Syria-Armenia Go to Anatolia Go to Asia Go to Persia Go to Mesopotamia Go to Arabia Go to Levant Go to Mediterranean
c.200 Senatorial legates:  C. Claudius Nero, P. Sempronius Tuditanus, M. Aemilius Lepidus, sail from Greece to Anatolia, visit ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia to persuade him to remain neutral in Roman war with Philip-V, and secretly wish him success against Ptolemy-V.  They are assured that he has no intention of helping Philip.  They then go to Egypt. 200
BHS 2-35, CAH 8-165, 270, CHJ 2
c.200 ORONTES-IV ends.  Seleucid satrap of Armenia from 212.  ARMENIA, under Seleucids from 212, annexed to Seleucid Empire until 190ARTAXIAS-I succeeds as governor of most of it.  ZARIADRES becomes governor of Sophene, both until 190. 210 hifiAA
200 MRDK 340, hystn, lvArm, rcCau, wikLAK, wikO4
199 atl2
c.200 DIOGENES of Seleucia (on the Tigris) flourishes at court of Syria.  Epicurean philosopher. 200 Dur 2-556 200-100 wikDS
c.197 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, invades Cilicia, sails 100 galleys to Ephesus for invasion of Anatolia until ?.  Sons Antiochus and Seleucus march along coast. 197 B76 1-994, CAH 8-173, GHH
c.196/5 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 sails to Antioch, spends winter. 196/5 B76 8-383, CAH 8-187
c.195 ANTIOCHUS, son of A-III at Antioch, marries sis LAODICE-IV.  1st sibling marriage in the Seleucid dynasty. 196 wikL4     195 early CAH 8-187, DGRBM 2-719
c.195 CLEOPATRA-I SYRA, dau of Antiochus-III betrothed to Ptolemy-V Epiphanes. 197 atl2     195 B76 8-383, CAH 8, lvPt5, wikC1S     194/3 CHJ 2-76, Sdl 5-236
c.195 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, with bigger army, returns to Thrace. 195 mid CAH 8-188
c.195 HANNIBAL from Tyre sails to Antioch, learns that Antiochus-III is in ThraceHannibal sails to Ephesus. 196 HRR     195 B76 1-994, 8-384, 627, CAH 8-191, DGRBM 1-197, Dur 3-54, LdHR 2-36     193 DGRBM 2-340
c.195 5th SYRO / EGYPT WAR from 202, ends until 170Antiochus-III gets southern Syria 195 B76 1-994, CDCC 857, LEWH 93, 97, atl2, lvA
c.194 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 reopens negotiations with Rome. 194 CHJ 2
c.194 MELITENE, under Ptolemies from 240, comes under Seleucids until 83. 194 rcT
c.193 LAODICE-IV, dau of Antiochus-III appointed chief priestess of the state cult dedicated to her late mother Laodice-III in Media.  This is while her bro/husband is still alive. 193 wikL4
c.193 ANTIOCHUS, son of A-III Megas dies.  Sis/wife Laodice-IV is arranged to marry another bro, Seleucus (later Seleucus-IV). 193 CAH 8-201, wikL4
c.193 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas gives daus in marriage to Ptolemy-V and Ariarathes-IV of Cappadocia, but Eumenes-II of Pergamum refuses to marry 3rd dau. 193 atl2
c.193 SYRO / EGYPT  TREATY  at RaphiaSeleucids dominate EgyptCLEOPATRA, dau of Antiochus-III marries Ptolemy-V Epiphanes until 181. Antiq 12:4:1     194 MCAW
193 Jud 5-603, SORH
192 IDB 3-198
c.192 SENATE declares war on Antiochus-III, sends M. Baebius Tamphilus with only a few troops to Illyria to see which way Philip-V will go.
ROME / SYRIA WAR begins until 189.
192 B76 1-825, 8-384, CAH 8-212, CHJ 2, OCD 159, OHG, atl2, bk, lvA
190 DGRG 2-1187
c.192 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 with an inadequate army, accompanied by Hannibal sails to Demetrias Thessaly, expecting main force in spring. 192 B76 1-994, 8-384, CAH 8-208, CDCC 53, TTPC 27, atl2, bk
c.190 Battle of MAGNESIA Phrygia
c.190 After Magnesia, Zariadres Seleucid governor of part of Armenia from 200, declares independence with Roman approval, ZARIADRES becomes king of Lesser (west) Armenia (SOPHENE) until 160/59. 190 B76 I-550, DGRG 1-218, hystn, wikHA, wikSΦ, wikZr 189 B76 18-1041, CAH 8-514, GHH
c.190 After Magnesia ARTAXIAS (Artashes) Seleucid governor of most of Armenia from 200, declares independence with Roman approvalARTAXIAS-I becomes king of Greater (east) Armenia until 161, independent until 165. 190 B76 I-550, DGRG 1-218, hystn, wikHA, wikLAK     190/89 wikAr1     189 B76 18-1041, CAH 8-514, SORH, aca, lvArm     188 DGRBM 1-361, 372, GHH
c.190 ARMENIA, under Orontid Dynasty from 401, under Seleucid rule from 215, annexed from 200, comes under Hellenistic Artaxiad dynasty until 1CE.  It remains under Seleucids until 188 190 hystn, wikHA
c.190 ARTAXATA on the Araks River in the Ararat valley made capital of Greater (east) Armenia by Artaxias-I. 190 awArt     186 GHH 185 wikArt
c.189 GORDYENE region between Armenia and Persia, under Seleucids from 312, independent until 90. 189 rcT
under Seleucids 312-141 rcM
c.189 ROME / SYRIA WAR from 192 ends. 189 B76 1-825, bk     188 OHG
c.189 COLCHIS/IBERIA under king Saurmag 237-159, loses more than half its land, including provinces of Gogarene, Taokhia and Genyokhia to the newly-created Armenian kingdom. 189 hifiGeo, wikHGr
c.189 LAKE VAN, under Seleucids from 301, comes under Armenia until 66. 189 rcT
c.189 ABDISARES becomes ruler of part of Armenia until 166. 189 wikLAK
c.188  TREATY of APAMEA  Pergamum gets ALL ANATOLIA west of Taurus Mts. from Antiochus-III, who loses all war elephants, his fleet is cut to 10 ships, and his army limited.  A-III is to pay Rome 12,000 talents within 12 years. Rome demands surrender of Hannibal, orders Prussias-I of Bithynia to surrender all land taken from Pergamum in 208 (leads to war 186).  Cities which abandoned Antiochus-III before Magnesia are freed. 188 B76 VII-873, 1-825, 8-384, 784, 17-947, CAH 8-231, CHJ 2-76, DGRG 2-1188, OCD 893, anan, atl2, bk, lvA
c.188 ARMENIA, under Seleucids from 190 becomes independent but divided until 165. 188 GHH
  187 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas dies.  King of Syria/Babylonia and Persia from 223, plunders temple of Bel in Susa to pay Roman indemnity.  Killed by the locals.  Son SELEUCUS-IV Philopator succeeds without opposition until 175.  Sis/wife Laodice-IV is queen. 187 B76 1-825, 8-380, 383, CAH 8-241, 495, CDCC 53, 803, CHJ 2-77, DGRBM 1-197, 3-775, Dur 2-556, GHH, IDB 1-149, 4-267, Jud 3-73, LEWH 94, MCAW, MRDK 353, OHG, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 5-292, bk, frH, lvA, rcM
c.186 SELEUCUS-IV Philopator king of Syria/Babylonia 187-75, sends an embassy to Athens, to renew their previous alliance with Antiochus-III. 186
CAH 8-339
c.185 SELEUCUS-IV Philopator king of Syria/Babylonia 187-75, sends an embassy to the Achaeans, to renew their previous alliance with Antiochus-III, and to offer them 10 warships. 187
CAH 8-339
c.182 SELEUCUS-IV Philopator king of Syria/Babylonia 187-75, is offered 500 talents to help Eumenes-II of Pergamum against Pharnaces-I of Pontus.  Seleucus moves his army into Anatolia, when "it occurres to him" that the treaty of Apamea forbade his crossing the Taurus Mountains. 182
CAH 8-339
c.181 SELEUCUS-IV Philopator king of Syria/Babylonia 187-75 reconsiders helping Pharnaces-I of Pontus, lest his passing Mount Taurus be thought hostile by the Romans, and therefore dismisses his army. 181 DGRBM 3-775, atl2
c.179 Peace  treaty  between Eumenes-II of Pergamum and Pharnaces-I of Pontus includes Artaxias-I of Greater Armenia. 179 DGRBM 1-372
c.178 SELEUCUS-IV Philopator king of Syria/Babylonia 187-75 allies with Perseus, whose opposition to Rome could no longer be a secret, and offers Perseus his daughter Laodice-V in marriage.  Perseus accepts.  Since the treaty of Apamea forbade Seleucid ships to sail west of Cilicia, Seleucus asks the Rhodians to escort the bride to MacedoniaRhodians agree.  Wedding is in 177. 178 CAH 8,
DGRBM 3-775
178/7 wikL5
no date:
CAH 8-339
c.178 SELEUCUS-IV Philopator king of Syria/Babylonia 187-75 wants his bro Antiochus, hostage in Rome from 188, released.  Sends his neph DEMETRIUS-I, age 9, 1st son of Seleucus-IV as a replacement. 180 GHH
178 B76 1-994, CAH 8-340, DGRBM 1-198
c.176 ARTAXATA, capital of Greater (east) Armenia from 190, refounded by Artaxias-I.  Remains capital until 120CE. 176 wikArt
c.175 Jewish high priest Onias visits Seleucus in Syria to seek his support against his rival Simon. 175 atl2
c.175 SELEUCUS-IV Philopator dies.  King of Syria/Babylonia and Persia from 187, poisoned by treasurer Heliodoros.  This leaves 3 possible claimants to throne:
1st son Demetrius, now a hostage in Rome
bro Antiochus, now living in Athens
infant son Antiochus, now in Syria
HELIODOROS usurps throne as regent for infant son Antiochus.
175 B76 8-383, CAH 8-332, 341, CDCC 803, CHJ 2-279, DGRBM 1-198, 3-775, Dur 2-573, GHH, IDB 4-267, Jud 3-74, LEWH 94, MCAW, MRDK 353, OHG, Sdl 5-292, atl2, bk, frH, rcM     174 RAI2
c.175 Bro of Seleucus-IV, ANTIOCHUS-IV, aided by Eumenes-II of Pergamum grabs throne of Syria/Babylonia from usurper Heliodoros until 164, but only as regent for Antiochus, infant son of Seleucus-IV. 1 Mac. 1:10       175 B76 1-994, CAH 8-496-7, CDCC 803, DGRBM 1-198, 2-373, Dur 2-573, IDB 1-150, Jud 3-74, LEWH 94, MRDK 353, OCD 72, RAI3, atl2, bk, rcM
c.175 ANTIOCHUS-IV marries bro's sis/widow Laodice-IV. 175 wikL4
c.174 GLADIATOR show sponsored by Antiochus-IV at Antioch. 174 CDGRA 335
c.173 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 pays off the war indemnity imposed by Rome at the treaty of Apamea 188. 173 1&2BM 51, B76 1-994, CAH 8-342
c.173 Rome / Syria  treaty  relations renewed by praetor Atilius SERRANUS and Antiochus-IV. 173 OCD 143
c.173 APOLLONIUS, Syrian governor of Coele-Syria, returns from Levant to Syria.
c.173 APOLLONIUS, Syrian governor of Coele-Syria informs Antiochus-IV that Ptolemy-VI intends to recover Coele-Syria, which was given to his mom in 193. 2Mac. 4:21
c.171 MENELAUS, neph of high priest Jason, sent from Judea to Antiochus-IV with tribute money to get decisions on stuff.  Menelaus outbids Jason by 300 talents silver for high priesthood. 2Mac. 4:23     175 IDB 3-199 172 GHH     172 or 1 CHJ 2-280     171 IDB 3-49
c.171 Jewish high priest Menelaus persuades Syrian general regent Andronicus to murder Onias at Daphne, a suburb of Antioch. 170 atl2
c.171 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 leaves Antioch under viceroy Andronicus, marches to Cilicia until 169 to handle rebellion of Tarsus & Mallus. 2Mac. 4:31
170
CAH 8-503
c.171 Son of Simon, ONIAS-III dies.  Former high priest 198-74, (and still legitimate h.p.) decoyed from the sanctuary at Daphne (near Antioch), in which he had sought refuge, and murdered by Andronicus, viceroy of Syria instigated by Menelaus. 2Mac 4:34
172 BAR 1982 VIII-5 p54
171 BNTH 58, GHH, Sdl 5-364, af     170 CHJ 2, atl2, hifi, wikHP     169 CAH 8-503
c.170 SYRO / EGYPT WAR dormant from 195, resumes (6th) for control of Coele-Syria until 168. 171 DGRBM 1-198, IDB 3-199, LEWH 97, MCAW     170 B76 8-383, OHG, Sdl 5-238, frH     169 CAH 8-305, CDCC 857
c.170 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 learns of Egyptian plans for a war against him. 170 atl2
c.169 Child ANTIOCHUS, son of Seleucus-IV & Laodice-IV, neph and adopted son of Antiochus-IV, legitimate king of king of Syria/Babylonia, killed by Andronicus, viceroy of Syria. 2Mac. 4:34
170 CAH 8, atl2, wikL4 169 CAH 8-503
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 in Cilicia from 171, returns to Syria, executes viceroy Andronicus for murder of nephew Antiochus (which he probably secretly told him to do). 2Mac. 4:35
169
CAH 8-503
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 sends finance minister Heracleides to Rome to convince senate that Ptolemy-VI is the aggressor. 169
CAH 8-505
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 marches into Levant for 1st campaign against Egypt until later 169. 170 CHJ 2-282, Sdl 5-296 169 B76 8-383, CAH 8-283
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 returns from Levant with 1,800 talents to Antioch. 169
CHJ 2-283
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 sends cousin EUCRATIDES, ruler in Bactria 171-55, to recover the eastern provinces. 169
RAH 412
c.168 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 marches south for 2nd invasion of Egypt.  Gone until later 168. 2Mac 5:1     168 B76 8-383, CAH 8-507, CHJ 2
c.168 SYRO / EGYPT WAR from 170, ends. 168 CDCC 857, DGRBM 1-198, OHG, Sdl 5-238, frH
c.168 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64, returns from Levant to Syria until 167. 2Mac 5:21
168 Sdl 5-298
c.168 Embassy from Antiochus-IV sent to Rome. 168 atl2
c.168/7 An embassy from Delphi visits court of Antiochus-IV. 168/7 CAH 8-342
c.167 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 concludes that the Jews' religion is what made them rebels, returns from Antioch to Jerusalem. Antiq 12:5:4
167 CAH 8-505, CHJ 2-293
c.166 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 holds a magnificent festival and games honoring Apollo at Daphne, a suburb of Antioch.  In addition to the solemn procession and agonistic features, which attract athletes and artists from far away, there is a military parade like a Roman triumphMesopotamian troops, numerous in the Syrian army at Raphia 217 and Magnesia 190, are absent at Daphne 166. 166 CAH 8-345, 350, RAH 412, atl2
c.166 ABDISARES, ruler of part of Armenia from 189, ends. 166 wikLAK
c.166 Roman embassy including Ti. Sempronius GRACCHUS(2) BUBULCUS visits court of Antiochus-IV to explore his state of mind and intentions.  Politely received. 166
CAH 8-346, 166 atl2
c.166/5 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 decides to crush the Maccabees, promises army 1 years pay and begins training, then discovers that he is short of funds.  He also has the Roman indemnity to pay off. 1Mac 3:27
c.165 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 leaves kinsman LYSIAS in charge of his son A-V and all land from Euphrates to EgyptAntiochus-IV departs east to subdue Parthians and collect money. 1Mac 3:31-7     166 DGRBM 2-864, IDB 3-193     166/5 Sdl 5-307     165 1&2BM 52, CAH 8, CHJ 2-287, CAH 8-513, Jud 11-627, atl2
c.165 ARTAXIAS-I, king of greater Armenia 188-61, tries to reunify Armenia by suppressing SOPHENE. 165
B76 18-1041
c.165 ARTAXIAS-I king of Greater Armenia 188-61 defeated and captured by Antiochus-IV, allowed to remain king as vassal. 165 1&2BM 49, CAH 8-514,
CHJ 2-516, DGRBM 1-372, GHH, atl2, wikAr1
c.165 ARMENIA, independent and divided from 188, remains divided and taken under weak Seleucid control declining until 95. 165
B76 1-1041
c.165 LYSIAS, viceroy of west for Antiochus-IV, sends generals Nicanor and Gorgias with 40,000 inf and 7,000 cav into Coele-Syria to help strategos Ptolemy. 1Mac 3:38, 2Mac 8:9
166 IDB 3-546
c.164 COLCHIS, independent from ?, annexed by Pontus until ?. 164 wikCl
c.164 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 sends an expedition to explore Arabian side of Persian Gulf. 164 atl2
c.164 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia returns from Babylon to Syria. 164 guess
c.164 Roman embassy visits court of Antiochus-IV to explore his state of mind and intentions. 164 CAH 8-346, DGRBM 2-289
c.164 A plague at Antioch is stopped, by following advice of a priest called Leius. 164 atl2
c.164 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 celebrates his "marriage" to local goddess at Hierapolis (in Syria?), and takes away temple treasures as his dowry. 164 atl2
c.164 LYSIAS, viceroy of west for Antiochus-IV, musters 60,000 inf and 5,000 cav for invasion of Coele-Syria. 164 wikLSC
c.164 LYSIAS, viceroy of west for Antiochus-IV, with general Gorgias, 60,000 inf and 5,000 cav invades Judea. 1Mac 4:26
165 IDB 1-404
165/4 CHJ 2-288 164 CAH 8-515
c.164 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 pays for temples at Antioch and Athens, and many other building projects. 164 atl2
c.164 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia on his deathbed in Media, appoints Philip to replace kinsman Lysias as chief minister and guardian of the little co-regent, who now would become King Antiochus-V. 164
CHJ 2-306, DGRBM 3-272
c.164 PHILIP returns to Syria, bearing with him the signet ring of the dead monarch, and assumes the government during the absence of the young king and Lysias (who had been previously appointed regent) in Judea. 164 DGRBM 3-272
c.164 ANTIOCHUS-IV dies.  King of Syria/Babylonia and Persia from 175, dies of consumption at Gabae Media.  Only son age 9, ANTIOCHUS-V Eupator succeeds until 162. 164 1&2BM 81, B76 1-995, 17-947, CAH 8-350, CDCC 803, CHJ 2, DGRBM 1-198, GHH, IDB 1-150, Jud 3-74, OHG, RAI3, Sdl 5-241, atl2, frH, rcM     164/3 B76 11-225     163 B76 8-383, CAH 8-514, Dur 2-556, E2LM 122, LEWH 94-5, MCAW, MRDK 353, OCD 72, Sdl 5-314, TTPC, bk
1Mac says he died in 163 of illness brought on by news that the Jews had recovered Judea and undone all his work. 163 1Mac 6:5-16
c.164 LYSIAS, Seleucid viceroy of Syria, learns of death of Antiochus-IV.  Though A-IV had appointed Philip guardian of his 9 year old son (by Laodice-IV) Antiochus, Lysias usurps guardianship and sets up ANTIOCHUS-V, as king of Syria/Babylonia until 162, with the title Eupator. 1Mac 6:17     164 B76 17-947, CAH 8, DGRBM 1-198, 2-864, IDB 1-151, Jud 3-74, RAI3, rcM 163 B76 8-383, CAH 8-514, Dur 2-556, LEWH 94-5, MCAW, MRDK 353, OCD 72, Sdl 5-314
c.164 LYSIAS defeats Philip, and is supported by Rome. 163 wikLSC
c.164 PHILIP, appointed successor of Lysias, forced to flee from Antioch to Egypt until ?. 1Mac 6:63     164 CHJ 2-306
162 CAH 8-517
c.164 LYSIAS, viceroy of west and young ANTIOCHUS-V, invade Coele-Syria and Judea 1st time together. 164 CAH 8-350, IDB 3-193
c.163 ANTIOCHUS-V Eupator, king of Syria/Babylonia 164-62, hires mercenaries, musters army of 100,000 inf, 20,000 cav, 32 elephants. 1Mac 6:28
c.163 Gn. Octavius, M'. Sergius, and Sp. Lucretius, are sent to Antioch because Syria is in confusion from contention for guardianship of young king Antiochus-VThe Romans think it an opportunity to enforce terms of the peace made with Antiochus-III, by which Syrian monarchs are prevented from having a fleet and rearing elephants. 163
CAH 8-354, IDB 3-259, SORH, atl2 162 DGRBM 2-828, 3-6
c.163 ARIARATHES-V king of Cappadocia 163-30, intervenes in crisis in Sophene (along Upper Tigris), puts puppet king Mithrobuzanes on the throne. 163 lvA
c.163 COMMAGENE, under Seleucids from ?, satrap PTOLEMAEUS from 201 asserts independence, becomes king until 130.  Capital Samosata. 163 wikKC, wikLrC
163/2 CAH 9-1023
162 B76 III-36, OCD 273
c.163 SAMAL, under Seleucids from 301, comes under Commagene until 87. 163 rcT
c.162 General LYSIAS and ANTIOCHUS-V, king of Syria/Babylonia 164-62, returns from Coele-Syria to Antioch to deal with Philip. 162 CAH 8-517, Sdl 5-316
c.162 Appointed successor of Lysias, PHILIP dies.  Captured by Antiochus-V and killed. 163 CAH 8, atl2
c.162 DEMETRIUS-I, son of Seleucus-IV sails army from Lycia to Tripolis Syria, welcomed by Syrians as rightful king until 150. 2Mac 14:1, Antiq 12:10:1
162 CAH 8-355, RAI3, atl2, bk     162/1 Sdl 5-317
c.162 DEMETRIUS-I, king of Syria 162-50, arrives in Antioch, which defects to him.  Palace guard siezes Antiochus-V and governor Lysias.  Demetrius hints that he would like them killed. 1Mac 7:4
162 GHH, Jud 5-1489 162/1 Sdl 5-317
c.162 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, king of Egypt 181-64, 163-45, supports Demetrius-I Soter. 162 lvPt6
c.162 ANTIOCHUS-V Eupator dies.  King of Syria/Babylonia and Persia from 164, along with governor Lysias, executed by his troops.  Cousin, and son of Seleucus-IV, DEMETRIUS-I succeeds until 150. 162 B76 III-456, 8-383, CAH 8-517, CDCC 803, CHJ 2, DGRBM 1-198, 2-879, Dur 2-556, GHH, IDB 1-151, 815, 3-193, Jud 3-73, LEWH 95, MCAW, MRDK 353, OCD 72, SORH, TTPC, frH, rcM     162/1 Sdl 5-317     161 atl2
c.162 HERACLEIDES, former finance minister of Antiochus-IV, exiled by Demetrius-I. 162 DGRBM 2-389
c.162 Gn.(3) OCTAVIUS, chief of the Roman deputies, arrives to to burn ships and kill elephants in Syria.  Unwisely refusing help from Cappadocia, Gn.(3) Octavius is murdered in the gymnasium at Laodicea by Syrian Greek Leptines, at the supposed instigation of Lysias, guardian of the young king.  The murder puts Lysias in a difficult position with Rome. 162 1&2BM 99, CAH 8-285, 355, 518, DGRBM 2-772, SORH, atl2, wikOct
c.162 ELIAKIM, Aaronite neph of Jose ben Joezer, a Helenist who calls himelf ALCIMUS, legitimate claimant to high priesthood, visits Demetrius-I in Tripolis?, complains that Judas Maccabee persecutes the Helenists, asks for and receives appointment as high priest.  Sent back with Syrian troops under Bacchides. 1Mac 7:5, 2Mac 14:3 163 CAH 8, GHH
162 GHH, Jud 2-549, af, gw     161 BNTH 59, 70, DGRBM 1-102, Sdl 5-317, bk
c.162/1 BACCHIDES, Syrian general leaves a detachment in Jerusalem to support high priest Alcimus, returns to Syria until 160. 1Mac 7:20
162/1 Jud 2-549
c.161 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50, sends Menochares to plead his cause with Ti.(5) Gracchus and his fellow-commissioners, now in Cappadocia. 161 DGRBM 2-1042
c.161 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50, sends general Nicanor to deal with Judas Maccabee in Judea 1Mac 7:26-32
161 1&2BM 99, Jud 2-549, atl2
c.161 TIMARCHOS, usurper of Media/Babylonia 161-0, allies with ARTAXIAS, governor of Armenia, marches toward Syria. 161
CAH 8-520
c.161 ARTAXIAS-I dies.  King of Greater Armenia from 188, under weak Seleucid control from 165.  Son ARTAVASDES-I succeeds until 149. 164 lvArm     161 OCD 119
160 aca     159 MRDK 340, hystn, wikA1A, wikLAK
Tigran-I succeeds MRDK 340, wikLAK
c.161/0 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50, marches east to deal with Timarchos. winter 161/0 CAH 8-520
c.160 TIMARCHOS, usurper of Media/Babylonia from 161, defeated and captured by Demetrius-I, executed. 161/0 CAH 8-358 160 CAH 8-520, atl2
c.160 LAODICE-V, dau of Seleucus-IV, widow of Perseus from 166 is offered by Demetrius-I to their maternal 1st cousin Ariarathes-V of Cappadocia, who declines. 160 wikL5
c.160 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50, sends general BACCHIDES and high priest ALCIMUS with 20,000 inf and 2,000 cav against Judas Maccabee. 1Mac 9:1
160 CAH 8-520,
Jud 2-549, Sdl 5-320
c.160 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50, again bids for recognition as king by Rome.  Sends envoys with murderer of Gn. Octavius 162 and a gold crown.  Senate concedes and recognizes him. 160
CAH 8-520, atl2
c.159 Syrian general BACCHIDES, in Judea from 160, returns to Syria until 157. 1Mac 9-54
159 Jud 4-44, 10-188
c.159 Son of Pharnavaz-I, SAURMAG, king of Colchis/Iberia from 237, ends.  Son-in-law MIRVAN-I succeeds until 109. 159 CEKI 9,
MRDK 343, hifiGeo
c.157 Syrian general BACCHIDES returns to Judea at request of Hellenists. 1Mac 9-63     158 GHH, Jud 4-44, no date: Jud 10-189
c.156 OROPHERNES, bro of Ariarathes-V, king of Cappadocia, flees to Syria, welcomed by Demetrius-I. 159 awCap     158 CAH 8-359, lvA     157 OCD 107 156 CAH 8-522
c.155 OROPHERNES, bro of Ariarathes-V, king of Cappadocia, now plots against Demetrius-I, and is imprisoned in Seleucia. 155 atl2
c.155/4 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50, bribes Archias, Ptolemaic governor of Cyprus to betray Ptolemy-VI Philometor.  Archias is caught and tried, and during the trial hangs himself. 155 B76 VIII-281 155/4 CAH 8-361
c.154 Coalition of Ptolemy-VI, Attalus of Pergamum and Ariarathes of Cappadocia against Demetrius-I of Syria. 154 CAH 8
c.154 Heracleides, bro of Timarchus, former finance minister of Antiochus-IV, takes pretender ALEXANDER BALAS to Rome, to get him accepted as king of Syria. 154
CAH 8-523
c.154/3 Senate, wanting a weak king in Syria, recognizes impostor ALEXANDER BALAS as son of Antiochus-IV and legitimate king of Syria. winter 153/2 CAH 8-523 153 GHH
c.153 General GELASTES sent by Ptolemy-VI Philometor with army from Egypt to support Alexander Balas. 153 B76 VIII-281, IDB 3-966     152 CAH 8-523
c.153 ALEXANDER BALAS, pretended son of Antiochus-IV, approved by Rome, supported by Attalus-II of Pergamum and Ptolemy-VI, leads mercenaries against Demetrius-I. 153 IDB 1-78, 3-966, Jud 2-576     153/2 Sdl 5-326     152 CAH 8-523, DGRBM 2-879
c.152 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50, musters army to fight Alexander Balas.  Seeks alliance with Jonathan Maccabee.  Authorizes Jonathan to raise an army. 1Mac 10:3
152 1&2BM 128, CAH 8-523
c.152 ALEXANDER BALAS enters Syria, begins war against Demetrius-I. 152 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-114
c.152 Demetrius-I sends Andriscus to Rome. 152 atl2
c.151 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50, sends 2 sons Demetrius(II) and Antiochus(VII) to Knidos for safetySon Antigonus remains and is killed. 151
CAH 8-523
c.151 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50, driven from Syria by Alex Balas, Attalus-II of Pergamum and Ptolemy-VI. 151
LEWH 97
c.150 Though PTOLEMY-VI Philometor had supported the coup of Demetrius I Soter, he now backs Alexander Balas. 150 lvPt6
c.150 ALEXANDER BALAS, pretended son of Antiochus-IV, asks Ptolemy-VI for a daughter in marriage.  P-VI agrees and proposes a meeting at Ptolemais. Antiq 13:4:1
c.150 DEMETRIUS-I Soter dies.  King of Syria/Babylonia and Persia from 162, defeated and killed by usurper ALEXANDER BALAS, who succeeds until 145, as a vassal of Ptolemy-VI, and puppet of Rome.  (See Levant) 1Mac 10:50, Antiq 13:3:4
151 IDB 1-815, Jud 2-577
150 B76 I-224, III-456, 8-383, 17-948, CAH 8-253, 362, CDCC 803, CHJ 2-314, DGRBM 1-114, 967, Dur 2-556, GHH, IDB 1-78, Jud 2-576, 5-1489, 10-189, LEWH 95, MCAW, MRDK 353, OCD 326, RAI3, TTPC, atl2, bk, frH, lvA, rcM
c.150 LAODICE-V, dau of Seleucus-IV and Laodice-IV, wife of Perseus 177-68, is murdered. 150 wikL5
c.150 ALEXANDER BALAS, king of Syria 150-45, vassal of Ptolemy-VI, now at Ptolemais, marries CLEOPATRA THEA, dau of P-VI & Cleo-IIJonathan Maccabee is invited to the wedding. 1Mac 10:57, Antiq 13:4:1
151/0 Sdl 5-327     150 1&2BM 139, B76 8-383, 17-948, CAH 8-524, DGRBM 1-800, 3-593, IDB 3-966, Jud 2-577, lvPt6, atl2
c.149 ARTAVASDES-I ends.  King of Greater Armenia from 161.  TIGRAN-I succeeds until 123. 149 DGRBM 1-365, hystn
123 MRDK 340, wikA1A     115 aca
c.149 MEDIA, under Seleucids from ?, siezed by Mithridates-I, under Parthia until 130. 155 B76 9-842     150 LEWH 95     148/7 CAH 8-363
147 CAH 8-371, atl2     141 frH, hifiP
c.148 Parthian king Mithridates establishes his bro VALARSACES as ruler of Armenia until 126. 149 DGRBM 1-365 148 atl2
c.147 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, age 14, with help of Ptolemy-VI, returns from Cilicia to Syria. 1Mac 10:67
147 1&2BM 142, wikD2
c.147/6 ALEXANDER BALAS, king of Syria 150-45, vassal of Ptolemy-VI, goes from Ptolemais? to Cilicia to counter Demetrius-II Nicator, son of D-I. 147 CAH 8
146 1&2BM 151
no date: CAH 8-364
c.147/6 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, king of Egypt & Cyprus 163-45, leads army north along coast to support Alexander Balas, who orders all Syrian cities opened to him.  P-VI garrisons each city enroute. 1Mac 11:1
148 B76 VIII-281 147 lvPt6
c.147/6 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor enters Antioch. 147 atl2, lvPt6
c.147/6 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor arrives in Seleucia Pieria, switches support from Alexander Balas to Demetrius-II Nicator, whom he invites to join him.  Promises Syria and his dau Cleo Thea (wife of Alex Balas), thus hoping to recover Coele-Syria. 1Mac 11:8       148 GHH
147 DGRBM 1-967, GHH, lvPt6     147/6 IDB 1-816, RAI2, atl2,     146/5 CAH 8
c.147/6 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator rival of Alex Balas, marries CLEOPATRA THEA, dau of P-VI, wife of Alex Balas from 150. 147 lvPt6     147/6 IDB 1-816, RAI2     146/5 CAH 8
c.145 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, king of Egypt & Cyprus 163-45, openly breaks with client Alex Balas, enters and takes Antioch.  P-VI is offered Anatolia, but can't afford to offend Rome. 1Mac 11:12, Antiq 13:4:7 145 1&2BM 151, CAH 8
c.145 ALEXANDER BALAS, Usurper of Syria 150-45, vassal of Ptolemy-VI, in Cilicia from 147/6, returns to Syria, challenges Demetrius-II Nicator and Ptolemy-VI. 1Mac 11:14 145 1&2BM 151
c.145 ALEXANDER BALAS, usurper of Syria 150-45 holds a banquet, and invites Epicurean philosopher Diogenes of Seleucia. 145 atl2
c.145 Diogenes of Seleucia asks Alexander Balas for a golden crown and a purple robe so he could represent himself as the priest of Virtue.  The king agrees, but Diogenes gives the crown and robe to a female singer he was in love with.  The king hearing of this, summons the girl to a banquet wearing the robe and crown. no date: wikDS
c.145 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon, king of Cyrene 163-45, defeats Alex Balas. 145 CHJ 2
c.145 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, with help of Ptolemy-VI, defeats usurper ALEXANDER BALAS at the Oenoparas river.  Balas escapes and flees to Arab dynast Zabdiel. Antiq 13:4:8     146 MCAW 146/5 Jud 5-1489 145 B76 8-383, CAH 8-364, RAI3, TTPC, atl2
c.145 ALEXANDER BALAS dies.  Usurper of Syria/Babylonia from 150, in Arabia, beheaded by Zabdiel.  DEMETRIUS-II Nicator is king of Syria until 140. 1Mac 11:16-19, Antiq 13:4:8       147 frH
146 DGRBM 1-114, 198, 3-1178, GHH, IDB 1-816, Jud 2-576, wikD2     146/5 Sdl 5-329 145 1&2BM 150, B76 I-224, III-457, CAH 8-517, CDCC 803, CHJ 2, Dur 2-556, IDB 1-78, LEWH 95, MRDK 353, atl2, bk, rcM
141 Jud 5-1489
c.145 Inhabitants of Aradus island off coast of Syria lynch some envoys from Marathus (Amrit), a city in Syria. 145 atl2
c.145 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, king of Egypt & Cyprus 163-45, mortally wounded at Oenoparas riverHe and his army return to Egypt. 145 B76 6-483, atl2, lvPt6
c.145 As soon as Ptolemy-VI is dead, PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon and army return to Egypt. 145 wikP8
c.145 As soon as Ptolemy-VI is dead, DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40 attacks Ptolemaic possessions in Levant. 145 lvPt6
c.145 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40 orders Jonathan Maccabee to stop besieging Syrians in the Jerusalem citadel, and meet him at Ptolemais. 1Mac 11:22
c.145 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40 believes kingdom secure, disbands army, which angers mercenaries. 1Mac 11:38     146 GHH
no date: CAH 8-365
c.145 Diodotus TRYPHO, general under Demetrius-II, sees discontent of troops, goes to Arabia, visits Malichus Governor of Nabataea, persuades him to deliver Antiochus-VI, 2 year old son of Alex Balas. 1Mac 11:39
145 atl2
c.145 ANTIOCH rebels against Demetrius-II. 1Mac 11:39     145 CAH 8
142 Jud 3-71     no date: Jud 10-189
c.145 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40, his troops now in revolt, withdraws garrison from the Jerusalem citadel, asks Jonathan Maccabee to quell the revolt at Antioch. 1Mac 11:43
c.145 3,000 Jewish mercenaries plus Cretan mercenaries arrive at Antioch.  They rescue Demetrius-II, massacre inhabitants, plunder and burn Antioch, Jews return to Judea with much loot. 1Mac 11:44-51, Antiq 13:5:3
145 1&2BM 158, atl2
142 Jud 3-71     no date: CAH 8-365, Jud 10-189
c.145 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40, regains control of government and troops.  Demands back the loot taken from Antioch by Jonathan Maccabee, threatens war, breaks alliance. 1Mac 11:52
145 1&2BM 159
c.145 Diodotus TRYPHO, general under Demetrius-II, appoints himself regent of Syria until 142 for Antiochus-VI, 2 year old son of Alex Balas.  Gathers a large army of mercenaries fired by Demetrius-II. 1Mac 11:54
146 DGRBM 3-1178 145 1&2BM 159, Jud 6-60
c.145 Diodotus TRYPHO, regent of Syria for Antiochus-VI, son of Alex Balas, defeats Demetrius-II, proclaims Antiochus-VI king of Syria. 1Mac 11:54       145 1&2BM 158, CAH 8, CHJ 2,   Jud 6-60, frH, rcM     143 GHH
c.145 Diodotus TRYPHO, forces Demetrius-II to abandon Antioch and retreat to the adjacent coastal town of Seleucia Pieria. 145/4
CAH 8-366
c.145 ANTIOCH taken by Trypho. 145 atl2
c.145 ANTIOCHUS-VI, contender for Syrian thrones, befriends Jonathan Maccabee, confirms him as high priest, gives gifts and honors. 1Mac 11:57
145/4 CAH 8-366 144 atl2
c.145 SYRIA SPLITS:  Trypho holds Antioch and central Orontes valley.  Demetrius-II holds Seleucia, controls most of seaboard, and provinces east of Euphrates. no date: CAH 8-526
c.143 Diodotus TRYPHO, regent of Syria for Antiochus-VI, son of Alex Balas, wants throne of Syria, sees Jonathan Maccabee as a possible threat, leads army to Beth Shean. 1Mac 12:39
c.142 DIOGENES of Seleucia, Epicurean philosopher, murdered by order of Antiochus-VI, who didn't like his "abusive language".  (often confused with Diogenes of Babylon d.152) 142 DGRBM 1-1020
no date: wikDS
c.142 Diodotus TRYPHO, regent of Syria for Antiochus-VI, son of Alex Balas, deposes A-VI, and claims throne for himself.  Fights Demetrius-II for throne until 141. 1Mac 13:31     142 CAH 8, CDCC 803, CHJ 2-318, DGRBM 1-198, 3-1178, IDB 1-151, 4-717, Jud 6-61, OCD 72, rcM
c.141 Son of Alex Balas & Cleo Thea, ANTIOCHUS-VI murdered by Diodotus TRYPHO. 1Mac 13:31, Antiq 13:7:1
142 1&2BM 183, CAH 8, DGRBM 1-198, GHH, TTPC     141 atl2     138 CAH 8-529, OCD 72
c.141 Diodotus TRYPHO, usurper of Syria, sends a statue of victory and other gifts to Roman senate, asks for support.  Senate accepts his gifts, but has them inscribed with the name of Antiochus-VI, whom Trypho has murdered. 142
CAH 8-368 138 atl2
c.141 SELEUCIA on the Tigris, under Seleucids from ?, taken by Mithridates-I, under Parthians until 130. 141
Sdl 5-332
c.141 SELEUCID PERIOD of Syria / Babylonia from 312, ends in Babylonia, except for a brief recovery 130-29, Seleucids continue in Syria until 63. 141 mtms
c.140 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40, leaves wife CLEO THEA to hold Antioch against Trypho, marches east to deal with Parthians in Babylonia until 132. 1Mac 14:1       141 OCD 326
140 1&2BM 188, CAH 8-368, GHH     139 wikD2
c.140 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator captured.  King of Syria 145-40, captured in Babylonia by Mithridates-I of Parthia, taken to Hyrcania until 132, detained until 129. 1Mac 14:??     142/1 CHJ 2-319     141 Jud 5-1489     140 1&2BM 188, CDCC 647, 803, bk, frH     140/39 B76 8-385, CAH 8-368, 9-580, Sdl 5-332     139 B76 III-457, 9-842, CAH 8-528, IDB 1-816, LEWH 95, MRDK 353, OCD 326, atl2, wikD2     139/8 CHJ 2 138 DGRBM 1-354, GHH, lvA
c.140/39 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS heads an embassy including Spurius Mummius and L. Caecilius Metellus Calvus, sails from Cyprus to Syria. no date: Diodotus 33.28b
143 SORH     139 atl2
c.138 ANTIOCHUS Sidetes, son of Demetrius-I, bro of D-II ruler? of Rhodes, sails from Rhodes to claim throne of Syria.  Lands at Seleucia Pieria, where Cleo Thea was confined.  Gains support of most Syrian troops. 1Mac 15:10, Antiq 13:7:1
139 E2LM 145
139/8 Sdl 5-337
138 1&2BM 199, CDCC 803
c.138 Antiochus, son of Demetrius-I, bro of D-II becomes 3rd husband of CLEOPATRA THEA and becomes ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes, king of Syria /Babylonia until 129. Antiq 13:7:1     140 GHH     139 rcM 139/8 B76 I-423, CAH 8-368
138 CAH 8-529, IDB 1-152, 4-265, Jud 3-74, atl2, lvA     137 MCAW
c.138 Diodotus TRYPHO, attempted usurper of Syria from 142, defeated by Antiochus-VII Sidetes, flees to Dor. 1Mac 15:11     139 LEWH 95
139/8 CDCC 803     138 1&2BM 199, IDB 4-717, Sdl 5-337, atl2,     137 DGRBM 1-199
c.138 Diodotus TRYPHO, attempted usurper of Syria 142-38, flees by ship from Orthosia to Apamea, his home town, where he is either killed or suicides. 139 GHH, LEWH 95
138 1&2BM 209, Jud 6-61
c.138 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes king of Syria 138-29, sends general Cendebaeus to enforce his demands in Judea, and fortify Kedron. 1Mac 15:38
138 CAH 8-529, Jud 3-75 137 DGRBM 2-541, 879 136 atl2
c.136 EDESSA, under Seleucids from ?, conquered by Arab tribesmen. 136 Jud 12-1502
c.134 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes is advised by his counsellors to destroy the Jews. 134 CHJ 2-645
c.132 OSRHOES, Nabatean Seleucid satrap of Babylonia from ?, confined to northwest Mesopotamia from 140. declares independence, rules as king until 127, forms state of OSROENE until 163CE.  Capital EDESSA. 136 B76 VII-611
132 CAH 9-586, MRDK 354, ODCC 444, frH, rcT, wikOs
c.132 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes king of Syria 138-29, returns from Jerusalem to Antioch. Antiq 13:8:3     134 CAH 8-370 133 DGRBM 1-199
132 CAH 8-530

Syria - Armenia 130-100
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