal until 108.  Bosporus under Mithridatids until 7CE. 110 B76 II-178, OCD 1008, atl2 109 MRDK 271
c.110 LYSIAS, son of Zoilus-I, ruler in Bactria from 120, ends. 110 CAH 8-420,
MRDK 393, frH, rcCAS
c.110 THASOS, son of ?, a ruler in Bactria from 115, ends. 110 CAH 8-420
c.110 EPANDER, son of ?, a ruler in Bactria from 115, ends. 110 CAH 8-420
c.110 Parthia establishes relations with Han China.
Chang Chien says, "When the Han envoy first visited the kingdom of Anxi (Parthia), the king of Anxi dispatched a party of 20,000 horsemen to meet them on the eastern border of the kingdom   When the Han envoys set out again to return to China, the king of Anxi dispatched envoys of his own to accompany them   The emperor was delighted at this."
110 wikSPR
c.110 APOLLODOTOS-II, son of Menander, a ruler in Bactria 115- 95, gets more territory. 115 MRDK
110 CAH 8-420
c.108 PAERISADES-V, last Spartocid king of Bosporus from 125, killed in uprising led by Saumachus chief of Scythians, who succeeds until 107. 109 MRDK 271 108 OCD 1008, rcCrm
c.108 General ZHAO PONU invades to central Asia, conquers the Wusun and Dayuan. 108 GHCC, wikHXW
c.107 BOSPORUS, under Saumachus chief of Scythians from 108, comes under Pontus until 81. 107 rcCrm
c.107 OLBIA, on north coast of Black Sea vassal to Scythians from 200, becomes vassal to Pontus until 85. 107 rcU
c.106 SCYLURUS, Scythian chief at Neapolis in Crimea from 110, defeated by MITHRIDATES-VI of Pontus.  Scythians disolve into area north of Black Sea. 106
T1H 86
Silk Road
c.106 SILK ROAD is inaugurated (a  treaty  between Chinese emperor Wu Ti and Parthian king Mithridates-II). 106 scar
c.106 1st SILK CARAVAN goes from China thru Kushan and Parthian land to Persia. 106
B76 3-1136
c.100 ANTIALCIDAS, son of Heliocles-II, king of Eucratid Bactria at Taxila from 115, ends. 120 wikAnt     100 CAH 8-413, 420, MRDK 393, frH, rcCAS     95 coin
c.100 BACTRIA:  South is occupied by Yuezhi.  Bactria is divided into 5 chiefdoms. 100 B76 V-952, OCD 159
c.100 XINJIANG, vast arid plateau in far western China, between Mongolia to the northeast, Tibet to the south, and Khazakhstan to the west, comes under China until 190CE. 100 rcCAE