Levant
The land we call Syria is abbreviated from Assyria because the name stuck after Assyria fell in 612.  It is arbitrarily called Aram here because the Torah calls it Aram even before the Arameans arrived.
c.1000 BEYRYT Lebanon, independent from 1400, comes under Tyre until 609. 1000 rcLeb
c.1000 PHOENICIAN culture and seapower peaks. 1200-800 wikΦ
c.1000 SILVER from Spain imported to Tyre. 100 GHH
c.1000 JERUSALEM, under Jebusites from ?, taken by DAVID, becomes capital of Judah until 722. 2 Sam 5:6, Antiq VII-3-1     1068 trubi 1047 GHH     1005 B76 10-139, TTPC     1004 bivu, ds     975 hifiI
c.1000 BETH-SHAN, under Canaanites from ?, taken by Israelites. 1000 B76 17-942
c.1000 AHIMELECH, high priest from ?, ends.  ABIATHAR succeeds until 961. 1000 rcHL
c.1000 GEZER on plain of Sharon, under Jebusites from ?, taken by Israel until 922. 1000 rcCan
c.1000 AI, in ruins from 2400, rebuilt. 1000 SOTS 97
c.1000 ARAMEANS of east Aram, move southwest towards Damascus and beyond. 1000 TAWH 56
c.1000 AHIRAM becomes king of Gebal (Byblos) until 980. 1000 MWΦ 11, RAI3, wikAh
c.1000 OXEN, exclusively used for heavy transport until now when CAMELS V are added in Levant and Mesopotamia.   (See Arabia 1000, Sahara 950) 1600 mxfld
1000 SHT 1-719-20
c.1000 Λ IRON PLOW SHARES used at Gerar and Megiddo. 1000 SHT 2-86
c.1000 HADADEZER of Beth Rehob, Aramean king of Zobah, heads a league of states including Maacah, Beth Rehob, Tob, and maybe Geshur and Damascus. 970
LEWH 46
c.1000 ACCO, under Tyre from 1200, comes under ISRAEL until 950. 1000 rcHL
c.1000 LACHISH, destroyed from 1200, rebuilt. 1000 IDB 3-54
c.1000 GERAR under Philistines of Gaza from 1200, comes under Iraelites, then Judah until ?. 1000 rcCan
c.1000 ZIKLAG, town in Negev, under Philistines of Gath from 1010, comes under Israelites until ?. 1000 rcCan
c.1000 Purple DYE made from murex shellfish in Phoenicia. 1000 TTT
c.1000 Λ MUSIC:  Professional musicians appear in Israel.   (See flute 1350, wind instruments 800) 1000 wikMI
c.998 JERUSALEM, under Jebusites from ?, taken by David, rebuilt. 2Sam 5:7
997 htc
c.998 Capital of David, HEBRON from ?, moved to JERUSALEM. 2Sam 5:9
997 htc
c.998 HIRAM of Tyre allies with David, sends cedar to build him a house. 2Sam 5:11, 1Ch 14:1
c.998 David is publicly anointed king over all of Israel and Judah. 2Sam 5:17
993 htc
c.998 Philistines occupy the valley of Rephaim.  David defeats them at Baal Perazim, and drives them out.  They come back.  David drives them out again. 2Sam 5:18-25 1Ch 14:8-16 993 htc
c.99? Ark of the covenant, at the house of Abinadab in Gibeah from ?, put in a cart for transport to Jerusalem.  It gets jostled by the oxen.  Uzzah grabs it to steady it.  Yahweh kills Uzzah.  David fears to take it to Jerusalem, so he takes it to the house of Obed-edom the Gittite, where it remains 3 months.  Obed-edom does well, so David figures its OK to bring it to Jerusalem.  He has Levites do it just to be safe.  They carry it on their shoulders and put it in a tent. 2Sam 6:3-17, 1Ch 13:7-14, 15:1-14
992 htc
c.99? David wants to build a house for the ark.  Prophet Nathan says it's OK to do so.  Then Yahweh tells Nathan it's not OK, but that a son of David can do it.     2Sam 7:1, 1Ch 17:3-15
992 htc
c.99? Nathan says YAHWEH promises DAVID that his house, his throne, and his kingdom are established forever. 2Sam 7:16 1Ch 17:14 992 htc
No condition V is placed on this promise.
c.99? Philistine city METHEGAMMAH taken by David. 2Sam 8:1
c.99? HADADEZER, Aramean king of Zobah, on pretext of aiding Ammon, invades Israelite territory in Transjordan, , defeated by David, retreats to Euphrates, defeated again. 2Sam 8:3, Antiq 7:5:1
970
LEWH 46, hifiI
1,000 chariots with horses taken by David.  He hamstrings the horses because of Dt. 17:16 - but keeps enough for 100 chariots.
c.99? HADAD, king of Damascus, ally of Hadadezer, defeated by DAVID at Euphrates, loses 22,000 men, becomes vassal to Israel until ?. 2Sam 8:5, Antiq 7:5:2
c.99? Israelite territory includes all Hamath and land to the Euphrates. 970 LEWH 46
c.99? TYRE comes under Israel until 969. guess
c.99? TOI, king of Hamath, sends son Joram to Jerusalem to establish good relations with David. 2Sam 8:10
c.99? EDOM conquered by David.  JOAB spends 6 months killing all males.  Edom under Israel until 922. 2Sam 8:14, Antiq 7:5:4
990 rcHL     975 hifiEd
c.99? Edomite nobility including prince Hadad, flee to Midian south of Edom, recruit men from Paran in Sinai, flee to Egypt.  Treated well by pharaoh. 1K 11:17
975 hifiEd
c.99? NAHASH, king of Ammon, dies.  Son HANUN succeeds until ?.  David sends servants to Hanun, supposedly to "console" him.  Hanun suspects that they are spies, and sends them home humiliated. 2Sam 10:1-4
1000 hifiAm 981 htc
c.99? JOAB and Abishai, generals of Israel, attack and defeat Ammon and Syrian allies, besieges Rabbah. 2Sam 10:13-14
981 htc
980 hifiAm, rcJdn
c.99? HADADEZER, Aramean king of Zobah, recruits reinforcements from beyond Euphrates, regroups at Helam.  Shobach is commander. 2Sam 10:16
no date: IDB 2-507
c.993 ABIBAAL becomes king of Tyre, vassal of Israel, until 980. 1000 arg     993 wikT
990 adeT, rcLeb
c.990 APHEK, under Ashdod from 1240, comes under Israel until ?. 990 rcCan
c.990 BETH-SHAN in north Jordan valley comes under Israel until 722. 990 rcCan
c.990 TOB, town east of Ramoth-Gilead, disputed from 1200, comes under Israel until ?. 990 rcCan
c.990 JOPPA, under Philistines of Ashdod from 1200, comes under Israel until 800. 990 rcHL
c.9?? JOAB, commander of Israel, attacks and defeats Shobach at Helam.  Hadadezer makes peace with Israel. 2Sam 10:17-11:1
981 htc
980 hifiAm, rcJdn
c.9?? DAVID, king of Israel 1003-970, while army is away, does the number with Bathsheba. 2Sam 11:3
1035 GHH 980 htc
c.9?? RABBAH, capital of Ammon, besieged by JOAB, commander of Israel, falls.  Joab sends for David to come and take it formally so David can get credit for it.
AMMON comes under Israel until 925.
2Sam 12:26-31, 1Ch 20:1-3
1035 GHH
980 hifiAm, rcJdn
979 htc
David TORTURES war prisoners of Rabbah with saws, iron picks, and axes.   (enhanced interrogation undoubtedly to find their weapons of mass destruction) 1Ch 20:3
c.9?? AMNON, 1st son of David by Ahinoam, rapes half-sis TAMAR, dau of David & Maacha.  Tamar's full bro ABSALOM then hates Amnon. 2Sam 13:1-22
1034 GHH 978 htc
c.9?? 2 yrs after the rape, AMNON, 1st son of David & Ahinoam, is killed at Baal-Hazor (9km northeast of Bethel) by servants of Abasalom. 2Sam 13:29
1027 GHH
990 TTPC     976 htc
c.9?? ABSALOM flees to Talmai, king of Geshur east of the Sea of Chinnereth (Galilee). 2Sam 13:37
1034 GHH    976 htc
c.9?? After 3 years, David forgives Absalom and has Joab go to Geshur and bring him back to Jerusalem.  Absalom avoids David for 2 years. 2Sam 14:21-28
1025 GHH     974 htc
c.9?? Absalom is reconciled with David. 2Sam 14:33     972 htc
c.98? 2 yrs after he returned, ABSALOM begins courting popularity with the masses for 4 years. 2Sam 15:6
978 TTPC     972 htc
c.98? ABSALOM, eldest surviving son of David, goes to Hebron, sends messengers thruout Israel saying he intends to be king in Hebron.  Solicits David's counselor, Ahithophel. 4 yrs after forgiven: 2Sam 15:7
1023 GHH     969 htc
c.98? DAVID, king of Israel, flees from Jerusalem. 2Sam 15:16
c.98? ABSALOM, pretender to throne of Israel, with army, enters Jerusalem. 2Sam 16:15
969 htc
c.98? Ahithophel, advises Absalom to pursue David immediately.  Hushai advises recruiting more troops first.  Absalom favors Hushai's advice, Hushai has messengers sent to tell David what's up.  David and his men escape across the Jordan. 2Sam 17:1-22
969 htc
c.98? AHITHOPHEL, chief counselor of Absalom, goes home and hangs himself. 2Sam 17:23
969 htc
c.98? DAVID, king of Israel, arrives at Mahanaim (location disputed). 2Sam 17:24
c.98? ABSALOM with army, crosses east over Jordan R.  Makes Amasa commander of his army.  Camps in Gilead. 2Sam 17:24-25
c.98? JOAB, commander of David's army, defeats Amasa in forest of Ephraim, kills 20,000. 2Sam 18:6-7
c.98? ABSALOM, eldest surviving son of David, pretender to throne of Israel, gets his hair caught in an oak tree.  Murdered by JOAB, contrary to David's orders. 2Sam 18:14
1023 GHH
969 htc
c.98? AMASA, former commander of Absalom's army, forgiven by David.  Promoted to commander of army, thus replacing JOAB. 2Sam 19:13
1022 GHH
969 htc
c.98? David is east of the Jordan returning from the war.  Men from Judah ride to meet him and escort him back to Jerusalem.  The other 11 tribes become indignant - like why does David need protection traveling thru their territory?  It escallates. 2Sam 19:15-43
969 htc
c.98? Benjamite SHEBA ben Bichri leads a secession of all tribes except Judah away from David. 2Sam 20:1-2 969 htc
c.98? AMASA, commander of David's army, murdered by JOAB at Gibeon.  Sheba flees to Abel Beth Maacah.  A woman of the city has his head delivered to Joab to preserve the city. 2Sam 20:4-22 969 htc
c.98? 3 year famine in Israel, attributed to Yahweh being miffed at Saul for attacking the Gibeonites (a fact somehow not recorded anywhere else), in violation of a treaty made with them by Joshua (Jsh 9). 2Sam 21:1
968 htc
c.98? David, asks the Gibeonites what they want in recompence for an attack decades earlier by Saul.  The Gibeonites obligingly ask for the surviving 7 sons of Saul to be delivered to them for execution - no doubt ingratiating themselves to David, who complies, conveniently eliminating 7 potential rivals. 2Sam 21:1-6
966 htc
c.98? Philistine/Israel war resumes.  David leads in battle, and is nearly killed.  His men convince him to go home and let them handle the fighting.  4 Philistine giants are killed in these battles. 2Sam 21:15-22 1017 GHH
965 htc
c.98? Philistine - Israel war at Gob.  ELHANAN, an Israelite soldier, kills GOLIATH the Gittite (whose staff was like a weaver's beam). 2Sam 21:18-19
Modern translators often try to make it look like this was the brother of Goliath.
c.980 Ahiram sarcophagus AHIRAM, king of Gebal from 1000, dies.  An inscription of 38 words written in Old Phoenician dialect is on the rim and lid of his sarcophagus.  (Oldest inscription in Λ PHOENICIAN ALPHABET V found)
Son ITOBAAL succeeds to 940.  (1st to be explicitly titled King of Gebal)
980 MWΦ 11, RAI3
no date: wikAh


Photo
pub dom
c.980 GERASA, city in northeast Jordan, comes under Israel until 880. 980 rcJdn
c.980 MOAB comes under Israel from 925. 980 rcJdn
c.980 ABIBAAL, king of Tyre, vassal of Israel, from 993, ends.  Son HIRAM-I succeeds to 936, as vassal of Israel until 969. 996 Sdl 1-159     981 IDB 3-802, wikT 980 RAI3, wikHrm     979/8 Sdl 3-219
978 adeT, rcLeb     975 arg
969 AYGC 218, LEWH 47
c.980 YAHWEH is angry at Israel for unstated reasons.  He moves DAVID to conduct a census of Israel and Judah.  David orders Joab to do so.  It takes 9 months and 20 days.   Count:  800,000 fighting men in Israel, 500,000 in Judah. 2Sam 24:1-9
1017 GHH
980 MCAW 55
964 htc
That wasn't Yahweh;  it was Satan. 1Ch 21:1
written c.450
c.97? DAVID is told by Gath the seer that Yahweh intends to punish David for conducting the census.  Yahweh offers David his choice of 3 punishments.  David chooses 3 days pestilence. 2Sam 24:11-15
1017 GHH
980 MCAW 55
964 htc
c.97? To quell the pestilence, prophet Gad tells David to buy the threshing floor of Araunah (Ornan) the Jebusite and build an altar on it.  David does so for 600 shekels, burns a sacrifice, and the pestilence stops - which it was supposed to do anyway after 3 days.  Pestilence killed 70,000 men. 2Sam 24:18-25, 1Ch 21:18-30
964 htc
c.97? David's health begins to fail.  They bring in a Shunamite girl to refresh him, but he's not up for it. 1K 1:1-4
962 htc
c.975 Purple DYE made from murex shellfish in Phoenicia. 1000-951 TTS, TTT
c.975 ASHDOD, ASKALON, EKRON, GAZA, and GATH, independent from 1200, under Israel until ?. 975 rcHL
c.971 ADONIJAH, 4th son of David by Haggith, plots to succeed David.  Enlists alliance of Joab and Abiathar.  Invites all of David's other sons to join him except Solomon. 1K 1:5
1015 GHH
965 hifiI     962 htc
c.971 Nathan convinces Bathsheba to convince David to declare Solomon his official heir.  DAVID confirms his oath to Bathsheba that Solomon will succeed him.  Summons Zadok, Nathan, and Beniah.  Tells them to take Solomon to Gihon (a spring near Jerusalem) and anoint him king.  They do so. 1K 1:11-38, 1Ch 23:1, 26:31
962 htc
c.971 All Israel celebrates Solomon's coronation.  Adonijah's supporters desert him. 1K 1 41
c.971 ADONIJAH, abandoned by partisans, flees to the Tabernacle, grabs the horns of the altar, asks Solomon to swear not to hurt him.  Solomon says if Adonijah behaves, he is safe.  If not, he dies. 1K 1:50
c.970 David tells Solomon that he wanted to build a house for Yahweh, but Yahweh said David killed too many people, so David was disqualified.  But Yahweh said David's son Solomon would be given the job - furthermore that Solomon's dynasty over Israel will last forever.  He also tells Solomon to kill Joab. 1Ch 22:6-19
963 htc
David is a bit more cautious than Yahweh, and implies that Yahweh's promise is ΛconditionedV on Solomon seeking Yahweh. 1K 2:4
1Ch 28:9-10
c.970 DAVID dies.  King of Judah from 1010, all Israel from 1003.
Son SOLOMON succeeds to 931.
1036 trubi     973 TTPC     971 HCC, bihi, biti, bivu, ds
971/0 Sdl 3-219     970 DHJ 145, MCAW 52, RAH, RAI3, btl, frN, kical     967 lara     965 CAH 3.1, FLAP 106, hifiI     964 bica     962 B76 III-396, 5-518, WBH 33     961 LEWH 43, MRDK, MWΦ 11, bk, htc, rcHL
960 B76 17-945, BCoC 187     939 lgbt
c.96? TYRE, under Israel from 998, independent until 722, under king HIRAM-I, 980-36. 969 LEWH 43, WBANE 341
968 IDB 4-534
c.96? ADONIJAH, eldest surviving son of David, asks Bathsheba to ask Solomon to give him Abishag (the Shunamite belly-warmer who was offered to David) in marriage.  Bathsheba does so. 1K 2:13-17
c.96? SOLOMON, king of Israel 970-31, uses Adonijah's request for Abishag as a pretext to kill him.  Orders Beniah to kill Adonijah.  Beniah does so. 1K 2:25
1014 GHH
c.96? ABIATHAR, High Priest of Israel from 1000, fired by Solomon, who appoints ZADOK to succeed until ?. 1K 2:27 971 bivu 961 rcHL
The stated reason is that Solomon wanted to fulfill a prophesy (1Sam 2:31-35) that the house of Eli would be cut off.  Apparently Abiathar was a descendant of Eli.  This shows that Solomon had access to at least this much of the Book of 1Sam, and that fulfilling prophesy was considered a duty - unless the whole thing is a later redaction.
c.96? JOAB flees to the Tabernacle, grabs the horns of the altar.  Solomon orders Beniah to kill Joab.  Beniah does so. 1K 2:28-34
c.96? BENIAH ben Jehoiada promoted to commander of the army by Solomon. 1K 2:35
c.967 SHIMEI executed by Solomon. Sol yr 3 1K 2:39-46
c.967 SOLOMON makes  treaty  with an unnamed pharaoh (probably SIAMUN), receives pharaoh's dau for a wife. 1K 3:1
1014 GHH
c.967 GEZER, an independent Canaanite city from ?, taken and burned by pharaoh (probably SIAMUN), who gives it to Solomon as a dowry for his daughter. 1K 3:1, 9:16
950 MCAW 54
c.967 SOLOMON, king of Israel 970-31, goes to Gibeon to sacrifice at a high place.  Burns 1,000 offerings there.  Dreams of Yahweh asking him what he wants.  Asks for an understanding heart.  Yahweh promises him that plus wealth and honor.  Solomon returns to Jerusalem. 1K 3:4-15
c.967 SOLOMON, king of Israel 970-31, judges between 2 harlots, both claiming the same infant. 1K 3:16-28
970 MCAW 55
c.967 SOLOMON, king of Israel 970-31, has 40,000 stalls for HORSES and 12,000 horsemen. 1K 4:26
See Dt 17:16 & Josh 11:6.
c.966 TEMPLE construction begun.  Solomon begins building Temple.  Finishes the foundation in same year. 1K 6:1     1012 GHH     970 kical   969 Sdl 2-91     966 HCC, bihi, bivu, btl     961 htc     936 lgbt
Sol yr 4 1K 6:1, 37, 2Ch 3:2
480 years after Exodus. 1K 6:1
Uses slave labor - foreigners only. 1K 5:13, 9:22
c.966 SOLOMON, king of Israel 970-31, begins over-taxing his people. 970 MCAW 55
c.965 DAMASCUS taken by Ezron, comes under Arameans until 732. 965 wikDms
c.960 TADMOR in desert east of Kadesh, independent from ?, comes under Israel until 928. 960 rcS
c.959 Solomon's TEMPLE finished.  Stands until 586. Solomon's Temple Mattes
Sol yr 11 1K 6:38   1026 trubi 1005 GHH     960 BNTH 3
959 MCAW 54     955 hifiI
950 B76 IX-881, htc
No Torah reading is mentioned at its dedication.  Solomon just tells Israelites to keep Yahweh's commandments, which he commanded their fathers.  Solomon begins building his palace.
c.959 YAHWEH appears to Solomon in a dream.  Confirms that his promise to David about his house, throne, and kingdom being established forever was Λconditioned on obedience.  Furthermore that if Israel doesn't obey, they will be cut off from the land.  "Forever" is not mentioned this time. 1K 9:1-9
c.950 ACCO, under Israel from 1000, comes under Tyre until 700. 950 rcHL
c.950 MEGIDDO becomes an important fortress and administrative center under Solomon. 950 PW 15
c.950  SEMITIC ALPHABETS , have developed from Phoenician.  They include Λ Phoenician, Aramaic V, and Hebrew.   (See Linear-B 1150 Veracruz 1000 India 850, Greek 950, Greek 750) 950 MCAW 55, TToH 6
8-700 wikAA
c.950 Zayit Stone  ZAYIT STONE  38 lb limestone boulder excavated at Tel Zayit in southwest Israel.  Possibly the earliest known example of paleo-Hebrew alphabet.  Probably an inscribed abecedary (22 with 2 terminating symbols) and remnants of several other inscriptions (at least 3 words plus 2 other pairs of terminating symbols). 10th cen.: wikTZ, wikZS


Photo {{PD-US}}
c.950  GEZER CALENDAR  limestone tablet at Gezer   Scholars divided on script & language: Phoenician or paleo-Hebrew.
2 months gathering
2 months planting
2 months late sowing
1 month cutting flax
1 month reaping barley
1 month reaping & measuring (grain)
[Sept–Oct]
[Nov–Dec]
[Jan–Feb]
[March]
[April]
[May]
2 months pruning
1 month summer fruit
[June–July]
[Aug] Abijah
"Abijah" is probably the name of the scribe.
(See Egyptian 1500, Babylonian 747, Mayan 613, Cleostratos 520)
Gezer calendar oncenawhile

1000
B76 1-619, BBP 14
10th cen.: wikGC
Early Hebrew language and alphabet B76 1-619
c.950 TYRE, independent 969-722, populated by Phoenicians, who continue expanding into CYPRUS. 950 TToH 6
c.946 Solomon's PALACE, begun 959, finished. 13 yrs after temple finished: 1K 7:1
20 yrs after temple started: 1K 9:10
1014 trubi     950 MCAW 54     937 htc
c.946 HIRAM, king of Tyre 969-36, receives 20 cities in Galilee from Solomon for Hiram's help in building projects.  Hiram doesn't like them. Sol yr 20 1K 9:10-11
after palace finished: 1K 9:10-11
c.946 SOLOMON, king of Israel 970-31, begins building a merchant FLEET at Ezion-Geber on the Gulf of Aqaba.  This means he controls all Edom.  Hiram of Tyre furnishes sailors.  It trades with OPHIR, which must have been in Africa, because they brought back apes and ivory. 1K 9:26-28, 10:22,
2Ch 9:21
950 MCAW 55
c.945 SOLOMON, king of Israel 970-31, receives Queen of SHEBA. 1K 10:1-13     965 hifiI 945 MCAW 54
c.945 SOLOMON, king of Israel 970-31, has 40,000 horses. 1K 4:26, 10:26
945 MCAW 54
c.945 JEROBOAM, an Ephraimite, is put in charge of the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh by Solomon. 1K 11:26
c.940 JEROBOAM, governor of Ephraim and Manasseh, is told by prophet Ahijah that he will inherit 10 of the 12 tribes of Israel when Solomon dies.  The news gets back to Solomon, who tries to have Jeroboam killed.  Jeroboam flees to Egypt, where he is protected by Sheshonk-I, pharaoh 945-24. 1K 11:29-40
c.940 ITOBAAL, king of Gebal from 980, ends. (1st to be explicitly titled King of Gebal)  ABIBAAL succeeds to 920. 940 MWΦ 11, RAI3
c.940 ETHBAAL becomes king of Sidon until 908. 940 rcLeb     920 GHH
c.940 REZON-I, son of Eliada, becomes king of Damascus until 910. 950 MRDK
940 CBCOT, HCC
c.936 Son of Abi-baal, HIRAM-I ends.  King of Tyre, from 969.  Son BAAL-AZAR-I succeeds 935-19. 947 IDB 3-802, 4-722, wikHrm, wikT
945 ENBD 1303     944 adeT, rcLeb
941 arg     936 AYGC 218, LEWH 43, 47, MWΦ 14, RAI2, Sdl 1-159, WBANE 341
935 IDB 4-534     931 RAI3
c.931 2nd son of David by Bathsheba, SOLOMON dies.  King of Israel from 970.  Son (age 41) REHOBOAM succeeds to 913. ruled 40 yrs: 1K 11:42       997 trubi     975 GHH 935 RAI2     933 TTPC     931 CAH 3.1, CBCOT, HCC, MCAW 55, RAI3, bihi, biti, bivu, ds, frN, htc, lara     930 DHJ 145, MNHK, RAH 93, btl     928 hifiI     927 bk     924 bica
922 B76 17-945, LEWH 43, MRDK, MWΦ 11, WBH 20, rcHL     899 lgbt
c.931 REHOBOAM goes to Shechem for coronation, tells congregation that he will oppress them more than Solomon did.  10 northern tribes walk out of the meeting and murder Rehoboam's forced labor boss.  Rehoboam flees to Jerusalem, 1K 12:1-18
997 trubi
931 SOTS 183
c.931 JEROBOAM ben Nebat, in Egypt from 940, learns of death of Solomon, goes to Shechem. 1K 12:2
c.931 REHOBOAM, king of Judah 931-13, tells tribes of Judah and Benjamin to prepare for war with the other 10 tribes, but a prophet tells him not to go thru with it. 1K 12:21-24
931 SOTS 183
c.930 REZON-I, king of Damascus 940-10, under Israel from ?, rebels, restores independence. 980 GHH
c.930 JEROBOAM ben Nebat is apparently (though Bible doesn't say so) elected king of the 10 northern tribes until 909.  He builds up Shechem.  Figuring that if the Israelites sacrifice at Jerusalem, his position will be weakened, Jeroboam makes 2 golden calves, puts one at Dan and the other at Bethel as worship centers, appoints non-Levitic priests. 1K 12:25, 2Ch 11:14-15
997 trubi     989 lgbt     975 GHH     931 RAI3, Sag, frN, lara, bihi, biti, bivu     930 BCoC 189, DHJ 165, MNHK, SHWC 29, btl     928 hifiI
927 bk     922 AYGC 30, IDB 2-840, rcHL
ISRAEL SPLITS.  United from 1043.
Northern kingdom of ISRAEL until 722.
Southern kingdom of JUDAH until 586.
c.928 JEROBOAM's son falls ill.  Jeroboam sends his wife Shiloh to ask prophet Ahijah if his son would recover.  Ahijah says no, and that Yahweh will punish Jeroboam for his idolatry.  The boy dies. 1K 14:1-17
c.926 SHESHONK-I, pharaoh 945-24, with 12,000 chariots and 3,000 cavalry, invades Palestine, stops at Gaza, takes fortified cities of Judah, robs temple at Jerusalem, takes gold shields put there by Solomon, then focuses mainly on north kingdom. Rehoboam yr 5 1K14:25, 2Ch 12:2
971 GHH     926 BHoE 529, MCAW 54, TTPC, bk     926/5 MNHK 80, Sdl 4-3     925 CBCOT, DHJ 165, IDB 2-26, MCAW 54, hifiI, nar, wikTJ     920 IDB 4-338     918 IDB 4-30, 528, LEWH 44     917 IDB 3-794
c.926 GEZER sacked and destroyed by SHESHONK-I. 918 IDB Sup-363
c.926 DEBIR sacked and destroyed by SHESHONK-I. 918 IDB 1-808
c.926 BETH SHAN sacked by SHESHONK-I. 926 IDB 1-401
c.925 AMMON, under Israel from 99?, rebels.   Independent until 900. 925 CBCOT
c.925 MOAB, under Israel from 980, rebels.   Independent until 877. 925 CBCOT
c.925 EZION-GEBER, at Gulf of Aqaba, under Israel / Judah from ?, sacked and destroyed by SHESHONK-I. 925 IDB 2-214
c.922 GATH fortified by Rehoboam. 2Ch 11:8-10     922 IDB 2-356
c.922 DOR, under Israelites from 1250-991, comes under north kingdom until 724. 922 rcHL
c.922 GEZER on plain of Sharon, under Israel from 1000, comes under Judah until 587. 922 rcCan
c.922 HEBRON comes under Judah until 587. 922 rcCan
c.922 EDOM under Israel from 997, under Judah until ?. 922 rcHL
c.920 GESHUR (area east of Sea of Galilee), under Iraelites from ?, comes under Damascus until ?. 920 rcCan
c.920 ABIBAAL, king of Gebal from 940, ends.  YEHIMILK succeeds to 900. 920 MWΦ 11, RAI3
c.919 Son of Hiram-I, BAAL-AZAR-I dies.  King of Tyre, from 935, killed in a coup led by 4 of his sons.  Son ABDASTART succeeds to 910. 934 arg     930 wikT
927 adeT, rcLeb
919 LEWH 48, MWΦ 14
c.913 Son of Solomon, REHOBOAM dies.  King of Judah from 931.  Son ABIJAH succeeds to 911. 1K 14:31, 2Ch 12:16    979 trubi     958 GHH 915 IDB 1-8, MRDK, WBH 33, rcHL
914 DHJ 165, btl, ds, lara     913 CAH 3.1, CBCOT, HCC, MCAW 57, MNHK, RAI2, RAI3, SOTS 185, bihi, biti, bivu, frN, htc     912 DHJ 166     911 hifiI     910 bk     882 lgbt
c.912 ABIJAH king of Judah attacks Jeroboam king of Israel at Mt. Zemaraim supposedly to reunite the kingdom.  But after killing 600,000 Israelites and taking Bethel, Jeshanah, and Ephraim, Israel remains independent of Judah. 2Ch 13:3-16
958 GHH 912 CBCOT
c.911 Son of Rehoboam, ABIJAH dies.  King of Judah from 919.  Son ASA succeeds to 870.  Mother MAACHA is regent until 897. 1K 15:8, 2Ch 14:1     976 trubi     955 GHH 913 IDB 1-8, LEWH 44, MRDK, WBH 34, rcHL     911 CAH 3.1, CBCOT, HCC, RAI3, bihi, biti, bivu, btl, ds, frN, htc, kical, lara
910 MNHK, SOTS 185     908 hifiI
c.910 Son of Baal-Azar-I, ABDASTART dies.  King of Tyre, from 919, killed in a coup led by sons of his nurse.  Son METHU-ASTART succeeds 909-898. 925 arg     921 wikT
918 adeT, rcLeb
910 LEWH 48, MWΦ 14
c.910 Son of Eliada, REZON-I ends.  King of Damascus from 940.  TAB-RIMMON succeeds to 890. 915 CBCOT     910 HCC, bivu
no date: MRDK
c.910 LACHISH, destroyed from 1200, rebuilt. just before 900 IDB 3-54
c.909 Son of Nebat, JEROBOAM dies.  King of Israel from 930.  Son NADAB succeeds to 909. 1K 14:20, 2Ch 13:20     954 GHH
910 CAH 3.1, CBCOT, HCC, RAI3, Sag, frN, lara, bihi, biti, bivu, ds, htc     909 MNHK, btl 908 DHJ 168     907 hifiI, bk     901 IDB 2-840, LEWH 44, MRDK, rcHL   878 lgbt
c.909 Son of Jeroboam, NADAB dies.  King of Israel 909, besieging Philistines at Gibbethon, murdered by BAASHA ben Ahijah of Issachar.  BAASHA succeeds to 886. 1K 15:27, Asa yr 3 1K 15:33     953 GHH 909 CAH 3.1, CBCOT, HCC, RAI3, Sdl 4-13, SOTS 158, bihi, biti, ds, frN, htc, lara     909/8 bivu     908 MNHK, btl
906 Jud 4-13     905 hifiI     900 IDB 3-496, LEWH 44, rcHL     878 lgbt
c.908 ETHBAAL, king of Sidon from 940, ends. 908 rcLeb
c.900 EARLY IRON AGE in Palestine ends.  Began 1200.
MIDDLE IRON Age begins until 600.
900 IDB 1-207
c.900 GIBEAH:  Saul's fortress, 5km southeast of Gibeon, is rebuilt. 900 IDB 1-243
c.900 YEHIMILK, king of Gebal from 920, ends.  ELIBAAL succeeds to 880. 900 MWΦ 11
no date: RAI3
c.900 AMMON, independent from 925, back under Israel until 900. 900 guess
c.900 1st known inscriptions in Λ ARAMAIC V language, mostly diplomatic documents between Aramaean city-states.  Alphabet based on Phoenician.   (See  Assyria 745) 10th cen: wikAL
900 atour
850 B76 I-476
c.898 Son of Abdastart, METHU-ASTART ends.  King of Tyre, from 909.  ASTARYMOS succeeds 897-89. 906 adeT, rcLeb     901 arg
898 LEWH 48, MWΦ 14
888 wikT
c.897/6 ZERAH, Cushite general under pharaoh Osorkon-1, invades Palestine. 2Ch 14:9-15     900 CBCOT 897/6 SOTS 185
c.897 MAACHA, mother of Asa, regent of Judah from 911, deposed by Asa, supposedly for idolatry. 1K 15:13, 2Ch 15:16
897 Sdl 4-29
c.897 ZERAH, Cushite general under Osorkon-I, begins campaign against Judah. 2 Ch 14:8-15     955 GHH 897 Grim 323
Osorkon yr 28 Grim 323
c.897/6 ASA, king of Judah 911-870, repulses attack by ZERAH at valley of Zephathah at Marisa (Mareshah), pursues him to Gerar, raids Philistine cities around Gerar. 2Ch 14:10-15     955 GHH
900 CBCOT
897/6 SOTS 185
895 MNHK 84
c.897/6 ASA, king of Judah 911-870, warned by prophet Azariah, removes all idols from Judah and repairs the altar at the temple. 2Ch 15:2-9
c.896 Many Israelites of Ephraim, Manasseh, & Simeon, impressed with Asa's victory, desert Baasha for Asa, convene at Jerusalem, vow to seek Yahweh wholeheartedly, decree death to recalcitrants. Asa yr 15 2Ch 15:10
897/6 SOTS 172, 186
c.895 BAASHA, king of Israel 909-886, fortifies RAMAH (south of Mizpah, east of Gibeon) to prevent further defections to Asa.  Asa and Baasha fight until death of Baasha. 1K 15:16
Asa yr 36 2Ch 16:1
ERROR! It should have said yr 16.
955 GHH     894 MNHK 84
c.890 TAB-RIMMON ends.  King of Damascus from 910, ends.   Son BEN-HADAD-I succeeds to 860. 914 rcS     900 CBCOT, IDB 1-758 890 HCC, bihi, bivu, htc
880 IDB 1-63, LEWH 44, 46, RAI3
no date: MRDK
c.890 ASA, king of Judah 911-870, bribes (with temple treasure) BEN-HADAD-I of Damascus to break alliance with Baasha and support Asa. 1K 15:18-20     2Ch 16:2-3
941 GHH     895 CBCOT     879 IDB 1-381
no date: LEWH 44
c.889 BEN-HADAD-I, king of Damascus 890-42, attacks Israel, raids Ijon, Dan, Abel-maim (same as or close to Abel-beth-maacah), all storage cities of Naphtali.
All Israelite territory north and east of Yarmuk River lost to Damascus.
1k 15:20     2Ch 16:2-5
890 CBCOT    889 GHH 878 LEWH 44, 46
c.889 BAASHA, king of Israel 909-886, quits fortifying RAMAH, moves back to Tirzah to respond to Ben-Hadad attacks.  ASA then takes building material from Ramah to build Geba (9km south of Ai) and Mizpah. 1K 15:21-22 2Ch 16:5-6
c.889 ASTARYMOS dies.  King of Tyre, from 898, killed by bro Phelles.  PHELLES succeeds to 888. 897 adeT, rcLeb     892 arg
889 LEWH 48, MWΦ 14     880 wikT
c.888 RAMOTH-GILEAD, under Israel from ?, taken by BEN-HADAD-I, under Damascus until 841. guess
c.888 PHELLES dies.  King of Tyre, from 889, killed by priest of Astarte Ittobaal.  ITTOBAAL succeeds to 856. 896 adeT, rcLeb     891 arg
888 LEWH 48, MWΦ 14
887 LEWH 44     879 wikT
c.887/6 BAASHA ben Ahijah, king of Israel 909-886, ocupies abandoned land in mountain country of Ephraim, builds a boundary fortress at Ramah. 887/6 Sdl 4-13
c.886 Son of Ahijah, BAASHA dies.  King of Israel from 909, dies at Tirzah.   Son ELAH succeeds to 885. 1K 16:6     930 GHH     886 CAH 3.1, CBCOT, HCC, IDB 2-69, Jud 4-13, MNHK, RAI3, Sdl 4-13, SOTS 172, bihi, biti, btl, ds, frN, htc, lara 886/5 bivu     883 hifiI, bk     877 LEWH 44, MRDK, rcHL     854 lgbt
c.885 Son of Baasha, ELAH dies.  King of Israel at Tirzah from 886, killed while drunk in the house of Arzah by chariot commander Zimri.  ZIMRI succeeds 7 days. 1K 16:10      950 trubi     929 GHH
886 LEWH 44     885 CAH 3.1, CBCOT, HCC, IDB 2-69, MNHK, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 4-35, SOTS 182, bihi, biti, btl, ds, frN, lara, 885/4 bivu     881 hifiI     876 LEWH 44, MRDK, rcHL     853 lgbt
c.885 ZIMRI, king of Israel at Tirzah 7 days, liquidates family and friends of Baasha. 1K 16:11
c.885 OMRI, general of Israel besieging Philistines at Gibbethon, hears that Zimri murdered Elah.  Declared king by army, marches on Tirzah and besieges it. 1K 16:15-17     929 GHH 889 MCAW 58
885 CBCOT, Sdl 4-40
884 B76 17-946
c.885 ZIMRI suicides.  Usurper of Israel at Tirzah 7 days.
TIBNI and OMRI fight for throne until 880.
1K 16:18     950 trubi     929 GHH     885 CAH 3.1, CBCOT, DHJ 171, HCC, MNHK, RAI2, RAI3, SOTS 158, WPOT 235, bihi, ds, htc, lara,     881 hifiI
876 LEWH 44, MRDK, rcHL
c.885 ASA, king of Judah 911-870, dismantles fortifications at Ramah and builds GEBA of Benjamin and MIZPAH. 2Ch 16:6
c.884 HANANI the seer rebukes ASA, king of Judah 911-870, for relying on help from the king of Damascus instead of Yahweh.  Predicts wars for Asa from then on.  Imprisoned by Asa. 2Ch 16:7-10
c.880 ELIBAAL, king of Gebal from 900, ends.  SHIPITBAAL succeeds to ?. 900 MWΦ 11
no date: RAI3
c.880 AMMON, under Israel from 900, independent until 715. 880 hifiAm, rcLeb
c.880 GERASA, east of Jordan R., under Israel from 980, comes under Ammon until 715. 880 rcJdn
c.880 Son of Ginath, TIBNI dies.  Claimant to throne of Israel from 885.  OMRI rules alone until 874. 946 trubi     889 MCAW 58     885 biti, btl 885/4 bivu     882 bk     881 Sdl 4-35     880 HCC, MNHK, htc, lara     876 rcHL
848 lgbt     no date: 1K 16:22
c.880 Capital of the 10 northern tribes:  at TIRZAH from ?, moved to Omri's newly built city, SAMARIA until 722. 1K 16:24     939 trubi     924 GHH
880 MCAW 58, Sdl 4-40
880/79 B76 VIII-828     875 WBANE 98, WBH 20     870 IDB 3-601, 4-183
c.878 OMRI, king of Israel 880-74, makes  treaty  with ITTOBAAL-I, king of Tyre 888-56.  Ittobaal gives Omri his dau JEZEBEL as wife for Omri's son Ahab. 1K 16:31     870 B76 17-944
no date: IDB 3-306, LEWH 44
c.877 MOAB, independent from 925, conquered by OMRI, under Israel until 850. 877 CBCOT
c.876 ASHUR-NASIRPAL-II, king of Assyria 884-59, defeats Phoenician/Hittite alliance at Carchemish, takes Carchemish, invades Aram to the Mediterranean, all without resistance.  Receives tribute from Tyre, Sidon, Gebal, Makhalata, Kaisa, Amurru, Arvad.  He builds a fortress at Haran from which to administrate the country. 878 bk
876 B76 17-942, 944, IDB 4-344, 722, MCAW 58, hifi
875 MWΦ 16
no date PANE1 188
c.875  2 Chronicles 16:1  erroneously says BAASHA king of Israel 909-886 attacks Judah in the 36th year of ASA, king of Judah 911-870. Asa yr 36: 2Ch 16:1
c.874 OMRI dies.  King of Israel from 880.  Son AHAB succeeds to 853. 1K 16:28     918 GHH     877 MCAW 58     875 DHJ 171     874 B76 1-150, 17-946, CAH 3.1, CBCOT, HCC, MNHK, RAI3, SOTS 174, WPOT 235, biti, btl, ds, frN, htc, lara
874/3 bivu     871 bk     870 hifiI
869 IDB 1-61, 3-600, LEWH 44, MRDK, WBH 20, rcHL     842 lgbt
c.873 ASA, king of Judah 911-870, gets disease in his "feet".  Makes son JEHOSHAPHAT co-king. yr 39 2Ch 16:12
876 MCAW 58     874 DHJ 182 873 CBCOT, HCC, IDB 2-815, bihi, biti, bivu, btl, ds, htc
872 SOTS 187     872 MNHK
c.872 AHAB, king of Israel 874-53, builds temple and altar for Baal in Samaria.  Endorses Phoenician religion. 1K 16:32
918 GHH
c.870 Son of Abijah, ASA dies.  King of Judah from 911, dies in Jerusalem from diseased "feet".  Son JEHOSHAPHAT sole rule to 848. 1K 15:24, 2Ch 16:13     914 GHH
874 DHJ 166     873 IDB 1-243, LEWH 44, MRDK, WBH 34, rcHL     871 Sdl 4-14, btl 870 CAH 3.1, HCC, RAI3, WPOT 236, biti, bivu, ds, frN, lara     869 MNHK, SOTS 185 868 bk     867 hifiI
c.870 MESHA becomes king of Moab until 840, vassal of Israel until 850. 870 rcJdn
c.867 JEHOSHAPHAT, king of Judah 870-48, begins political and religious reform, sends Levite law teachers thruout Judah.  A  "book of the law" V  exists at this time. yr 3: 2Ch 17:7-9
870 Sdl 4-70
c.867 JEHORAM, son of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah 870-48, marries ATHALIAH, dau of Omri. dau of Omri: 2K 8:26, 2Ch 22:2, SOTS 175, 187
dau of Ahab: 2K 8:18, 2Ch 21:6, IDB 1-306     914 GHH
c.864 JEZEBEL, wife of Ahab king of Israel 874-53, begins killing prophets of Yahweh.  Prophet OBADIAH hides 100 prophets in a cave, feeds them bread & water. 1K 18:4
c.860 BEN-HADAD-I, king of Damascus from 890, ends.  BEN-HADAD-II succeeds until 842. 880 rcS     875 IDB 1-758
860 CBCOT     853 CAH 3.1
Many sources count these as the same man with a long reign.
c.860 Prophet ELIJAH leads prophet school at Mt. Carmel. 860 bk
c.858 ELIJAH begins ministry until 854. 910 GHH     858 bihi, htc
c.857 BEN-HADAD-II, king of Damascus + 32 vassal kings, besiege AHAB in Samaria.  Ahab offers tribute.  Ben demands plunder. 1K 20:1-6     889 GHH 860 Sdl 4-76
855 hifiI     853 CBCOT
c.857 AHAB, king of Israel 874-53, takes advice of Samarian elders, refuses Ben-Hadad's demand.  A prophet confirms Ahab's victory, and tells him to use his provincial princes to lead the battle.  Ahab does so and routs Ben-Hadad-I. 1K 20:8-21
860 bk
c.856 ITTOBAAL-I ends.  King of Tyre from 888.
BAAL-ESER succeeds 855-50.
863 adeT, rcLeb     859 arg
856 LEWH 44, 48, MWΦ 14, 17
847 wikT
c.856 BEN-HADAD-II, king of Damascus 860-42, listens to counselors who tell him that Israel's gods are mountain gods, therefore he should attack Ahab in the plain.  Ben returns with an all Aramean army, the same number as the first, to the valley of APHEK.  Defeated by Ahab. 1K 20:22-30
901 GHH
860 Sdl 4-76
853 CBCOT
c.856 HAZOR destroyed by Ben Hadad enroute to Samaria.  Rebuilt later in same century. 855/4 hifiHz
c.856 BEN-HADAD-II, king of Damascus 890-42, captured by Ahab, promises to return all captured land, released. 1K 20:31-34
c.856/5 BEN-HADAD-II, king of Damascus 860-42, returns all(?) captured land to Ahab except Ramoth-Gilead. 1K 20:31-34
c.854 AHAB, king of Israel 874-53, makes son AHAZIAH co-king. 898 GHH
854 btl, lara
853 ANTI-ASSYRIAN COALITION (led by Ben-Hadad of Damascus and Irhuleni of Hamath, + 12 subject kings including Arvad, Gebal, Edom, Hamath, Kedar, Ahab of Israel) attacks Shalmanezer-III, king of Assyria 859-24 (in his 6th year) at Qarqar.  Outcome disputed.  Assyrians claim victory, but do not press on to Hamath. 853 B76 17-942, IDB 1-62, 381, MNHK, RAI2, SOTS 156, WPOT 144, hifiAm, livBQ, wikBQ
853 exact BATTLE of QARQAR (Karkar):  earliest exact date in Near Eastern history.  Confirmed by Ptolemy's canon in relation to the Assyrian eclipse of 763.  Proves that the death of Ahab is no earlier than the 6th year of Shalmanezer-III. 854 DHJ 424, WBH 20     853 Grim 326, IDB 1-62, MNHK 76, bivu, bk, doth
853 Λ CAMELS:  About 1,000 dromedaries used by Arab king Gindbu at Qarqar.   (See Sahara 950Anatolia 547, Egypt 525) 853 wikCC
c.853 JEHOSHAPHAT, king of Judah 870-48, visits Ahab in Samaria.  Agrees to help Ahab recover Ramoth-Gilead, but asks for confirmation by a prophet.  Ahab has 400 prophets who confirm victory.  Prophet MICAIAH, summoned by Ahab at request of Jehoshaphat, predicts defeat and death for Ahab.  Ahab imprisons Micaiah. 1k 22:2-9
853 CBCOT
c.853 JEHOSHAPHAT, king of Judah 870-48, makes son JEHORAM co-king. 892 GHH
853 MNHK, htc, lara
c.853 JEHOSHAPHAT and AHAB march their armies to Ramoth-Gilead and are defeated by Ben-Hadad-II. 1k 22:29-37, 2Ch 18:28-34
853 CBCOT, Sdl 4-84
c.853 Son of Omri, AHAB dies.  King of Israel from 874, killed by a stray arrow from army of Ben-Hadad-II at Ramoth-Gilead.  Son AHAZIAH succeeds to 852. 1K 22:40, 2Ch 18:34     917 trubi     897 GHH
853 B76 1-150, CAH 3.1, CBCOT, DHJ 173, HCC, Jud 2-456, MCAW 58, MNHK, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 4-51, SOTS 174, WPOT 235, biti, bivu, ds, frN, htc, lara     852 bk     850 IDB 1-61, 66, LEWH 44, MRDK, rcHL     848 hifiI     822 lgbt
c.853 JEHOSHAPHAT, king of Judah 870-48, returns from Ramoth-Gilead to Jerusalem.  Rebuked by seer Jehu ben Hanani for alliance with Ahab.  Promotes Yahweh worship thruout Judah, sets Yahweh-fearing judges in all walled cities. 2Ch 19:1
c.853 AMMON, MOAB, & EDOM attack Judahites at Hazazon-Tamar in Edom. 2Ch 20
853 CBCOT
c.853 JEHOSHAPHAT, king of Judah 870-48, proclaims fast thruout Judah, gathers people to temple to seek Yahweh.  Prophet JAHAZIEL predicts victory without fight on following day.  It happens. 2Ch 20:3
c.853/2 JEHOSHAPHAT, king of Judah 870-48, allies with AHAZIAH king of Israel.  Builds ship at Ezion-Geber for trade with TARSHISH !   (Ezion-Geber is on the Gulf of Aqaba, and Tarshish is in Spain!)  The ships are broken, perhaps fortunately. 2Ch 20:36
c.852 AHAZIAH ben Ahab, king of Israel 853-2, falls out of a window.  Seriously injured.  Sends messengers to Baal-Zebub god of Ekron, to ask prognosis. 2K 1:2     917 trubi 896 GHH
845 IDB 1-332
c.852 ELIJAH, on orders from angel of Yahweh, intercepts messengers of Ahaziah, predicts death of Ahaziah.  Messengers return and tell Ahaziah. 2K 1:3
c.852 Prophet ELIJAH ends, ELISHA begins. 895 GHH     854 MCAW 58     852 HCC, bihi, htc     851 bk     850 Sdl 4-122
c.852 Son of Ahab, AHAZIAH dies.  King of Israel from 853, dies of injuries caused by a fall.   Bro JORAM succeeds to 841. 2K 1:17      853 btl, lara     852 B76 I-150, DHJ 184, CAH 3.1, CBCOT, HCC, MCAW 58, MNHK, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 4-88, SOTS 178, bihi, biti, bivu, ds, htc     851 bk     849 B76 V-538, IDB 1-66, 2-972, LEWH 44, MRDK, rcHL
847 hifiI     821 lgbt
c.850 BAAL-ESER ends.  King of Tyre, from 855.  Son (age 3) METTEN succeeds 849-21. 853 arg     850 LEWH 48, MWΦ 17
841 wikT     829 adeT, rcLeb
Baalmazer-II succeeds: LEWH 48
c.850 MESHA, king of Moab 870-40, vassal of Israel, stops paying tribute to Israel.  MOAB independent until 710. after Ahab dies: 2K 3:4
870 rcJdn     851 bk
850 CBCOT
c.850 JORAM king of Israel 852-41, secures alliance with JEHOSHAPHAT king of Judah and aid of EDOM to fight MESHA king of Moab. 2K 3:7
c.850 COALITION of Israel, Judah, and Edom defeats Moabites, chases them back to Moab, destroys Moabite cities, besieges Mesha in Kir-haraseth.  Mesha gets on a wall where he can be seen, and sacrifices his son to Chemosh.  The coalition abandons the siege.  Everybody goes home. 2K 3:24-27
895 GHH
850 CBCOT,
Sdl 4-93
849 IDB 3-416
It's a lie.  Moab wins, and even invades and defeats Samaria. 847 hifiI
c.850  BEN HADAD STELE  erected near Halap. 850 LEWH 47
c.850 JEHOIADA, becomes High Priest of Jerusalem until 825. 850 af
c.850 Mesha Stele  MESHA STELE (Moabite Stone)  Mesha, king of Moab, erects a black basalt monument written in Moabite language (very close to Hebrew) in Paleo-Hebrew alphabet.  1st known inscription to show division of words and clauses by points and strokes.
Mesha says Kemosh, god of Moab, had been angry with his people and allowed them to be subjugated to Israel, but then Kemosh returned and helped Mesha defeat Omri's son (not named), and the men of Gad at Ataroth, Nebo and Jehaz, and throw off the yoke of Israel.  Mesha then lists his many building projects.
850
BBP 14, 27, SHT 1-764, prlmn
840 wikMS


Photo
GNU FDL
c.848 SHALMANEZER-III, king of Assyria 859-24, attacks Aram. 848 IDB 1-62, Sdl 4-98
c.848 BEN-HADAD-II, king of Damascus 860-42, and coalition of 12, resists attack by Shalmanezer-III, king of Assyria 859-24 before Hamath. 2K 5:21       848 Sdl 4-99, SOTS 165, WPOT 144
c.848 Prophet MICAIAH begins. 848 bivu
c.848 Prophet OBADIAH begins until 841. 850 ds     848 bivu     845 CBCOT
c.848 Son of Asa, JEHOSHAPHAT dies.  King of Judah from 870, dies.  Son (age 32) JEHORAM sole rule to 841, has all his bros murdered. 1K 22:50, 2Ch 21:1     889 GHH     853 biti, bivu 852 bihi     850 DHJ 182     849 B76 V-538, IDB 2-971, LEWH 45, MRDK, WBH 34, rcHL
848 CAH 3.1, CBCOT, HCC, MNHK, RAI3, SOTS 189, WPOT 236, frN     847 hifiI, bk     846 lara     845 Sdl 4-70     843 bivu     822 lgbt     818 biti
A Biblical king of Israel was called both Joram and Jehoram.
A Biblical king of Judah was called both Joram and Jehoram.
To confuse us worse, these kings were contemporaries.
I have arbitrarily chosen Joram for Israel and Jehoram for Judah.   It gets worse.
c.846 EDOM and LIBNAH (in Sinai), vassals of Judah from 997, rebel against JEHORAM King of Judah 848-1.  Jehoram defeats them at Zair, but they continue in rebellion. 2K 8:20-22, 2Ch 21:8
888 GHH     846 hifiEd 845 CBCOT
c.846 EZION-GEBER on Gulf of Aqaba, under Judah from ?, recovered by EDOM until 760. inferred from above
c.845 BEN-HADAD-II, king of Damascus 860-42, resists another attack by Shalmanezer-III. 845 Sdl 4-99, SOTS 165, WPOT 144
c.845 BEN-HADAD-II, king of Damascus 860-42, attacks Israel. 2K 6:8
845 CBCOT
c.845 BEN-HADAD-II, king of Damascus 860-42, besieges JORAM in Samaria unsuccessfully.   ELISHA is also in Samaria. 2K 6:24 - 7:8
845 CBCOT, bk
c.844 PHILISTINES and ARABS of Sinai invade Judah, plunder Jerusalem, kidnap family of Jehoram, except for his youngest son Ahaziah. 2K 21:16-17
850 wikTJ 842 CBCOT
c.843 Prophet ELISHA goes to Damascus. 2K 8:7     843/2 SOTS 181
c.842 BEN-HADAD-II, king of Damascus 860-42, gets sick, sends servant HAZAEL to prophet ELISHA to see if he will recover.  Elisha tells Hazael that Ben-Hadad "would" recover, but will die anyway, also that Hazael will rule Damascus. 2K 8:7-13
c.842 BEN-HADAD-II dies.  King of Damascus from 860, smothered by commoner Hazael.  HAZAEL succeeds until 806.  Anti-Assyrian coalition falls apart. 885 GHH     845 CAH 3.1     844 Sdl 4-134
843 MRDK, SOTS 163, rcS
842 IDB 1-63, LEWH 44, 46
841 B76 I-976, CBCOT, HCC, IDB 2-538, RAI3, bihi, htc
  841 SHALMANEZER-III, king of Assyria 859-24, attacks Aram, defeats HAZAEL at Mt. Hermon, plunders cities of Aram until 837. 841 IDB 2-538, RAI2 246, RAI3 297, WPOT 145
yr 18 PANE1 191
  841 HAZAEL king of Damascus 842-06, defeated by Shalmanezer-III at Mt. Hermon, retreats to Damascus, besieged by Assyrians, resists them single handedly until 837. 841 B76 11-983, IDB 2-538, RAI2 246, Sdl 4-110, SOTS 194
Shal yr 18 PANE1 191
  841 Son of Jehoshaphat, JEHORAM dies.  King of Judah from 848, dies of intestinal disease.  Son (age 22) AHAZIAH succeeds to later in 841. 2K 8:24, 2Ch 21:19     886 GHH     843 DHJ 191, hifiI     842 B76 V-538, IDB 1-66, 306, LEWH 45, MRDK, WBH 34, bihi, bivu, lara, rcHL     841 CAH 3.1, CBCOT, HCC, Jud 2-456, MNHK, RAI3, SOTS 187, 190, biti, ds, frN, htc     840 btl     811 lgbt     Joram yr 12 2K 8:25     Joram yr 11 2K 9:29
  841 JORAM king of Israel and AHAZIAH king of Judah see opportunity to recover Ramoth-Gilead now that Hazael is besieged.  Lead armies to Ramoth-Gilead.  Joram is wounded by Arameans, and returns to Jezreel. 2K 8:28-29 2Ch 22:5-6
885 GHH 841 CBCOT
  841 RAMOTH-GILEAD, under Damascus from 888, taken by Joram and Ahaziah, under Israel until ?. 2K 9:14
  841 AHAZIAH king of Judah leaves his army at Ramoth-Gilead, visits Joram in Jezreel. 2K 8:29
  841 JEHU, captain of Israel's army at Ramoth-Gilead, anointed king of Israel by a prophet, then hailed king by his army, goes to Jezreel.  JORAM and AHAZIAH ride out in chariots to meet Jehu. 2K 9:6-21
884 GHH 841 frN
  841 Son of Ahab, JORAM dies. King of Israel from 852, killed at field of Naboth in Jezreel by Jehu ben Jehoshaphat.  JEHU succeeds until 814. 2K 9:24     905 trubi    884 GHH    845 bk 842 B76 V-538, 17-946, DHJ 184,
IDB 2-972, LEWH 44, rcHL
841 CAH 3.1, CBCOT, HCC, MNHK, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 4-100, biti, bivu, ds, frN, htc, lara     842 WBH 20, hifiI     840 btl
JEHU DYNASTY begins until 752.
  841 Son of Jehoram, AHAZIAH dies.  King of Judah 841, (age 22) flees in his chariot, chased down and killed by order of Jehu.  Mother ATHALIAH succeeds to 835. 2K 9:27, 2Ch 22:9    905 trubi    884 GHH 845 bk     842 IDB 1-66, 306, LEWH 45, WBH 34, hifiI, rcHL     841 CAH 3.1, CBCOT, HCC, Jud 2-456, MNHK, SOTS 190, 201, bihi, biti, bivu, ds, frN, htc, lara     840 btl     809 lgbt
  841 JEZEBEL, dau of Ittobaal, widow of Ahab, mother of Joram, at Jezreel, thrown out of a window by servants, on order of Jehu.  Killed. 2K 9:30-33     853 bivu
841 Jud 10-99
  841 JEHU, king of Israel 841-14, at Jezreel, writes to all guardians of Ahab's 70 sons, telling them the situation.  They get scared and exterminate most sons of Ahab. 2K 10:1-7
840 hifiI
  841 ATHALIAH, dau of Ahab, queen of Judah, learns of son Ahaziah's murder, kills all possible claimants to throne of Judah except baby JEHOASH ben Ahaziah, whom Jehoshaba, dau of Joram, hides.  Athaliah begins a reign of terror until her death 835. 2K 11:1,
2Ch 22:10
884 GHH
841 SOTS 191-93
c.841 Prophet OBADIAH, active from 848, ends. 841 bivu     840 ds
  841 exact Shal-III & JehuJEHU, king of Israel 841-14, in his ascension year, pays tribute to SHALMANEZER-III in his 18th year, as recorded on his Black Obelisk 825. 842 DHJ 194, 424
841 B76 11-983, MNHK, MWΦ 17, PANE1 191, RAI2, Sdl 4-109, SOTS 156

photo GNU FDL
  841 JEHU, king of Israel 841-14, in Samaria, has 42 brothers of Ahaziah killed, exterminates the rest of Ahab's 70 sons, then exterminates all prophets of Baal (thus returning Israel to Jeroboam's calf worship). 2K 10:12-26
842 WBH 20
c.840 MESHA, king of Moab from 870, dies.  SALAMANU succeeds until ?. 840 WPOT 238, rcJdn
c.838 SHALMANEZER-III, king of Assyria 859-24, again tries to conquer HAZAEL, but can't take Damascus.  He receives tribute from Gebal, Tyre, Sidon.  Failing to conquer Damascus, he goes home and never bothers Aram again. 839 DHJ 194, LEWH 47
838 RAI2 246, RAI3 298, WPOT 145     837 IDB 2-538, MWΦ 17, RAI2, SOTS 165
c.835 JEHOIADA, High Priest of Jerusalem 850-25, calls army captains to the temple, makes agreement with them to crown JEHOASH ben Ahaziah king of Judah.  It happens.  Athaliah protests. Athalia yr 7
2K 11:4,
2Ch 23:1
c.835 Widow of Jehoram, ATHALIAH dies.  Queen of Judah from 841, killed by order of priest Jehoiada.  Grandson (age 7) JEHOASH succeeds to 796. 2K 11:15, 2Ch 23:14
yr 7 2K 11:20, 12:1, 2Ch 23:15, 24:1     905 trubi     878 GHH     840 bk     837 IDB 1-306, MRDK, WBH 34, rcHL     836 LEWH 45, Sdl 4-103-4, hifiI
835 CAH 3.1, CBCOT, HCC, Jud 10-110, MNHK, RAI3, bihi, biti, bivu, btl, ds, frN, htc, lara     803 lgbt
A Biblical king of Israel was called both Joash and Jehoash.
A Biblical king of Judah was called both Joash and Jehoash.
To confuse us worse, these kings were contemporaries.
I have arbitrarily chosen Joash for Israel and Jehoash for Judah.   It gets worse.
c.835 JEHOIADA, High Priest of Jerusalem 850-25, kills MATTAN priest of Baal, destroys house of Baal, eliminates Baal worship in Judah, but doesn't remove high places. 2K 11:18
c.835 JEHOASH king of Judah 835-796, orders priests to gather regular and free-will offerings for repair of temple.  They collect the money, but the temple is not repaired until 812. 2K 24:4
c.835 Prophet JOEL begins until 796. 835 CBCOT, bivu, ds     830 bihi, htc
c.829 METTEN, king of Tyre, 850-21, comes of age. 829 ENBD 1303
c.825 JEHOIADA, High Priest of Jerusalem from 850, ends.  Pedaiah and Ahitub II become co-high-priests until ?. 825 af
c.821 METTEN ends.  King of Tyre, from 850.  PYGMALION usurps throne 820-774. 900 GHH     860 IDB 1-381     844 arg 832 wikT     821 LEWH 48, MWΦ 17
820 Sdl 1-159, adeT, rcLeb
c.820 All Israel east of Jordan River is taken by HAZAEL king of Damascus until 795. 2K 10:32-3     840 GHH
837-14 SOTS     820 CBCOT
c.814 ACHARBAS priest of Melqart in Tyre, uncle and husband of Elisa, sis of Pygmalion, king of Tyre, murdered by Pygmalion.  ELISA (Dido) pays homage to Melqart and sails from Tyre with partisans of dead husband Acharbas.  They land on Cyprus. 878 GHH
814
MWΦ 114
c.814 GATH, frontier fortress under Judah from time of Rehoboam, taken by HAZAEL, king of Damascus 842-06, who then turns to attack Jehoash of Jerusalem, who buys him off with temple and palace treasure. 2K 12:17-18     2Ch 24:23
815 IDB 3-794     814 Sdl 4-117
813-04 SOTS
c.814 Son of Jehoshaphat, JEHU dies.  King of Israel from 841.  Son JEHOAHAZ succeeds until 798. 2K 10:35     Jehoash yr 23 2K 13:1     856 GHH 818 bk     815 B76 V-538, IDB 2-810, 817, MRDK, rcHL     814 CAH 3.1, CBCOT, DHJ 193, HCC, MCAW 61, MNHK, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 4-112, SOTS 194, biti, ds, frN, hifiI, htc     814/3 bivu     813 btl, lara     796 CBCOT
CONFUSION ALERT!  Another Jehoahaz will be king of Judah in 609.
c.814 JEHOIADA, High Priest of Jerusalem from ?, (age 130) dies.  King JEHOASH then lets the princes of Judah make and serve idols. 2Ch 24:15-18
814/3 Sdl 4-106-7
c.812 JEHOASH king of Judah 835-796, puts a voluntary collection box in the temple court to the right of the altar. yr 23 2K 12:6-9
812 SOTS 202
c.806 HAZAEL dies.  King of Damascus from 842.   Son BEN-HADAD-III succeeds until 772. 2K 13:24    840 GHH    838 CAH 3.1 806 CBCOT, LEWH 44, 47, RAI3
804 rcS     801 HCC, Sdl 4-134, SOTS 164, bihi, htc     798 IDB 2-538 796 MRDK
c.805 ADAD-NIRARI-III king of Assyria 811-783 campaigns in Aram until 802. 805 Sdl 4-114, 134, WPoT 145
c.804 ADAD-NIRARI-III king of Assyria 811-783 takes DAMASCUS, controls all Aram, receives tribute from Phoenicia, Israel, Philistia. 806 LEWH 47     805 IDB 1-117
804 B76 17:942, 944
Damascus holds: B76 11-983
c.804 ADAD-NIRARI-III king of Assyria 811-783 reaches GAZA. 804 B76 11:983
c.803 PYGMALION king of Tyre 820-774, pays tribute to ADAD-NIRARI-III. 803 ENBD 1303
c.802 ADAD-NIRARI-III king of Assyria 811-783, successful in Aram, visits Mediterranean. 802 MCAW 60,
Sdl 4-134, WPOT 145

Levant 800-612
V