Assyria Go to Anatolia Go to Asia Go to Persia Go to Mesopotamia Go to Arabia Go to Levant Go to Mediterranean
The land we call Syria is abbreviated from Assyria because the name stuck after Assyria fell in 612.  It is arbitrarily called Aram here because the Torah calls it Aram even before the Arameans arrived.
c.1000 NEO-HITTITE KINGDOM begins until 709 centered at CARCHEMISH until 849.  Pays tribute to Aramean states. 1000
MCAW 56
c.1000 ARAMEAN racial movement, which had caused much dislocation in Mesopotamia, begins to lose momentum.  Tribes consolidate into small states. 1000
Sag1 91
c.1000 OXEN, exclusively used for heavy transport until now when CAMELS are added. 1000
SHT 1-719-20
c.973 Son of Ashurnasirpal-I, ASHUR-RABI-II ends.  King of Assyria from 1013.  Son ASHUR-RESHISHI-II succeeds to 967. 991 Sdl 3-212     973 RAI3, frM, kidA, hifi     972 absA, lexA
970 RAI2, Sag
c.967 Son of Ashur-rabi-II, ASHUR-RESHISHI-II ends.  king of Assyria from 973.  Son TIGLATH-PILESER-II succeeds to 935. 968 hifi     967 MRDK, RAI3, absA, frM, kidA, lexA
966 RAI2, Sag, WPOT 138
c.960 TADMOR in desert east of Kadesh, independent from ?, comes under Israel until 928. 960 rcS
c.935 Son of Ashur-resha-ishi-II, TIGLATH-PILESER-II ends.  King of Assyria from 967.  Son ASHUR-DAN-II succeeds to 912. 935 MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, absA, frM, hifi, kidA, lexA
c.928 TADMOR in central Aram, under Israel from 960, no longer under Israel. 928 rcS
c.920 SAMAL in Amanus Mts. taken over by Arameans.  GABBAR becomes king until ?. 920 B76 1-821, CAH 3.1
c.912 Son of T-P-II, ASHUR-DAN-II, ends.  King of Assyria from 935.  Son ADAD-NIRARI-II succeeds to 891. 912 B76 11-982, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, WPOT 138, 158, absA, frM, kidA, lexA
911 MRDK, hifi     910 Sdl 4-79
c.912 MIDDLE ASSYRIAN Period ends.  Began  1393.
NEO ASSYRIAN Period begins to 612.
912 absA     911 WPOT, frM, hifi, kidA, wikA
c.901 NISIBIS (Nashibina), an Aramean city-state from 1100, 1st mentioned in Assyrian records. 901 wikNsb
c.900 Assyrians, having IRON from 1270, finally start making weapons with it. 900 TTT
c.900 HARAN, under Arameans from 1600, comes under Assyria until 610. 900 rcT
c.900 HALAP, under Arameans from 1200, comes under Assyria until ?. 900 rcS
c.900 URARTU, centered around Lakes Van and Urmia, becomes a kingdom in order to resist Assyrian invasions.  Lasts until 612. 900 PW 15 800 mxfld
c.900 NAKHCHIVAN, a city between Armenia and Persia, comes under Urartu until 612. 900 rcCau
c.896 NISIBIS (Nashibina), an Aramean city-state from 1100, captured by Adad-Nirari-II, under Assyria until 608. 896 wikNsb
c.891 Son of Ashur-Dan-II, ADAD-NIRARI-II ends.  King of Assyria from 912.  Son TUKULTI-NINURTA-II succeeds to 884. 911 WPOT     891 B76 11-982, RAI2, RAI3, absA, frM, kidA, lexA
890 B76 X-173, MRDK, Sag
889 Sdl 4-79, hifi
c.889 TUKULTI-NINURTA-II, begins  ANNALS  until 884. 889 SHT 1-251
c.888 TUKULTI-NINURTA-II, king of Assyria 891-84, deals with mountain region east of Assyria.  Secures area between upper & lower Zab River. 886
Sag1 95
c.888 TUKULTI-NINURTA-II, king of Assyria 891-84, fighting Nairi country southwest of Lake Van from 890, subjugates king of Nairi, makes him a vassal. 886
Sag1 95
c.888 TUKULTI-NINURTA-II, king of Assyria 891-84, deals with mountain region east of Assyria.  Secures area between Upper & Lower Zab Rivers. 886
Sag1 95
c.888 TUKULTI-NINURTA-II marches south on east side of Tigris against NABU-SHUM-UKIN-I, king of Babylon, who is too weak to inspire Babylonian support. 885
Sag1 95
c.884 Son of Adad-Nirari-II, TUKULTI-NINURTA-II, ends.  King of Assyria from 891, ends.  Son ASHUR-NASIRPAL-II succeeds to 859. 891 WPOT     889 MCAW: 58
884 B76 X-173, 11-982, LEWH 47, MRDK, MWΦ 15, RAH 99, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, Sdl 4-80, SOTS 165, WPOT 119, absA, hifi, lexA     883 B76 I-582, HCC, frM, kidA
c.881 ASHUR-NASIRPAL-II, king of Assyria 884-59, expedition to Erbil (Arbela) until 880. 881
B76 I-582
c.879 CAPITAL of Assyria:  NINEVEH from ?, moved to CALAH until 710. 880 PW 15     879 B76 1-821, Sag1 97, Sag2 96
c.879 Tribes of Kashiari Hills, under Assyria from ?, rebel. 879 B76 1-582
c.876 ASHUR-NASIRPAL-II, king of Assyria 884-59, defeats Phoenician and Hittite alliance at Carchemish, takes Carchemish, invades Aram to the coast, all without resistance.  Receives tribute from Tyre, Sidon, Byblos, Makhalata, Kaisa, Amurru, Arvad.  He builds a fortress at Haran from which to administrate the country. 876 B76 17-942, 944, IDB 4-344, MCAW 58 875 MWΦ 16
no date PANE1 188
c.875 AKHUNI becomes king of Bit-Adini until 856. 875 CAH 3.1
c.870 ASHUR-NASIRPAL-II, king of Assyria 884-59, campaigns in north Aram. 870 IDB 1-62
c.870 SANGARA becomes Neo-Hittite king of Carchemish until 849. 870 CAH 3.1
c.866 ASHUR-NASIRPAL-II, king of Assyria 884-59, defeats insurgents of Kashiari Hills in Lake Van area. 866
Sag1 97
c.863 siege tower1st recorded SIEGE TOWER on wheels used by Ashur-Nasirpal-II. 865-60 wikST
c.860 URARTU is unified.   ARAME becomes 1st known king of Urartu until 840, capital at Arzashku. 880 MRDK     860 LEWH 51, frN, hystn, rcT, wikU     858 CAH 3.1, wikKU, wikU     850 RAI3
c.859 Capital of Assyria: NINEVEH from ?, moved to CALAH until 710 by Ashur-Nasirpal-II. 879
Sag1 97
c.859 Son of Tukulti-Ninurta-II, ASHUR-NASIRPAL-II dies.  King of Assyria from 884.  Son SHALMANEZER-III succeeds to 824. 860 DHJ 181, LEWH 47
859 B76 I-582, 11-983, 18-1039, CAH 3.1, FLAP 170, HCC, IDB 1-272, MCAW 58, MRDK, MWΦ 15, RAH 99, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, Sdl 4-80, SOTS 165, WPOT 119, 138, absA, frM, hifi, kidA, lexA
c.858 SHALMANEZER-III, king of Assyria 859-24, expedition to Mediterranean unopposed. 858 FLAP 171, Sag1 97 854 DHJ 181
c.858 SHALMANEZER-III, attacks Aramean/Hittite coalition:  Samal, Hattina, Carchemish, Bit-Adini (already a tributary) at Lutibi in Samal.  Defeats KHAYAN, son of Gabbar, king of Samal, AKHUNI of Bit Adini, Hittite kings of Carchemish and Khattina. 858
LEWH 33, 47, Sag
c.858 KHAYAN, son of Gabbar, becomes king of Samal until 853. 858 CAH 3.1
c.858 ARAME becomes king of Arpad until 834. 858 CAH 3.1
c.857 SHALMANEZER-III, king of Assyria 859-24, writes  ANNALS . 857 WPOT 141
c.856 TIL-BARSIP (south of Carchemish), capital of BIT-ADINI, taken by Shalmanezer-III.  AKHUNI, king of Bit-Adini from 875, ends.  Bit-Adini is under Assyria until ?.  Population is deported and replaced with Assyrians.  Name changed to KAR-SHULMANASHARED. 856 IDB 1-193, RAI2 245
855 CAH 3.1, WPOT 138
c.856 AMIDA taken by Shalmanezer-III, used as base for a campaign against Urartu. 856 lvA
no date: wikU
c.856 SHALMANEZER-III, king of Assyria 859-24, defeats ARAME, king of Urartu.  Destroys capital ARZASHKU. 856 B76 18-1039 no date: wikU
c.855 CHALDEANS revolt against pro-Assyrian king of Babylon Nabu-Apla-Iddina. 855 guess
c.853 SHALMANEZER-III, king of Assyria 859-24, crosses Tigris, kills Giammu on the Balih (Haran) River, enters Sahala, and Tilshaturahi, approaches Kar-Shulmanashared, returns to Assyria. yr 6
PANE1 189
c.853 SHALMANEZER-III, crosses Euphrates, receives tribute from Carchemish, Commagene, Gurgum, Gusi, Melitene, Hattina, goes to Halap, receives more tribute. yr 6
PANE1 190
c.853 KHAYAN, king of Samal from 858, ends. 853 CAH 3.1
  853 SHALMANEZER-III, goes from Halap south to Hamath, receives more tribute, takes Adenu, Barga, Aragna, receives more tribute, burns palaces, goes to Qarqar. yr 6
PANE1 190
  853 exact ANTI-ASSYRIAN COALITION (led by Ben-Hadad-I of Damascus and Irhuleni of Hamath, + 12 subject kings including Ahab of Israel) attacks Shalmanezer-III (in his 6th year) at QARQAR on the Orontes and is badly defeated. 853 B76 17-942, MNHK, RAI2, SOTS 156, Sdl 4-80, WPOT 144, livBQ, wikBQ
853 exact BATTLE of QARQAR:  earliest exact date in Near Eastern history.  Date confirmed by Ptolemy's canon in relation to the eclipse of 763.  Proves that the death of Ahab is no earlier than the 6th year of Shalmanezer-III. 854 DHJ 424, WBH 20     853 Grim 326, IDB 1-62, MNHK 76, bivu, bk, doth
c.853 SHALMANEZER-III, king of Assyria 859-24, boasts of a great victory at Qarqar, but stays out of the west until 848, and stops advancing into Levant until 841. 853
B76 17-942, RAI2, MNHK
c.852 NISIBIS (Nashibina), under Assyria from 896, annexed to Assyria until 608. by 852 wikNsb
c.851 Hostilities break out in Babylon between king MARDUK-ZAKIR-SHUMI-I and his bro MARDUK-BEL-USATE backed by Arameans.  Marduk-Zakir-Shumi asks Assyrians for help. 851 B76 11-983, RAI2 247
c.850 MARDUK-ZAKIR-SHUMI-I king of Babylon, backed by Assyrians, defeats bro MARDUK-BEL-USATE backed by Arameans. 850
B76 11-983
c.849 SANGARA, Neo-Hittite king of Carchemish from 870, ends. 848 CAH 3.1
c.849 CARCHEMISH, Neo-Hittite capital from 1000, last nominally independent state on upper Euphrates, subjugated by Shalmanezer-III.  Vassal of Assyria until 717. 870 rcS
849 Sag1 98
c.849 URARTU attacked by Shalmanezer-III. 849 bk
c.848 SHALMANEZER-III, king of Assyria 859-24, attacks Aram. 848 IDB 1-62, Sdl 4-98
c.845 SHALMANEZER-III, king of Assyria 859-24, attacks Aram again with a stronger army. 845 Sdl 4-99
Balawat Gates
Balawat Gates replica
photo Slfitzpa
Bronze band
Bronze band,   photo Jononmac46
c.845 BALAWAT GATES built by Shalmanezer-III at an outpost between Nineveh and Calah.  3 sets of 2 gates each made of vertical wood planks held together by 16 horizontal bronze bands 1.6mm thick.  The gates are tapered toward the top to look taller, and are obviously not meant to withstand attack.  The 8 bands on each gate are embossed with decorations commemorating his campaigns, receiving tribute, and hunting of lions and bulls. 845
B76 11-1096
no date: wikBG
c.844 URARTU:  Many settlements destroyed by Shalmanezer-III. 844 B76 18-1039
841 exact SHALMANEZER-III, king of Assyria 859-24, (in 18th year) attacks Aram, defeats HAZAEL at Mt. Hermon, receives tribute from Tyre, Sidon, Jehu king of Israel (whom Shal-III erroneously calls a son of Omri)Shal-III plunders cities of Aram until 837. 842 DHJ 424
841 IDB 2-538, PANE1 191, RAI2 246, Sdl 4-109, WPOT 145
c.840 URARTU, hassled by Assyrians from 1275, Assyrian invasions cease until 831.  Urartu begins rise. 840 B76 18-1039, TAWH 16
c.840 ARAME, 1st known king of Urartu from 860, ends. SARDURI-I son of Lutipris, succeeds until 830. 844 CAH 3.1, MRDK, bk, wikKU, wikU
843 LEWH 51, hystn, wikU
840 B76 VIII-901, 18-1039, MCAW 58, frN, lvA, rcT
Sarduri succeeds 832 LEWH 51, RAI3
SARDURID DYNASTY of Urartu begins until 590.
c.840 SARDURI-I founds city of VAN south of Lake Van.
Rise in Urartian power begins.
840 B76 18-1039, MCAW 58, TAWH 16, mxfld
c.840 KILAMUWA becomes king of Samal until 830. 840 CAH 3.1
c.838 ARAMEAN area in middle Euphrates annexed by Shalmanezer-III. 838 B76 I-475
c.838 SHALMANEZER-III, king of Assyria 859-24, again tries to conquer HAZAEL, but can't take Damascus.  838 RAI2 246, WPOT 145
837 IDB 2-538
c.837 SHALMANEZER-III, in Phoenicia, receives tribute from Byblos, Tyre, Sidon.  Failing to conquer Damascus, he goes home and never bothers Aram again. 837 MWΦ 17, RAI2, SOTS 165
c.836 MEDES ("Madai" in plain of Kurdistan) first mentioned in Assyrian records from an expedition of Shal-III, to whom they pay tribute.  Media is divided into small principalities until 705 in central Zagros Mts. 836 hifi
835 LEWH 53
834 MCAW 58
c.836 PARSU (Persians in mountains of Kurdistan) first mentioned in Assyrian records.  They pay tribute to Shal-III. 837 NLEM 309 836 WPOT 313
c.834 ARAME king of Arpad from 858 ends.  Next known king 805. 834 CAH 3.1
c.831 Assyrian general claims victory over king of Urartu (Sarduri-I?). 831 MCAW 58
c.830 SARDURI-I son of Lutipris, king of Urartu from 840, ends.  Son ISHPUINI succeeds until 810. 832 CAH 3.1
830 B76 VIII-901, 18-1039
828 MRDK, wikKU, wikU
825 RAI3, frN, lvA
820 LEWH 51, rcT, wikU
c.830 KILAMUWA, king of Samal from 840, ends. 830 CAH 3.1
c.827 ASHUR-NADIN-APLI, son of Shalmanezer-III, revolts with 27 cities including Ashur, Nineveh, Erbil, Arrapkha until 822. 828 B76 11-983
827 RAI2 249
c.827 SHAMSHI-ADAD, son of Shalmanezer-III, leads imperial army against bro Ashur-Nadin-Apli.  War until 822. 827 RAI2 249
c.825 Black ObeliskBLACK OBELISK of Shalmanezer-III:  Contains what is thought to be the earliest known picture of a biblical figure:  possibly "Jehu son Omri" (mIa-u-a mar mHu-um-ri-i), or Jehu's ambassador, kneeling at feet of Shalmaneser-III in 841.  Discovered at Kalhu (later Nimrud) on west Tigris. 825 wikLABA



Photo Willis
c.824 Son of Ashurnasirpal-II, SHALMANEZER-III ends.  King of Assyria from 859.  Son SHAMSHI-ADAD-V succeeds 823-11. 825 DHJ 181, LEWH 47     824 B76 11-983, FLAP 171, HCC, IDB 1-272, MCAW 60, MRDK, MWΦ 16, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, Sdl 4-80, SOTS 165, 177, WPOT 138, absA, frM, hifi, kidA, lexA
c.822 ASHUR-NADIN-APLI, son of Shalmanezer-III, revolting against legitimate authority from 827, suppressed by SHAMSHI-ADAD-V king of Assyria 823-11 (having ignominiously asked aid from Babylon). 827
RAI2 249
c.820 SHAMSHI-ADAD-V king of Assyria 823-11, invades PARSU (Persian) country. 820 WPOT 313
c.820 SHAMSHI-ADAD-V king of Assyria 823-11, wars with Babylon until death 811.  Extends boundaries east and south. 820
CAH 3
c.816 ISHPUINI, king of Urartu 830-10, makes son MENUA co-king. 816 CAH 3.1
c.811 SHAMSHI-ADAD-V, king of Assyria, offers sacrifices in city of Babylon. 811 Sag1 102
c.811 Son of Shalmanezer-III, SHAMSHI-ADAD-V dies.  King of Assyria from 824.  Young son ADAD-NIRARI-III succeeds to 783.  Mother SAMMU-RAMAT is regent until 805. 811 B76 11-983, DHJ 195, FLAP 173, MCAW 60, MCAW 60, MNHK 112, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, SOTS 166, WPOT 138, absA, frM, hifi, kidA, lexA 810 HCC, Sdl 4-113
c.810 ISHPUINI son of Sarduri-I, king of Urartu from 830, ends.  Son MENUA sole rule until 785. 810 B76 18-1039, CAH 3.1, MRDK, bk, frM, frN, lvA, rcT, wikKU, wikU     806 RAI3
800 LEWH 51, hystn, wikU
c.805 SAMMU-RAMAT, regent for son ADAD-NIRARI-III, king of Assyria 811-783, dies. 808 absA, lexA     806 B76 11-983, 18-1040, SOTS 196     805 hifi, kidA
A-N-III yr 5 Sag1 103
omit: MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, frM
c.805 USHPILUMI becomes king of Commagene until 773. 805 CAH 3.1
c.805 ATARSHUMKI becomes king of Arpad until 796. 805 CAH 3.1
c.805 ADAD-NIRARI-III king of Assyria 811-783 campaigns in Aram until 802. 806 bk     805 Sdl 4-114, 134, WPOT 145
c.804 ADAD-NIRARI-III king of Assyria 811-783 takes DAMASCUS, controls all Aram, receives tribute from Phoenicia, Israel, Philistia. 805 IDB 1-117
804 B76 17:942, 944
c.800 AL-MINA trading post founded at mouth of Orontes River by Eretrians and Chalcidians. 800 OCD 412, OHG
c.800 ROTARY QUERN used in Aram.  A cyllendrical stone with a hole in the middle, a wooden peg thru the hole. 800 TTT
c.800 Sabaa SteleSABAA STELE erected by one of Adad-Nirari's officers, Nergalerish.  Inscribed with Assyrian cuneiform, records Adad-Nirari-III's Assyrian campaign in his 5th year to Pa-la-as-tu (Palestine). 800 wikLABA



Photo oncenawhile
c.800 Nimrud SlabNIMRUD SLAB:  Now lost, but a copy survives.  Inscribed with Akkadian cuneiform, Describes Adad-nirari III's early Assyrian conquests in Palastu, Tyre, Sidon, Edom and Humri (understood as the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria)). 800 wikLABA, wikNS

Photo {{PD-US}}
c.798 ADAD-NIRARI-III king of Assyria 811-783 campaigns in Orontes valley. 796 WPOT 145
c.796 ATARSHUMKI king of Arpad from 805 ends. 796 CAH 3.1
c.796 SHAMSHI-ILU becomes king of Bit-Adini until 752. 796 CAH 3.1
c.790 NINURTA-APLA-??? king of Babylon from 800, ends.  MARDUK-BEL-ZERI succeeds to 780. 790 brKB, hifi, wikB
no date: MRDK, frM, stmaB
c.790 ADAD-NIRARI-III king of Assyria 811-783 makes treaty with MARDUK-BEL-ZERI king of Babylon.  Assyria is protector. 790
MCAW 62
c.785 MENUA son of Ishpuini, king of Urartu from 810, ends.  Son ARGISHTI-I succeeds until 756. 788 RAI3     787 RAI3 303     786 CAH 3.1
785 LEWH 51, MRDK, bk, frN, lvA, rcT, wikKU, wikU     781 B76 18-1039
780 B76 1-821, 11-983, hystn     778 RAI2
c.783 Son of Shamshi-Adad V, ADAD-NIRARI-III dies.  King of Assyria from 811.  Son SHALMANEZER-IV succeeds to 772. 783 B76 11-983, DHJ 195, FLAP 173, HCC, MCAW 62, MNHK 112, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, Sdl 4-134, absA, frM, hifi, kidA, lexA     782 MRDK, WPOT
c.782 EREBUNI southwest of Lake Sevan founded by Argishti-I king of Urartu 785-56. 782 wikU
c.781 ASSYRIA politically paralized until 745. 781 RAI2 751
c.779 ARGISHTI-I king of Urartu 785-56, operating around Zab and Lake Urmia, reports victories over Assyrians. yr 6
B76 18-1040
c.778 ARGISHTI-I king of Urartu 785-56, operating around Zab and Lake Urmia, reports victories over Assyrians. yr 7
B76 18-1040
c.777 ARGISHTI-I king of Urartu 785-56, subdues HILARUADA king of Melitene, captures parts of Taurus Mts. from TUATE king of Tabal. 777
B76 18-1040
c.773 USHPILUMI king of Commagene from 775 ends. 773 CAH 3.1
c.773 SHALMANEZER-IV king of Assyria 783-72, attacks BEN-HAADAD-II, king of Damascus. 773 Sdl 4-143, SOTS 196, WPOT 146
c.772 Son of Adad-nirari-III, SHALMANEZER-IV ends.  King of Assyria from 783.  Son ASHUR-DAN-III succeeds to 755. 773 B76 11-983, FLAP 173, HCC, absA, hifi, lexA
772 MRDK, RAI3, frM, kidA
782 WPOT     771 RAI2, Sag
c.765 NINEVEH, under ASHUR-DAN-III, hit by plague. 765 ISBE 2-1115
c.765 Assyrians invade Aram. 765 Sdl 4-143
763 Jun 15 SOLAR ECLIPSE recorded and identified in Assyrian eponym lists as year 10 of Ashurdan-III.
"Bur-Sagale of Guzana, revolt in the city of Assur.  In the month Simanu an eclipse of the sun took place"   (See Qarqar 853)
763 MCAW 63, MNHK 69, RAI2 37, RAI3 302, Sdl 4-143, TToH, doth, livBQ, nasaS, wiclips, wyhm
c.759 NINEVEH, under ASHUR-DAN-III, hit by plague again. 759 ISBE 2-1115
c.756 ARGISHTI-I son of Menua, king of Urartu from 785, ends.  Son SARDURI-II succeeds until 734. 766 RAI3 303     764 CAH 3.1, mxfld     763 frN, lvA 760 LEWH 51, MRDK, rcT, wikU     756 B76 1-821 18-1040, LEWH 51, bk     755 B76 VIII-901, hystn 753 wikKU, wikU     750 RAI2
c.755 KUSHTASHPI becomes king of Commagene until 740. 746 CAH 3.1
c.755 Son of Shalmaneser-IV, ASHUR-DAN-III ends.  King of Assyria from 772, ends.  Son of Adad-Nirari-III, ASHUR-NIRARI-V, succeeds to 745. 755 B76 11-983, FLAP 173, HCC, RAI3, absA, frM, hifi, kidA, lexA
754 MRDK, RAI2, Sag
c.755 Assyrians invade Aram. 755 Sdl 4-143
c.754 SARDURI-II king of Urartu 756-34, subdues HILARUADA king of Melitene. 750s
B76 18-1040
c.754 MATI-ILU becomes king of Arpad until 740. 754 CAH 3.1
c.753 SARDURI-II king of Urartu 756-34, defeats ASHUR-NIRARI-V, king of Assyria 755-45 in upper basin of Tigris. 753 B76 18-1040
Assyria won: Sdl 4-208
c.753 ASHUR-NIRARI-V, king of Assyria 755-45 besieges Tushpa capital of Urartu unsuccessfully. 753 Sdl 4-208
c.752 SHAMSHI-ILU, king of Bit-Adini from 756, ends. 752 CAH 3.1
c.748 NABU-SHUMA-ISHKUN king of Babylon from 761, ends.  Pro-Assyrian NABU-NASIR succeeds to 734. 748 RAI3, brKB, frM, hifi, stmaB, wikB
747 DGRG 1-356, MCAW 64, MNHK, RAI2, Sag     no date: MRDK
c.745 CALAH, under Assyria from ?, rebels. 745 WPOT 160
c.745 Son of Adad-Nirari-III, ASHUR-NIRARI-V dies.  King of Assyria from 755, murdered in palace revolt, with most of family.  Son TIGLATH-PILESER-III succeeds to 727. 746 B76 11-983, MCAW 64, RAI2, Sag1 104     745 FLAP 173, HCC, MNHK 69, MRDK, RAH, RAI3, SHWC 35, SOTS 322, absA, frM, hifi, kidA, lexA
c.745 AKKADIAN LANGUAGE fades out as ARAMAIC becomes official language for diplomatic intercourse between Assyrians and their subjects and tributaries.   (See Aramaic 900, Aramaic 700) 740s wikAL 8-700
BBP 40
c.745 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27, goes to Babylonia, helps NABU-NASIR king of Babylon 748-34 fight and defeat Arameans. 746 B76 11-984
745 MNHK 121
c.745 BABYLON subdued by TIGLATH-PILESER-III. 745 SOTS 207
c.745 KUSHTASHPI, king of Commagene 755-40, subdued by SARDURI-II, king of Urartu, and becomes his vassal until 740. 745 B76 1-821, 18-1040
c.744 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27, begins series of campaigns in northwest until 738. 745 IDB 1-118 744 MNHK 121     743 B76 11-984, SOTS 197, 300
c.743 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27, enters Levant until 738. 745 Sdl 4-169 743 SOTS 207
c.743 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27, begins series of campaigns in Aramean state of Arpad until 739.  Besieges city of Arpad north of Halap until 740. 743 Sdl 4-194, MNHK 146, SOTS 207
c.743 SARDURI-II, king of Urartu 756-34, with allies including Aram, defeated in Arpad by Tiglath-Pileser-III, who besieges Arpad until 740. 743 B76 1-821, 11-984, 18-1040, LEWH 47, MNHK 147, MWΦ 18, Sdl 4-194, SOTS 298
c.743 AZARIAH, king of Judah 767-40, plus allies, defeated at Arpad by Assyrians. 743 SOTS 298, 322
c.743 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27, claims to receive tribute from PISIRIS king of Carchemish. 743
MNHK 147
c.743 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27, claims to receive tribute from HIRAM king of Tyre. 743
MNHK 147
c.743 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27, claims to receive tribute from HIRAM king of Tyre. 743
MNHK 147
c.743 TARKHULARA becomes king of Gurgum until 711. 743 CAH 3.1
c.742 30,000 Arameans from Hama region in north Aram deported to Zagros Mountains by TP-III.  18,000 Arameans from Tigris replace them.   Northwest Aram annexed by Assyria, probably Phoenicia too. 742
RAI2 254-5
c.740 ARPAD north of Halap, main Aramean city in north Aram, under Urartian influence from ?, besieged by TIGLATH-PILESER-III from 743, taken.  Inhabitants massacred.   Under Assyria until ?.   Made capital of an Assyrian province.   Many principalities of Urartu also taken by Assyria. 741 RAI2
740 B76 I-475, 1-821, 11-984, IDB 1-193, LEWH 47, MNHK 147, Sdl 4-197
c.740 BAR-SUR king of Samal from ?, executed by TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27, who enthrones Bar-Sur's son PANAMMU-II until ?. 740
Sdl 4-197
c.740 Kings of Commagene, Que, Gurgum, Carchemish, all under Urartian influence, submit to TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27. 740
B76 1-822
c.740 MATI-ILU king of Arpad from 754 ends.  Arpad under Assyria until ?. 740 CAH 3.1
c.738 PANAMMU-II king of SAMAL forms new coalition against TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27, which is defeated.  Everyone from Damascus to eastern Anatolia is forced to pay tribute. 738
B76 11-984
c.738 Kings of Samal, Melitene, Kashka, Tabal come to terms with TIGLATH-PILEZER-III. 738
B76 1-822
c.738 WASU-SRMAS becomes king of Tabal until 732 738 CAH 3.1
c.738 PISIRIS becomes Neo-Hittite king of Carchemish until 717. 738 CAH 3.1
c.738 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, invades Israel, takes Ijon, Abel-Beth-Maacah, Janoah, Kedesh, Hazor. no date:
2K 15:29
c.738 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, in Aram & Levant from 743, returns north. 738 MNHK 121
c.737 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27, fights in Urartu until 73?.  Only partly successful. 737 SOTS 164, 198
736 bk     735 B76 11-984
c.735 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, besieges TUSHPA, capital of Urartu.  Pacifies Urartu. 735 B76 1-821, 18-1040, RAI2 256, Sdl 4-223
c.734 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, returns to Mediterranean. 734 RAI2 256
c.734 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, defeats REZON and PEKAH, siezes Gilead and Galilee, marches down Phoenician coast, defeats Samaria, advances into Philistia. 734 B76 11-984, DOTT 53, SOTS 198, 208, WPOT 66
no date: 2K 15:29
c.734 SARDURI-II son of Argishti-I, king of Urartu from 756, dies, possibly in palace revolt.  Son RUSAS-I succeeds 733-14. 735 B76 VIII-722, 1-821, 18-1040, bk, mxfld, wikKU, wikU     734 B76 VIII-901, CAH 3.1, RAI2, Sag, frN, lvA 733 LEWH 51, RAI3 304, Sag1 113, rcT     730 MRDK
c.734 NABU-NASIR king of Babylon from 748, dies.  pro-Assyrian NABU-NADIN-ZER succeeds to 732. 734 MNHK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, brKB, frM, hifi, stmaB, wikB
730 hystn     no date: MRDK
c.734 NABU-MUKIN-ZER, Chaldean chief of Bit-Amukani tribe, rebels against pro-Assyrian king of Babylon NABU-NADIN-ZER. 734
Sag1 109
c.733 ARAM again invaded by Assyrians. 733 SOTS 298
c.733 WASU-SRMAS king of Tabal from 738, vassal of Assyria from 738, deposed by Assyrian overlords.  KHULI succeeds until ?. 732 B76 1-822, IDB 4-718
730 CAH 3.1
c.733  NIMRUD TABLET K-3751 :  Now lost, but a copy survives.  Inscribed with Akkadian cuneiform, Describes Tiglath-Pileser III's (745-27) campaigns to the region, including the first known archeological reference to Judah (Yaudaya or KUR.ia-u-da-a-a). 733 wikLABA
c.732 NABU-NADIN-ZER king of Babylon from 734, ends.  NABU-SHUM-UKIN-II succeeds and ends.  Chaldean usurper NABU-MUKIN-ZER succeeds to 729. 732 MNHK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, brKB, frM, hifi, stmaB, wikB, MRDK
731 RAI2 257
8th DYNASTY from 979 ends.
Assyrian rule begins until 620.
c.732 TIGLATH-PILESER-III king of Assyria, attacks and defeats NABU-MUKIN-ZER king of Babylon and his allies. 732
B76 11-984
c.732 KUSHTASHPI, king of Commagene from 755, under Assyria from 740, ends.  MUWATTALLI succeeds until 708. 732 CAH 3.1, rcT
c.729 NABU-MUKIN-ZER king of Babylon from 732, captured by Assyrians.  TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27, takes over until 727.  (1st Assyrian to rule Babylon since 1227).   Kings of Assyria are now also called king of Babylon. 730 RAI2     729 B76 11-984, MRDK, RAI2 257, Sag, brKB, hifi, wikB     728 MCAW 64
727 MNHK     721 frM, stmaB no date: RAI3
c.728 Assyrian reliefAssyrian relief from Nimrud. 728 wikScl




Photo Ealdgyth
c.728 MARDUK-APAL-IDDINA Chaldean sheikh of Bit-Yakin tribe, submits to TIGLATH-PILESER-III. 728
MCAW 64
c.727 Son of Adad-Nirari-V, TIGLATH-PILESER-III dies.  King of Assyria from 745, king of Babylon from 729.  Son SHALMANEZER-V succeeds to 722. 727 B76 11-984, CAH 3.1, 3.2, FLAP 173, HCC, MCAW 67, MNHK 125, MRDK, RAH, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, Sdl 4-191, SHWC 35, SOTS 166, 199, WPOT 138, 161, absA, frM, hifi, kidA, lexA
c.722 Son of T-P-III, SHALMANEZER-V ends.  King of Assyria and Babylon from 727, dethroned by coup headed by Sargon (probably a bro) who as SARGON-II succeeds as king of Assyria until 705, continuing the policies of his father. 722 B76 IX-107, 11-984, BCoC 165, CAH 3.1, 3.2, FLAP 174, HCC, MNHK 125, RAH 100, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, Sdl 1-414, SOTS 322, WPOT, absA, frM, hifi, kidA, lexA
721 B76 16-248, SHWC 35
c.722 Marduk-Apal-Iddina, Chaldean sheikh of Bit-Yakin tribe, unites Chaldean and Aramean tribes behind him, allies with Elam, siezes Babylon.  MARDUK-APAL-IDDINA-II becomes king of Babylon until 710 (while Sargon-II claims the same title). 722 MRDK, RAI2, Sag, hifi
721 B76 11-984, MNHK, RAI2 265-6, RAI3, Sag, WPOT 188, frM, stmaB, wikB     710 MCAW 66
c.721 SARGON-II, king of Assyria and Babylon 721-05, marches against MARDUK-APAL-IDDINA-II east of Tigris, defeated by Elamite army at Der, returns to Assyria.  Leaves Babylon alone until 710. 721 B76 11-984, LEWH 52, Sag
720 RAI2 258
c.721 SARGON-II, king of Assyria and Babylon 721-05, returns from east to Assyria. guess
c.721 SYRO-PHILISTINE COALITION defeated at Qarqar by SARGON-II king of Assyria 722-05. 721 Sag1 112, DOTT 62
c.721 SARGON-II king of Assyria 722-05, sets up a deportation detachment in Samaria.  Sargon-II then marches on Philistia. 721 Sag1 112, DOTT 62
c.720 Elamites attack Assyria. 720 B76 VI-809
c.720 SARGON-II, king of Assyria and Babylon 721-05, returns to Aram. 720 BHoE 550
c.718 PISIRIS, Neo-Hittite king of CARCHEMISH 738-17, vassal of Assyria, allied with Mita king of Mushku, rebels until 717. 718 Sag1 117
c.717 PISIRIS Neo-Hittite king of Carchemish from 738. defeated by Sargon-II in battle. Ends. 717 B76 11-984, CAH 3.1, IDB 3-357, RAI2 260
c.717 CARCHEMISH, vassal state of Assyria from 849, annexed by Assyria.  Becomes Assyrian province until 609. 717 B76 II-556, 18-1040, IDB 3-357, Jud 5-161, MCAW 64, Sdl 4-250, WBANE 323, mxfld
c.716 SARGON-II, king of Assyria and Babylon 721-05, enters Que province (Cilicia) to counter encroachments by Mushku. 716
B76 11-984
c.716 SARGON-II, king of Assyria and Babylon 721-05, attacks MITA king of Mushku because of Mita's encroachment on Que province (Cilicia). 717 B76 18-1040, IDB 3-357
716 Sag1 117
c.715 DIAUKKU chieftain in Media, captured by SARGON-II, deported. 715 WPOT 314
c.715 Zagros Mountain captives deported to Assyria by Sargon-II. 714 B76 9-832
c.715 CIMMERIANS from Asia raid Urartu. pre-714 B76 18-1040     714 wikU
c.714 RUSAS-I, king of Urartu from 733-14, attacks (or is attacked by) CIMMERIANS.  Disastrously defeated, loses communication with commanders, flees back to Tushpa. 720 lvA     714 B76 II-938, 18-1040, lvA, rcT
c.714 SENNACHERIB, son of Sargon-II, on recon mission in Urartu, learns of defeat of Rusas-I, returns to Assyria and reports it to his father. 714
B76 18-1040
c.714 CIMMERIANS loot Urartu as far south as Lake Urmia. 720 lvA
c.714 SARGON-II, king of Assyria 722-05, major offensive against Urartu.  Goes to province of Zamua, thence north to land of his vassal Ullusunu the Manaean, marches east against Zikirtu and Urartu, sacks and destroys chief Urartian cities.  Defeats RUSAS-I and allies at Lake Urima, decides not to besiege Rusas in Tushpa, plunders Ardini (main religious center), takes statue of Haldi.  No further trouble from Urartu. 714 B76 11-984, 16-249, 18-1040, MCAW 64, RAI2 259, Sag1 113-114, SHT 1-246, WPOT 162, bk, lvA, wikU
c.714 RUSAS-I son of Argishti-I, king of Urartu from 733, flees from Tushpa to mountains, dies of illness.  Son ARGISHTI-II succeeds 713-685.
Urartu goes dormant until conquered by Scythians in 609.  Power vacuum allows influx of Scythians and Cimmerians.
714 CAH 3.1, LEWH 51, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3,
Sag1 113, frN, hystn, lvA, wikKU, wikU
713 B76 VIII-722, 18-1040     708 mxfld
c.713 SARGON-II, king of Assyria 722-05, conquers region of Ecbatana, receives tribute from Medes. 713 RAI2 259, RAI3 312
Sargon's palace
Sargon's palace at Dur-Sharrukin         AH v1 p181
c.713 SARGON-II, king of Assyria 722-05 begins building new capital at the confluence of the Tigris and the Greater Zab rivers of Calah called DUR-SHARRUKIN. 717 wikDS
713 IDB 4-224
c.713 AMBARIS, king of Tabal, vassal of Assyria, after shifting alliance to Mita king of Mushku 738-696, stripped of power by Sargon-II.  TABAL annexed by Sargon-II. 713 B76 1-822, CAH 3.1, IDB 3-357
c.711 SARGON-II, king of Assyria 722-05, sends his tartan to besiege Ashdod. 711 SOTS 210
c.711 TARKHULARA, king of Gurgum from 743, ends.  MUTALLU succeeds until ?. 711
CAH 3.1
c.710 SARGON-II, king of Assyria 722-05, victorious everywhere, controls all Palestine except Judah.  In the east he controls everything up to and including most of Zagros Mountains.  He now attacks MARDUK-APAL-IDDINA-II, king of Babylon. 710
RAI2 261
c.710 MARDUK-APAL-IDDINA-II ends.  King of Babylon from 722, defeated by SARGON-II of Assyria, who takes over as king until 705.
M-A-I-II flees eastward, maintains position as sheikh of Bit-Yakin tribe.
711 RAI2, Sag     710 B76 11-984, MNHK, MRDK, RAI3,
Sdl 4-243, WPOT 162, 188, brKB, stmaB, wikB     709 LEWH 52, Sdl 4-253, frM     703 hifi
c.710 Sargon-II's PRISM A:  Akkadian cuneiform, and kept in library of Ashurbanipal, describes Sargon's campaigns to Palastu, Judah, Edom, and Moab. 710 wikLABA, wikSPA
c.710 CAPITAL of Assyria:  CALAH from 879, moved slightly north to DUR-SHARRUKIN until 704.  It is hardly ever inhabited. 710 PW 15
707 IDB 4-224
c.709 NEO-HITTITES, from 1000, end.  All former Hittite and Aramean states are now in Assyrian Empire. 709 B76 17-942, MCAW 66
c.708 MELITENE annexed by Sargon-II.  Part of Assyria until 609. 709 B76 17-942
708 B76 1-822     642 rcT
c.707 CIMMERIANS in Urartu from 715, receive new wave from between Black & Caspian Seas, defeat ARGISHTI-II, proceed south. 707 Sag1 116, Sag2 110
c.707 CIMMERIANS turn west into Assyrian province of Que. 707 Sag1 116, Sag2 110
c.705 MEDIA, divided into small principalities from 836 (at least 834), conquered by SARGON-II, under Assyria until 700. 705
LEWH 53
c.705 SARGON-II, king of Assyria 722-05, marches to Tabal to counter Cimmerian incursion.  Scythians & Cimmerians retreat west. 706 RAI2 262, Sag1 117     705 B76 II-938, 1-822, HCC, MRDK, RAI3, Sag2 111, WPOT, absA, frM, hifi, kidA, lexA
c.705 SARGON-II dies.  King of Assyria from 722, king of Babylon from 710, in Anatolia, killed fighting CimmeriansSon SENNACHERIB succeeds as king of Assyria to 681, as king of Babylon to 703. 705 B76 1-822, BCoC 165, FLAP 174, HCC, IDB 1-272, 2-732, LEWH 48, MCAW 66, MNHK 125, MRDK, RAH 100, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, Sdl 1-414, SHWC 35, SOTS 166, 210, WPOT 162, absA, frM, hifi, kidA, lexA
c.705 COTTON introduced to Assyria by Sennacherib.   (See Scandinavia 1000) 705 MCAW 65
c.704 SENNACHERIB, king of Assyria 705-681, sends troops into Que and Hilakku Provinces to quell local rebellions. 704/3
B76 1-822
c.704 CAPITAL of Assyria:  DUR-SHARRUKIN from 710, moved by Sennacherib to his newly rebuilt NINEVEH until 612. 705 PW 15     704 MCAW 65
701 B76 11-985
c.703 SENNACHERIB, king of Assyria 705-681, defeats Elamites at Cutha (northeast of Babylon), takes Cutha by storm, breaks up Chaldean allies at Kish, controls north Babylonia. 703 RAI3 321, Sag1 119, Sag2 112
c.702 CYAXARES king of Media, attacks an Assyrian province. 702 SOTS 314
c.702 MARDUK-APAL-IDDINA-II, king of Babylon from 703, defeated by Sennacherib at Kish, flees eastward into swamps.  Sennacherib retakes Babylon, keeps south Babylonia under Assyrian control, but installs native Babylonian BEL-IBNI in north Babylonia to 700. 703 RAI2 266, brKB, wikB
702 B76 11-985, MNHK, MRDK, RAI2, Sag1 119, Sag2 112, Sdl 4-258, SOTS 212, frM, hifi, stmaB     omit: RAI3
c.702 SENNACHERIB, king of Assyria 705-681, campaigns against Elamite vassals in Zagros Mts. 702 B76 11-985, 16-542
c.701 SENNACHERIB, king of Assyria 705-681, marches into Aram. 701 FLAP 176, RAI3 320, Sdl 4-258
c.701 SENNACHERIB, king of Assyria 705-681, invades Palestine until 700. 701 B76 11-985, DOTT 64, MCAW 66, Sag1 119     Hezekiah yr 14 2K 18:13
no date: 2Ch 32:1
c.700 SAMAL, vassal of Assyria from 738, annexed by Assyria.  Part of Assyria until 539. 700 rcT
c.700 BOATS:  A relief at Nineveh shows men swimming across the Tigris on inflated animal skins.  Another relief shows a boat with a horse head towing timber. 700
LS 11, 31
c.700 Water TUNNELS to subterranean aquifers built in Assyria. 700 TTT
c.700 PULLEY used in Assyria for lifting water. 1500 mach     700 TTT
c.700 DEIOCES, becomes native chieftain of Medes to 647. 728 B76 III-438     708 RAH 111 700 LEWH 53
c.700 MEDIA, under Assyria from 705, independent until 550. 700 guess
c.700 MARDUK-APAL-IDDINA-II, sheikh of Bit-Yakin tribe, when Assyrian troops leave, conspires with Chaldeans, Arameans, Elamites, usurps control of south Babylonia until later in 700. 700 RAI2 266, RAI3 321
c.700 SENNACHERIB, king of Assyria 705-681, overlord of Babylonia, in Palestine from 701, returns to Babylonia, suppresses rebellion in south. 700 Sag1 120, Sag2 113
c.700 MARDUK-APAL-IDDINA-II, king of Babylon 700, deposed by Sennacherib, never heard of again. 700 Sag1 120, Sag2 113
c.700 BEL-IBNI, king of north Babylonia from 702, relieved by Sennacherib, who installs his son ASHUR-NADIN-SHUMI until 694. 700 MNHK, MRDK, RAI2, Sag1 120, Sag2 113, Sdl 4-258, brKB, frM, hifi, stmaB, wikB     omit: RAI3
c.698 A man named Ahikar is mentioned as a high official in Assyrian documents.  He has a scribe named Nadinu.  This forms the base of a story. 698
Sdl 5-170
c.696 SENNACHERIB, king of Assyria, overlord of Babylon 705-681, sends troops into Que and Hilakku Provinces to quell local rebellions. 696
B76 1-822
c.694 SENNACHERIB, king of Assyria, overlord of Babylonia 705-681, decides to attack Chaldeans by rivers and Elam by sea, has Arameans build ships at Nineveh. 694 RAI3 321, Sag2 113
no date: Sag1 120
Assyrian biremeBIREME of Sennacherib. 700-692 wikAW



Photo GNU FDL
c.694 SENNACHERIB, king of Assyria, overlord of Babylon 705-681, sea attack on ELAM.  Secures beach head, raids and destroys Elamite cities, captures remnant of Bit-Yakin tribe. 695 RAI2 266
694 Sag2 113
no date: Sag1 120
c.694 ASHUR-NADIN-SHUMI, son of Sennacherib, king of Babylon from 700, captured at Sipar by HALLUSHU-INSHUSHINAK-II king of Elam 699-93, who installs native Babylonian NERGAL-USHEZIB until 693. 694 LEWH 52, MNHK, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
omit: frM
c.693 SENNACHERIB, king of Assyria, overlord of Babylonia 705-681, returns from south Babylonia, defeats Elamites and NERGAL-USHEZIB at Nipur. 693
Sag1 120
c.693 NERGAL-USHEZIB, king of Babylon from 694, displaced by another native Babylonian, MUSHEZIB-MARDUK, who with Aramean support succeeds to 689. 693 MNHK, MRDK, RAI2, Sag, brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB     omit: RAI3, frM
c.692 SENNACHERIB, king of Assyria, overlord of Babylon 705-681, attacks ELAM from Der province.  Climatic conditions prevent him from penetrating Elam. late 693 Sag2 114
692 B76 9-831, Sag1 121
c.690 1st recorded AQUEDUCT built by Sennacherib to bring water from a tributary of Greater Zab River to Nineveh 50 miles away. 700 TTPC, TTT 691 SHT 1-531
c.690 Taylor Prism TAYLOR PRISM:  6-sided baked clay document written in Akkadian cuneiform, found in Nineveh records 1st 8 campaigns of Sennacherib:  "As to Hezekiah, the Jew, he did not submit to my yoke.  I laid siege to 46 of his strong cities, walled forts and to the countless small villages in their vicinity, and conquered (them) by means of well-stamped (earth-) ramps, and battering-rams brought (thus) near (to the walls) (combined with) the attack by foot soldiers, (using) mines, breeches as well as sapper work. I drove out (of them) 200,150 people, young and old, male and female, horses, mules, donkeys, camels, big and small cattle beyond counting, and considered (them) booty.  Himself I made a prisoner in Jerusalem, his royal residence, like a bird in a cage."
Does not mention the siege of Lachish.
Photo
dcastor



691 brtms 691 or 89 wikSA
690 wikLABA
689 rclmnd
c.690 Jerusalem PrismJERUSALEM PRISM (so called only because it is now in Jerusalem) of Sennacherib written in Akkadian cuneiform.  Hexagonal, made of red baked clay, 38.0cm high by 14.0cm wide.  Nearly identical in content to Taylor Prism.  No one appears to know where it was found. Photo Hanay


690 wikSnA
c.689 MUSHEZIB-MARDUK, king of Babylon from 693, rebels against Assyrian governor, defeated by local Assyrian authority, flees to Elam.  HUMBAN-NIMENA-III, king of Elam, and Mushezib-Marduk return with army to province of Arrapkha, and are defeated by Sennacherib at Halule on Diyala RiverESARHADDON, son of Sennacherib, is viceroy of Babylon until 681.  Mushezib-Marduk flees to Babylon. 691 LEWH 52
689 MRDK, RAI2, Sag, brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
omit: RAI3, frM
c.689 MUSHEZIB-MARDUK, besieged in Babylon by Sennacherib 9 months, succumbs to famine and disease, surrenders.  SENNACHERIB becomes king of Babylon, takes title: "king of Sumer and Akkad". 689 B76 11-986, MCAW 68, MNHK, MRDK, RAI2, Sag1 121, Sag2 114, brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
c.689 BABYLON plundered and destroyed by Sennacherib.  Temple of Marduk destroyed.  Water of Arakhtu canal diverted over ruins.  Inner city remains nearly uninhabited 8 years.  Statue of Marduk taken to Assyria. 693 TTPC
689 B76 III-954, 2-555, 11-986, Sag1 121, Sag2 114, mxfld
c.685 ARGISHTI-II son of Rusas-I, king of Urartu from 714, ends.  Son RUSAS-II succeeds to 675. 685 B76 VIII-722, 18-1040, LEWH 51, MRDK, Sag, frN, lvA, mxfld, wikU
680 CAH 3.1, hystn, rcT, wikKU
c.681 Son of Sargon-II, SENNACHERIB dies.  King of Assyria, overlord of Babylon from 705, murdered in Babylon by sons Adramelech & Sharezer.  Son, and legitimate nominee, Esarhaddon, currently in Nineveh, musters army, attacks and defeats the parricides near Nisibis, ESARHADDON succeeds as king of Assyria and Babylon to 669. 682 LEWH 48     681 B76 1-820, 11-986, BCoC 165, CAH 3.1, DOTT 70, FLAP 176, HCC, IDB 4-270, MCAW 68, MNHK, 125, MRDK, RAH 101, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, Sdl 1-415, SHWC 35, SOTS 166, 216, WPOT, absA, brKB, frM, hifi, kidA, lexA, wikB     680 DHJ 273
c.681 ADRAMELECH & SHAREZER, murderers of Senacherib, flee to Urartu. 681 Sag1 123
c.680 Unnamed CHIEF of BIT-YAKIN tribe, a son of Marduk-Apla-Idina, rebels, blockades the Assyrian governor in Babylon, tries to take Ur, but when Esarhaddon attacks, the chief flees to Elam, where the king decides he is a liability, and executes him.  His brother submits to Esarhaddon, and is made vassal over the Sea Lands. 681 Sag1 124
680 RAI2 270, RAI3 326
c.680 ESARHADDON, king of Assyria and Babylon 681-69, begins rebuilding BABYLON for his Babylonian wife, not without local opposition.  Completed 678. 680 MCAW 68
11 yrs after destruction: RAI3 325, Sag1 125
c.680 ASHUR-AKH-IDDIN appointed governor of Babylon by Esarhaddon until 668. 680 MNHK
c.679 Chaldean Chief of the Dakkuri tribe makes encroachments on Borsippa & Babylon.  Esarhaddon attacks, defeats, and replaces him with a more compliant vassal. 679 Sag1 124 678 B76 III-954
c.679/8 ESARHADDON leaves Mesopotamia for Assyria. guess
c.676 ESARHADDON campaigns in Arabia. 676 MCAW 68
c.675 ESARHADDON invades Aram. 675 B76 III-954
c.675 RUSAS-II, king of Urartu from 685, ends.  Son ERIMENAS succeeds to 670. 675 hystn, rcT, wikKU
645 B76 VIII-722, frN, lvA     640 CAH 3.1
c.673 SHUPRIA, Assyrian province southwest of Lake Van, threatened by Cimmerians. 673 Sag1 124
c.672 ESARHADDON, king of Assyria and Babylonia 681-69, with approval of the gods and assent of the family council, proclaims sons crown princes: ASHURBANIPAL of Assyria & SHAMASH-SHUM-UKIN of Babylonia. 672 B76 III-954, 2-144, 11-986, RAI3 329,
Sag1 126
c.671 2 LUNAR ECLIPSES:  July 2 and Dec 27, interpreted by astrologers as disaster for the king.  ESARHADDON, king of Assyria and Babylonia 681-69, installs a son of a minor official as substitute king for 100 days to take the hit.  The substitute dies, undoubtedly with assistance, and is buried like a real king, his wife following him to the grave. 671
Sdl 4-298
c.671 ESARHADDON, king of Assyria and Babylonia 681-69, invades Aram.  In Mediterranean area until 670. 671
RAI3 328
c.670 ERIMENAS, king of Urartu from 675, ends.  Son RUSAS-III succeeds to 645. 675 hystn, rcT, wikKU 629 frN, lvA
c.670 ESARHADDON has some kind of problem with his nobility in Assyria, because an inscription says he executed many of them in his 11th year. 670
Sag2 119
c.669 ESARHADDON, king of Assyria and Babylonia 681-69, again sets out for Egypt with army, but gets sick. 669 Sag1 127, Sag2 119
c.669 Dec. Son of Sennacherib, ESARHADDON dies.  King of Assyria and Babylonia from 681, dies of illnes at Haran enroute to EgyptSon ASHURBANIPAL succeeds without oppossition as king of Assyria to 631, postpones Egyptian campaign, returns to Assyria. 669 B76 III-954, 2-144, 11-986, CAH 3.1, 3.2, DMoN 184, FLAP 179, GEoP 346, HCC, IDB 2-124, MCAW 68, MRDK, RAH, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, Sdl 1-415, SHWC 35, SOTS 216, WPOT 265, absA, frM, hifi, kidA, lexA
668 BCoC 165, DHJ 273, BHoE 556
c.668 ASHURBANIPAL king of Assyria 669-31, (and now in Assyria) makes treaty with GYGES king of Lydia 716-648. 668 IDB 3-191
c.668 ASHURBANIPAL king of Assyria 669-31, (and now in Assyria) makes treaty with TYRE (having been unable to take it). 668 MCAW 68, DBANE 239
c.667 ASHURBANIPAL king of Assyria 669-31, remains in Nineveh, sends army to reconquer Egypt. 667 GEoP 346, Sag1, Sag2 120
no date: RAI3 330
c.667 IAKINLU king of Arvad subdued by Assyria. 667 RAI3 331
c.660 ASHURBANIPAL, king of Assyria, reestablishes Assyrian sovereignty over MANNA. 660/59
B76 18-1040
c.656 SHAMASH-SHUM-UKIN king of Babylon 668-48, makes secret alliance with Chaldeans, Psamtik-I, Elam, Phoenicians, Philistines, Judah, & others, rebels against overlord Ashurbanipal. 656
B76 11-987
c.655 ASHURBANIPAL king of Assyria 669-31, invades Elam, takes capitals Madaktu & Susa. 655 Sag1 131, Sag2
c.654 RUSAS-II king of Urartu 685-45, sends embassy to Ashurbanipal, indicating that he still claims equal status. 654 or after: B76 18-1040
c.653 MEDES attack Nineveh unsuccesfully. 653 MCAW 70
c.652 SHAMASH-SHUM-UKIN king of Babylon 668-48, allied with Chaldeans, Psamtik-I, Elam, Phoenicians, Philistines, Judah, & others, rebels against overlord Ashurbanipal until 648.  Attacks Babylonian cities held by Assyrian governors. 652 B76 11-987, IDB 1-112, RAI3 333, Sag1 132,
Sdl 4-302, SOTS 167, 216 651 RAI2 276
c.652 ASHURBANIPAL king of Assyria 669-31, is now fully occupied in Babylonia, and cannot deal with external rebellions until 648. 652 WPOT 166
c.652 Elamite army invades north Babylonia while Shamash-shum-ukin attacks cities held by Assyrian garrisons.  Ashurbanipal defeats Elamites. 653 B76 11-987
652 Sag1 132
c.651 ASHURBANIPAL king of Assyria 669-31, expels Chaldean opposition from south Babylonia, besieges Borsippa and Babylon. no date:
B76 11-987, Sag1 132
c.650 Assyrians defeat a coalition at Babsame on the Tigris. 650 MCAW 72
c.650 Arab attempt to break Ashurbanipal's siege of Babylon fails. 650 Sag1 132,
by 650 Almost the whole civilized Near East is under one man - the king of Assyria. by 650 SHWC 35
c.650 MEDES begin pressing Assyria and Urartu. 650 B76 18-1040
c.648 BABYLON, besieged by Ashurbanipal from ?, and reduced to cannibalism, falls.  Looted and burnt. 648 B76 2-555, 11-987,
MCAW 72, Sag1 132, SOTS 167
c.648 SHAMASH-SHUM-UKIN, son of Esarhaddon, king of Babylon from 668, burns to death in palace.  ASHURBANIPAL occupies throne of Babylon for a year. 649 MRDK, hifi     648 B76 2-145, 11-986, MNHK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, Sdl 4-302, SOTS 167, brKB, frM, stmaB, wikB
c.648 ASHURBANIPAL marches to Susa, intervenes in royal succession of Elam but achieves no permanent settlement. 648
Sag1 133
c.647 DEIOCES, native chieftain of Medes from 700, ends.  Son PHRAORTES succeeds to 625. 675 B76 III-438 655 RAH 111
647 LEWH 53
c.647 KANDALANU appointed viceroy of Babylon by Ashurbanipal until 627. 647 MNHK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag1 133
c.645 RUSAS-II, king of Urartu from 670, ends.  Son SARDURI-III succeeds to 635. 650 LEWH 51     645 B76 18-1040, MRDK, frN, hystn, lvA, mxfld, rcT, wikU     644 B76 VIII-901, 18-1040 639 wikKU, wikS3
c.644 SARDURI-III, king of Urartu 645-35, sends embassy to ASHURBANIPAL acknowledging him as sovereign. 644
B76 18-1040
c.642 ASSYRIAN ARMY marches thru all of ELAM until 639. 642 Sag1 133 639 MCAW 72
c.639 The series of Assyrian campaigns into Elam from 692 ends.  The final campaign from 642 is victorious and ends. 639 B76 9-831, RAI3 334, Sag1 133
c.639  ASHURBANIPAL'S ANNALS  end here, a detailed, almost novelistic accounts of his military and civic achievements.  He leaves no more history until his death. 640 B76 11-987
639 IDB 1-257, RAI2 310, RAI3 372, Sag1 134, WPOT 166
c.63? LIBRARY at NINEVEH built by Ashurbanipal.  Contains @30,000 tablets, including scientific achievements, medical treatises, multiplication tablets, lists of plants, hymns, prayers, incantations, omens, astronomy/astrology, Sumerian Grammars.  Significant tablets:   Azekah Inscription, Esarhaddon's Treaty with Baal of Tyre, Nimrud Tablet K.3751, Sargon-II's Prism A, Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa, GILGAMISH EPIC, Enuma Elish . no date: MCAW 69, wikLA
c.635 SARDURI-III son of Rusas-II, king of Urartu from 645, ends.  ERIMENA succeeds to 620. 640 B76 VIII-901, 18-1040
635 frN, lvA, wikKU, wikU
Rusas-3 succeeds 625 LEWH 51, MRDK
Irgias succeeds 620 hystn, rcT     610 CAH 3.1
c.632 ASSYRIA:  civil war between sons of Ashurbanipal, ASHUR-ETIL-ILANI and SIN-SHAR-ISHKUN.  Ashurbanipal withdraws to Haran. after 635 B76 11-987
c.632 ASSYRIA begins decline. 636-27 ENBD 1303
c.631 Son of Esarhaddon, ASHURBANIPAL ends.  King of Assyria from 669, ends, but doesn't die until 627.  Son ASHUR-ETIL-ILANI is chosen heir, but has to fight his bro SIN-SHAR-ISHKUN until 627. 633 FLAP 180, HCC     632 DOTT
631 RAI2, absA, frM, hifi, kidA, lexA
630 RAI3 373, SOTS 167, 219, Sdl 4-299
c.630 Chaldean NABOPOLASSAR appointed governor of Babylon by Assyrians. 630 MCAW 72
c.627 ASHURBANIPAL, son of Esarhaddon, former king of Assyria 669-31, dies. 631 MCAW 72     629 WPOT 166     627 B76 11-986, CAH 3.1, 3.2, RAI3, WPOT, absA, hifi
626 BCoC 165, DHJ 276, MRDK, RAH, Sag, Sdl 1-405, SHWC 35, TTPC
c.627 Son of Ashurbanipal, ASHUR-ETIL-ILANI ends.  King of Assyria from 631.  Bro SIN-SHAR-ISHKUN succeeds to 612. 629 HCC, frM, kidA     627 absA, hifi, lexA     623 Sag     621 MRDK
c.627 KANDALANU, king of Babylon from 648, dies.  SIN-SHAR-ISHKUN, son of Ashurbanipal, succeeds to 620. 630 MCAW 72     627 CAH 3.1, 3.2, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 4-311, SOTS 231, bk, brKB, frM, hifi, stmaB, wikB     626 MNHK, Sag
c.626 SIN-SHUMU-LISHIR in Babylon becomes rival for throne of Assyria until 621. 626 CAH 3.1, MRDK, absA, hifi, lexA
no date: RAI3     omit: Sag, frM, kidA
c.626 NABOPOLASSAR, Chaldean king of southern Babylonia 626-05, clears last Assyrian garrisons from Babylonia south of Sippar. by 617
Sag1 137
c.625 PHRAORTES, native chieftain of Medes from 647, killed besieging Nineveh.  Son CYAXARES succeeds to 585. 634 DGRBM 1-908
633 RAH 112
625 B76 III-318, LEWH 53
c.625 CYAXARES, king of Medes 625-585, gathers available forces, renews siege of Nineveh. 634 DGRBM 1-908
c.625 CYAXARES, king of Medes 625-585, leaves Nineveh, attacks Scythians, and is defeated, and becomes subject to Scythians. 634 DGRBM 1-908
c.625 MADIUS the Scythian, king of Medes from 625, goes south with his father to invade Levant.  Cyaxares, son of Phraortes, succeeds as CYAXARES-II to 585. 640 mxfld     625 B76 III-318, 9-832, 11-988, GRG 329, HCC, MRDK, abasP, hifi, irch, KoP, taP, wapP
c.625 SIN-SHAR-ISHKUN fights NABOPOLASSAR until 623. 625 B76 11-988
c.623 ASHUR-ETIL-ILANI, son of Ashurbanipal, claimant to throne of Assyria, killed in battle at Nippur, leaving SIN-SHAR-ISHKUN supreme. 623
RAI3 374
c.623 NIPPUR, under Assyria from ?, taken by Nabopolassar. 622 SOTS 231
621 Apr 22 ECLIPSE in 5th year of Nabopolassar. 621 Apr 22 doth
c.620 ERIMENA, king of Urartu from 635, ends.  Son MENUAS-II succeeds to 590...
Or Rusas-III succeeds to 615.
629 frN, lvA, wikKU     625 LEWH 51 620 wikU     605 MRDK     600 hystn
c.620 SIN-SHAR-ISHKUN ends.  King of Assyria 627-12, king of Babylon from 627, flees from Babylon to Nineveh. 626 RAI3 374
620 brKB, hifi, wikB
omit: RAI2, Sag, frM, stmaB
ASSYRIAN RULE of Babylon ends.  Began 732.
NABOPOLASSAR is king of Babylon to 605.
c.617 NABOPOLASSAR, Chaldean king of southern Babylonia 626-05, marches north of Tigris into Aramean lands of Suhu and Hindanu, subdues Arameans, defeats Assyrians.  Counterattacked by Assyrian & Egyptian force.  Withdraws to Babylon. 617
Sag1 137
c.616 NABOPOLASSAR, Chaldean king of southern Babylonia 626-05, counterattacks Assyrian & Egyptian force south of lower Zab River, forces them to withdraw, now controls all Sumer & Akkad. 616 RAI3 374, Sag1 137, SOTS 231
c.616 MANNA conquered and annexed by MEDIA. 616 hifi, irch
c.616 MEDES invade Assyrian territory, expelled by Assyrians with Scythian help. 616 Sdl 4-312
c.616 NABOPOLASSAR, Chaldean king of southern Babylonia 626-05, marches one army up Euphrates to Haran, and another up Tigris to Arraphka, which is besieged unsuccessfully. 616 RAI2 312, RAI3 374, Sdl 4-313
c.616 NABOPOLASSAR / CYAXARES-II alliance. 616 CMoG3 214
c.615 NABOPOLASSAR, Chaldean king of southern Babylonia 626-05, attacks religious capital Ashur, defeated by Assyrians, flees to Takrit.  SIN-SHAR-ISHKUN, king of Assyria 627-12 suspects invasion by Medes, doesn't pursue Nabopolassar, assumes defensive posture, seeks alliance with Egypt. 615 Sag1 137-8, Sdl 4-314
no date: RAI3 375
c.615 late CYAXARES-II king of Medes 625-585 takes Assyrian border city ARAPHA to establish a base of operations. 615 B76 9-833, 11-988, MCAW 74, RAI3 375, Sag1 138, Sdl 4-314, irch
c.615 late CYAXARES-II invades Assyria. 616 B76 11-988     615 B76 9-833 615/4 RAI3 375     614 Sag1 138
c.614 CYAXARES-II king of Medes 625-585 besieges NINEVEH, but fails to capture, takes Tarbisu, takes and destroys ASHUR. 616 B76 11-988, bk     614 B76 III-318, 9-833, 11-988, IDB 2-997, RAI2 313, RAI3 375, Sag1 138, Sdl 4-314, SOTS 219, 233, irch
c.614 NABOPOLASSAR, Chaldean king of southern Babylonia 626-05, leads army to Ashur, but arrives too late to participate in battle or plunder, makes treaty with CYAXARES-II king of Medes. 614 RAI3 375, Sag1 138
614/3 Sdl 4-314
c.614 Assyrians march down Euphrates to attack Nabopolassar.  SUHU tribes north of Tigris now rebel against Nabopolassar.  Assyrian/Egyptian coalition forces Nabopolassar to abandon siege of Anah and return to Babylon. 614
RAI2 313, Sag1 138
c.614 Anti-Assyrian ALLIANCE:  CYAXARES-II & NABOPOLASSAR. 614 B76 11-988, MCAW 74, RAI3 376     613 B76 9-833, Sag1 138
c.613 Median siege of NINEVEH lifted, possibly because of Scythian attack on Medes. 613
FLAP 184
c.613 NABOPOLASSAR, Chaldean king of southern Babylonia 626-05, campaigns unsuccessfully along Euphrates, besieges Anatu. 613 RAI3 376, Sdl 4-314
c.612 SCYTHIANS persuaded by Medes to join coalition against Assyria. 612 MCAW 74
c.612 CALAH, former capital of Assyria, taken by coalition. 612 B76 11-988
c.612 Siege of NINEVEH resumed, this time with Medes, Scythians, and Babylonians combined.  Part of Assyrian defenses are washed away by flooding Tigris. 612 B76 9-833, FLAP 184, MCAW 74, RAI3 376,
Sag1 139, Sdl 4-315
c.612 After 3 month siege, NINEVEH, capital of Assyria from 704, falls to coalition. 612 B76 9-833, 17, 946, CAH 3.2,
FLAP 183, MCAW 74, RAH, RAI2 313, Sag1 139, Sdl 4-315, SHWC 36, SOTS 167, 218, WBH 20
NEO-ASSYRIAN Period ends.  Began 912.

Syria-Urartu 612-501
V