c.1000 BRITAIN:  Middle Bronze Age ends.  Began 1500.
Early Urnfield; Wilburton-Wallington Phase ends.  Began 1200
Late Bronze Age begins to 700.
Late Urnfield culture begins until 900:  socketed axes, palstaves, lead.
1000 wikBAB
c.1000 ISLEHAM HOARD.  Over 6,500 pieces of worked and unworked bronze buried by a founder in a pit in the English county of Cambridgeshire.  Swords, spear-heads, arrows, axes, palstaves, knives, daggers, armor, decorative equipment (in particular for horses), and many fragments of sheet bronze.  Swords show holes where rivets or studs held the wooden hilts in place.  No evidence of smithing is found. 1000 wikIH
c.1000 Λ SCANDINAVIA V:  COTTON, in India from 2000, becomes abundant.   (See Peru 2000, Sennacherib 705) 1000
SHT 1-424
SPOKED WHEELS, in Greece from 1500, appear in Scandinavia. 1000 TTT
c.1000 Sun Chariot"SUN CHARIOT" made in Scandinavia.  It will be found at Trundholm. 1000
B76 19-281
picture: wikTrn
c.1000 WOOL is now used in central Europe, Notably Hallstatt.  It becomes abundant in Scandinavia. 1000
SHT 1-424, 451
c.1000 WEST EUROPE:  Hill forts appear. 1500 wikPB     1000 PW 15
c.1000 URNFIELD CULTURE in the Rhine/Danube region, begins to expand into valleys of the main rivers.  They branch into:
Proto-Celts in the west along the upper Main, Moselle and Rhone
Slavs in the north from the Elbe to east of the Oder
Italic-speakers in Hungary
Illyrians southeast of rivers Tisza and Muresul.
1000 mxfld
c.1000 INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES, spreading from 1425, are spoken over most of Europe and much of south Asia. 1000 B76 9-431
c.1000 Proto-CELTS on Rhine & Elbe Rivers displaced by TEUTONS. 1000 LEWH 157
c.1000 HALLSTATT, Bavaria:  Proto-Celts engage in salt mining. 1000 MCAW 56
c.1000 ITALY invaded by Λ IRON V using Indo-Europeans from the Danube including Latins, who move south and conquer natives including the TERRAMARICOLI.  They establish a center at VILLANOVA. 1000 Dur 3-5, MCAW 56,
TAWH 16, wikLat
c.1000 VENETI tribe enters Italy from northeast, occupy land north of the Po. 1000 brit
c.1000 Solid WHEEL vehicles, in Europe from 2000, appear in north Italy. pre-1000 SHT 1-211
c.1000 TERRAMARE culture south of the Po from 1500, overcome by invading Λ IRON V using Indo-Europeans including Latins, who move south and conquer natives.  They establish a center at VILLANOVA. 1000 Dur III-5, MCAW 56, TAWH 16
c.1000 VILLANOVANS cross Tiber R. settle in Old Latium between the Tiber and the promontory of Monte Circeo.  Unknown if they conquered, exterminated, or merged with the Neolithic culture there.  They make funerary urns in the shape of huts.  By 700 they become known as LATINS. 1000
Dur III-11, mxfld, wikLat
c.1000 Primitive settlements exist at Rome. 1000 MCAW 56
c.1000 SUB-MYCENEAN Period ends.  Began 1060 1000 wikSMP
c.1000 Geometric pottery design becomes popular in Greece until 750.  ATHENS expands northwest over graveyards. 1000 B76 2-265
900 mxfld
c.1000 CORINTH occupied by Dorians. 1000 IDB 1-682 
c.1000 Temple of HERA at Olympia.  Survives until 600. 1000 B76 13-565, Dur 2-66
c.976 CAPETUS (Atys), king of Alba Longa from 1002, ends.  CAPYS succeeds until 916. 976 HRR
c.975 DENTAL BRIDGEWORK & false teeth made by Etruscan goldsmiths, mostly for cosmetic purposes. 1000-951 TTS, TTT
c.975 OATS cultivated in central Europe. 1000-951 TTS, TTT
c.950 ALGARVE (region on south coast of Portugal) receives Phoenician and Carthaginian settlements until 200. 950 rcIb
c.916 CAPYS, king of Alba Longa from 976, ends.  CALPETUS succeeds until 903. 916 GHH, HRR
c.903 CALPETUS, king of Alba Longa from 916, ends.  TIBERINUS succeeds until 895. 903 GHH, HRR
c.900 BRITAIN:  Late Bronze Age 1000-700:  Late Urnfield culture ends.  Began 1000.  Socketed axes, palstaves, lead.  Next phase 800. 900 wikBAB
c.900 BRONZE AGE in continental Europe ends.  Began 2000. 1000 PW 15, TTPC, mxfld
800 PW 15
750 CDCC 414
650 B76 6-1061
600 rcCE
IRON V AGE begins until ?.
HALLSTATT period begins until 450.
(See Indus Valley 1300, Crete 1200, Levant 1200, Africa 700, Egypt 670)
c.900 TAVIRA south Portugal founded by Phoenicians.  Lasts until late 500s. 1000-800 wikTv
c.900 CASTRO VILLAGE culture appears in northwest Spain.  Characterized by walled villages and hill forts.  It will expand from south to north and from the coast to the interior of the peninsula during the next centuries. 900 wikTpR
c.900 BRONZE AGE in ITALY ends.  Began 1800.
Λ Iron V Age begins.
900 wikLat
B76 19-278
c.900 ATESTE becomes a center for a branch of Veneti now called Atestines.  Culture similar to Villanovan. 900 EIEC 183, SHRC 16, flm
c.900 ETRUSCANS arrive in ETRURIA Italy, probably by sea from Anatolia (Lydia according to Herodotus).  Dig iron mines at Elban and Tuscany, build towns. 900 LEWH 81, SHT 2-59, TTPC, vrb     pre-800 B76 III-984
c.900 Etruscan POTTERY:  Cremation urns are the most characteristic vessel.  They are usually biconical, but are sometimes shaped and decorated to look like a hut.  . 900
B76 14-900
c.895 TIBERINUS, king of Alba Longa from 903, is defeated in battle.  He throws himself into river Albula, which is then renamed Tiber.  AGRIPPA succeeds until 864. 895 GHH, HRR
c.875 TARTESSOS (Tarshish) Spain, founded at an unknown location near mouth of Baetis river by Tyrians, under them until 700.  A centralized monarchy trading with the area of modern Algarve, inhabited by the Cynetes or Cunetes, and Portuguese Estremadura. 1000 wikTpR 900/850 rcIb
c.864 AGRIPPA, king of Alba Longa from 895, ends.  ROMULUS succeeds until 845. 864 GHH, HRR
c.850 Villanovan TombVillanovan Tomb.  The main characteristic of the Villanovans are incinerated sepultures, in which the dead's ashes are housed in double-cone shaped urns and buried. 9th cen. wikPIIA

Photo Sailko
c.850 Golasecca culture Golasecca culture begins between rivers Po, Serio and Sesia until 388.  Material evidence is scattered over a wide area of 20,000 kmē. 9th cen. wikGC, wikPIIA

c.850 ROME first settled:  clusters of huts on Palatine Hill. 1000 MCAW 56    850 PW 15
c.850 Iron, Potter's wheel, olive oil, and wine all brought by Phoenicians to Spain. 9th cen. wikTpR
c.850 OLISIPO (Lisbon) settled.  The myth of a Phoenician foundation of the city as far back as 1300, under the name Alis Ubbo "Safe Harbor" is not true. 9th cen. wikTpR
c.845 ROMULUS, king of Alba Longa from 864, ends.  AVENTINUS succeeds until 808. 845 GHH, HRR
c.808 AVENTINUS, king of Alba Longa from 845, ends.  PROCAS succeeds until 800. 808 GHH, HRR
c.800 IRELAND:  in Late Bronze Age from 1200-?, large industry established, has much bronze and gold. 800
B76 3-283
c.800 BRITAIN:  Late Bronze Age 1000-700:  Ewart Park Phase, Llyn Fawr Phase begins until 700: leaf-shaped swords. 800 wikBAB
c.800 1st wave of Hallstatt culture into Spain brings iron technology to local Urnfields Celts of northeast.  This culture starts to expand to nearby areas, embracing northern region of the Levante and upper Ebro valley. 800 wikTpR
c.800 COPPER mines at MITERBERG, Austria from 1600 abandoned. 800 SHT 1-565-6
c.800 Λ IRON V used increasingly in Europe for tools and weapons. 800 SHT 2-55
c.800 HORSE HARNESS, used in Asia from at least 3500, spreads to Europe. 800 ehow
c.800 MUSIC V:  1st Germanic wind instruments.   (See musician 1000) 800 mxfld
c.800 German BEER V 1st evidenced by an amphora.   (See China 650) 800 albv
c.800 ETRUSCANS, in Etruria from 900, move into central Italy between Arno and Tibur rivers, establish city states, use horse drawn chariots.  Etruscans of Tarquinii spread to area which will be Capua probably to facilitate trade. 800 PW 15, mxfld
800-700 TToH     700 B76 19-281
c.800 ETRUSCAN architecture, paintings, bronze figures of gods, vases, cups, gems, sarcophagi begin. 800 GHH
c.800 VILLANOVANS, in Italy from 1000, conquered by ETRUSCANS. 800 Dur 3-5
c.800 PROCAS, king of Alba Longa from 808, ends.  No successor until 795.  Etruscan architecture begins. 800 HRR
c.800 PHOENICIANS exploit silver mines of Spain and north Africa. 800 B76 II-598
c.795 NUMITOR becomes king of Alba Longa until 794. 795 GHH, HRR
c.794 NUMITOR king of Alba Longa from 795, overthrown by bro AMULIUS, who succeeds until 754.  Numitor's dau ILIA is condemned by Amulius to celibacy. 794 GHH, HRR
c.774 PANDOSIA (later Acri) in Bruttium founded by Greeks.  Not same as Pandosia (later Tursi) in Lucania. 774 GHH, HRR
c.771 ILIA, dau of Numitor, vestal virgin, is raped. 771 GHH, HRR
c.771 RHEA SILVIA, vestal virgin, is raped by an unknown assailant and blames pregnancy on divine conception.  Mars and Hercules are credited. no date: anhs
c.770 ROMULUS and REMUS born to Ilia, who is buried alive.  Her twins are set adrift on the Tiber.  Shepherd Faustulus of Aventine rescues them, and his wife Lupa "wolf" nourishes them.  770 HRR
c.770 ROMULUS and REMUS born to Rhea Silvia, who is supposed to be buried alive, but King Amulius, fearing the wrath of Mars or Hercules decrees mercy, but imprisoned Rhea Silvia and orders the twins' buried alive, exposed, or thrown into the Tiber.  He orders a servant to carry out the death sentence, but in every scenario, the servant places the twins in a basket and spares them.  The Tiber carries them to a fig tree at the base of the Palatine Hill in the Velabrum swamp.  The twins are discovered by a she-wolf (lupa), who suckles them and they are fed by a wood-pecker or picus.  Eventually, they are discovered and cared for by a shepherd and his wife:  Faustulus and Acca Larentia. no date: anhs
c.754 While herding sheep, Romulus and Remus are met by shepherds of King Amulius.  These shepherds start a fight, in which Remus is captured and taken to King Amulius.  Romulus gathers a band of local shepherds to join him in rescuing his brother.  Amulius believes that Rhea Silvia's children are dead, and does not recognize Remus or Romulus.  Romulus frees his brother, and kills King Amulius.    no date: anhs
c.754 AMULIUS king of Alba Longa from 794, killed by ROMULUS, who reinstates NUMITOR. 754 GHH, HRR
c.754 Romulus and Remus reject an offer of the crown of Alba Longa and reinstate Nimitor as king.  They leave Alba Longa to found their own city. The bros quarrel over the location of the foundation of their new city.  Romulus wants to start the city on the Palatine Hill.  Remus prefers the Aventine Hill.  To settle their disagreement, they consult augury.  Each brother prepares a sacred space on their respective hills and watches for birds.  Remus claims to have seen 6 birds.  Romulus says he saw 12 birds.  Romulus says he won, but Remus says that since he saw his 6 birds first, he won. no date: anhs
c.753 Romulus begins to dig trenches and build walls around his hill: the Palatine.  Remus mocks his bro's city, and jumps over its wall.  Romulus kills him.  There are several versions as to how Remus is killed.  He is buried on a hill hence called Remuria. no date: anhs, wikRnR
Remus is killed by Celer. 753 GHH, HRR
c.753 Apr 21 ROME founded.  ROMULUS, son of Mars and a Vestal Virgin named Rhea, founds Rome on Palatine hill east of the Tiber river.  Romulus becomes 1st king until 716.  Period of Roman kings begins until 509.
Atticus & Varro say it was in the 3rd year of the 6th Olympiad:  753,   Cato says 751,   Polybius says 750,   Fabius Pictor says 747.
traditional 753 CAH 7.2,
CDCC 486, CDGRA 162, DGRBM, Dur III-12, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-1, Jud 16-1263, LEWH 82, MCAW 62, MRDK 238, OHG, RW, SHWC 101, TAWH 16, TTT, bk, vrb
c.753 ROME has:  3 tribes: Ramnes, Tities, Luceres, of 10 curies each,  a senate of 100 members until 665,  a constitution based on agriculture,  plebs. 753 HRR
c.750 SEXI, a colony on the coast of Andalusia established by Phoenicians. 8th cen. wikTpR
c.750 CELTS, an Urnfield people, emerge as a distinct language/religion/culture group, particularly at Hallstatt.  Celts are first to shoe horses, develop seamless IRON rims for wheels, and give shape to hand saws, chisels, files and other tools. 750 mxfld
c.750 GERMANIC people are now in south Scandinavia. 750 B76 8-18
c.750 SOAP introduced by Celts to the Greeks and Romans.
(See Ebers 1550, Phoenicia 600, Babylonia 550)
750 mxfld
c.750 Chain Λ ARMOR introduced by Celts to the Greeks and Romans.   (See China 770) 750 mxfld
c.750 URNFIELD CULTURE, now predominantly Celtic, spreads to southern Gaul. 750
PAE 173
c.750 URNFIELD CULTURE in central Europe fades out.  Began 1300.
HALLSTATT Period in Europe 900-450:  2nd group of graves begins in Bavaria near the richest salt deposits in Europe until 450.   Lavish burials of chiefs.  IRON swords, spoked wheels V, & horse shoes used.
800 B76 2-449
750 B76 IV-863, TToH 7, wikUC     650 MCAW 76     600 rcCE
Hallstatt culture
Hallstatt culture c.800-700 Dbachmann
Kegelhelm helmet
KEGELHEIM HELMET.  Conical bronze, open-faced, sometimes with cheek protectors, or a crest-holder on top.  Made sometimes in several pieces.  It is the progenitor of many Greek helmets, especially the Illyrian type.
8th cen. wikKH
c.750 ILLYRIAN HALLSTATT period begins until 450.  IRON used in Bosnia.  Increased commerce from trade with Rhone and Danube Rivers. 750 B76 2-615
650 MCAW 76
c.750 ETRUSCANS begin colonizing Mediterranean. 750 TTT
c.750 Rape of the Sabine Women:  Romulus and his mostly male followers abduct wives from neighboring Sabine families during a festival of Neptune Equester.  Livy says no sexual assault happens.  Romulus offers them free choice and promises civic and property rights, and says it was the fault of their parents for denying the right of intermarriage to their neighbors. 753 DGRBM, HRR     750 wikRSW
c.750 PITECUSA on island of Ischia in Bay of Naples founded as a trading post by Greek merchants of Euboea. 775 OHG     8-700 mxfld
750 CAH 3.3, CDCC 332, vrb
c.750 HAND CRANK used by Etruscans. 800-700 TToH 7
c.750 3 original Roman tribes:  Ramnes, Tities, Luceres are purely family groupings.  Each tribe is headed by a tribune - a civil, religious and military magistrate.  Each tribe is divided into 10 curiae (voting wards).  These 30 curiae form the comitia curiata (curiate assembly).  The assembly of the tribes is the comitia tributa, a legislative body and court of appeal for non-capital cases. no date: about, wikLRT, wikRT
c.750 WHEEL-MADE VASES appear in south Italy. 750 SHT 1-203
c.750 Greeks begin colonizing Italy, mostly republics. 750 GHH, bk
c.750 CAMPANIA, Italy, under Ausones:  Greeks begin colonizing. 750 OCD 199
c.750 GREEK ALPHABET introduced to Greek cities in south Italy. 750 B76 19-278
c.750 Etruria c.750 Etruria c.750 with 12 cities of Etruscan League, and expansion to 500. 700 wikEL

map Norman Einstein
c.750 BONONIA (Bologna), under Villanovans 1050-510, now a cluster of villages with easy access to Etruria, becomes an economic power. 750 mxfld
c.750 CUMAE Italy founded by colonists from Eretria, Chalcis, Euboean Cyme, Graia.  Comes under aristocratic oligarchy until 503. 770 Dur 2-66     760 LEWH 62
750 B76 III-289, Dur 2-169, OCD 264, 301, RAH 146, rcSI
750-25 CAH 7.2
c.747 SABINES settle on Capitoline and Quirinal hills.  They make treaty with Romulus. 747 HRR
c.747 Rome has war with Veii. 747 HRR
c.735 TEMPLE of JUNO LUCINA V  built on Esquiline hill outside of Rome. 735 NLEM 204, amast, crdp
c.732 CIRCENSIAN GAMES established by Romulus. 732 HRR
c.730 CIMMERIANS from the Caucassus reach Pannonia. 730 vrb
c.725 ETRURIA:  Hill top villages begin to consolidate into city-states.  1st is Tarquinii north of the Tiber mouth on the west coast; then Caere to the south, reaching the Tiber; then Vulci north of Tarquinii; and finally Clusium and Veii, as inland city-states. 750-25 mxfld
c.721 SYBARIS, on south coast of Italy founded by Achaean Greeks and Troezenians.  Under oligarchy until 530. 721 DGRBM, Dur 2-66, GHH, HRR, LEWH 62     720 CAH 3.1, 3.3, 7.2, MCAW 64, OCD 264, 1026, OHG     700 rcSI
c.720 RHEGIUM south Italy founded by Chalcidians and refugee Messenian nobility under Alcidamus. 749 GHH, HRR     730 LEWH 62, Dur 2-167     730-20 GRG 223     720 B76 VIII-480, OCD 264, 920     716 B76 8-330
c.716 Roman conquest of the Caeninenses, Crustumini, and Antemnates.  War and league with the Sabines, who settle on the Capitoline and Quirinal under Sabine king T. Tatius.  Tatius is slain at a festival at Laurentum by some Laurentines to whom he had refused satisfaction for outrages committed by his kinsmen.  Romulus then rules alone over Romans and Sabines.  Wars with Fidenae and Veii. 747 HRR     716 DGRBM
c.715 Music introduced at Rome at the time of sacrifice. 715 HRR
c.716 ROMULUS dies.  Legendary 1st king of Rome from 753, murdered by senators (Goes up in a whirlwind, worshipped as the god Quirinus).  After a 1 year interregnum, Sabine NUMA POMPILIUS succeeds, and reigns peacefully until 673.  Founder of religious rites. 717 CDCC 486, wikRnR     716 DGRBM, HRR, HRRP 1-1, MRDK, bk
Numa succeeds 715 B76 VII-439, CAH 7.2, CDCC 486, 616, HRRP 1-12, LEWH 82, MCAW 64, TToH
c.713  ROMAN CALENDAR  V reformed by Numa Pompilius.  January & February added to the previously 10 month calendar, which is now a 360 day year.
(See Egyptian 1500, Gezer 950, Babylonian 747, Mayan 613, Cleostratos 520, Chinese 444)
713 HRR
8th cent.: TToH
711 Mar 14 SOLAR ECLIPSE in Aegean and Greece. 711 Mar 14 OCD 98, wikLSE
c.710 AUGURS instituted at Rome. 710 HRR
c.710 VESTALS instituted at Rome. 710 HRR
c.710 CROTON, Italy, originally a Messapic settlement, founded by Achaean Greeks led by Myscellos. 710 DGRG 1-448, 709, DGRBM 2-1133, GHH, HRR, Dur 2-161, LEWH 62, OCD 299, rcSI
709 CAH 3.3-160, 7.2, OCD 264
c.706 TARAS (later called Tarentum), Apulia founded by Spartan parthenae under Phalanthos. 708 DGRBM 3-234, HRR     707 GHH     706 B76 8-731, CAH 3.3, GRG 325, OCD 264, wikTr     706-5 CAH 7.2
705 Dur 2-66, LEWH 62
c.700 Bronze Age in BRITAIN ends.  Began 2000.
Late Bronze Age ends.  Began 1000.
Ewart Park Phase, Llyn Fawr Phase ends:  Began 800.  Leaf-shaped swords.
Λ IRON V Age begins in BRITAIN until 100CE.
Early Iron age begins until 400.  Iron working techniques arrive from southern Europe.
800 wikBIA
750 PW 15, wikPB
700 wikBAB
500 SHT 1-82
c.700 Many small migrations to Britain occur until 400.  Ironsmiths make daggers of Hallstatt type.  Houses continue of round Celtic type. 700 B76 3-194
c.700 Hill forts appear in Britain. 700 be
c.700 CELTS, now dominant in western Europe, begin settling in SPAIN. 700 MCAW 70
c.700 Phoenicians in Spain, plant OLIVE TREES. 700 TTPC
c.700 TARTESSOS (Tarshish) Spain, under Tyrians from 875, taken over by Iberian chiefs.  Legendary ARGANTHONIUS (Silver man) prospers from local mines.  Under Iberians until 510. 700
c.700 Spain:  Cattle herding culture of Cogotas-I is transformed into Cogotas-II, mixing Celtic culture with Iberian culture. 7th cen. wikTpR
c.700 SEGOVIA becomes Iberian settlement until 80. 700 B76 IX-31
c.700 TRANSYLVANIA (uplands of Carpathians) occupied by Cimmerians from 2000, comes under Dacians (related to Thracians and possibly a fragment of Cimmerians) until 280. 700 rcEB
c.700 SLOVAKIA (Carpathian mountains north of Hungary, east of Moravia and Czech Republic, west of Galitzia and Ukraine, and south of Poland) under Cimmerians from 2000, occupied by Thracians until 400. 700 rcCE
c.700 BIHAR (area between Tisza, Szamos, Muresul Rivers, and Transylvanian highlands) occupied by Cimmerians from 2000, occupied by Thracians until 280. 700 rcEB
c.700 MOLDAVIA (land at northeast corner of Black Sea), under Cimmerians from 2000, comes under Scythians until 280. 700 rcEB
c.700 SCYTHIANS of steppes from 740, spread to eastern Europe. 700 TAWH 16     650 vrb
c.700 HALLSTATT Bavaria becomes large scale IRON manufacturing center. 700 TTT
c.700 ETRUSCANS mine copper on west coast, IRON at Elba, smelt iron at Populonia, sell pig iron thruout Italy. 700
Dur III-6
c.700 1st TEMPLE of VESTA built in the Roman Forum by Numa Pompilius, along with the original Regia and House of the Vestal Virgins in its original form.  Instead of a cult statue in the cella there is a hearth which holds the sacred flame. 8-700 wikTV
c.700 LUCANIA, mountainous region of south Italy, colonized by Greeks. 700 OCD 621
c.700 LOCRI Epizephrii on the toe of Italy founded by Greeks of Locris. 706 GHH, HRR     700 OCD 616
680 B76 VI-293     679 CAH 3.3-161
673 B76 8-331
c.700 POSIDONIA Lucania (west coast of Italy) founded by Greeks of Sybaris.  Under Greeks until 400. 700 Dur 2-66, OCD 264
625/00 CAH 7.2, GRG 325
600 CAH IV-116
c.700 Etruscan Λ LANGUAGE V, not related to any living language, is attested from now to 50CE.  13,000 inscriptions (dedications, epitaphs, etc.), most short, date from 700.  Only 1 book (mostly undeciphered) has survived.  Etruscan words passed down by Romans:  columna (column), voltur (vulture), tuba (trumpet), vagina (originally meaning sheath), populus (people). 700 wikEL
c.690 ETRUSCAN ALPHABET V (Old Italic) developed from Chalcidian Greek.  Has 26 letters until 5th cen.  Usually written right to left.  1st alphabet to condense ph into f.
(See India 850, Greek 750)
800-700 SHT 1-769, wss
750 wikHW     700 B76 III-983, 19-278, CAH 7.2
690 PW 15
700-650 MCAW 69
no date: wikEL
c.690 METAPONTUM on south coast of Italy founded by Achaeans from Sybaris. 774 GHH, HRR     733 CAH 3.3-161
690 CDCC 577     650 CAH 7.2
c.680 West Ukraine, south flank of Carpathian Mountains, occupied by Cimmerians from 2000, taken over by proto-Dacians until 300. 680 rcU
c.675 CROTON, on east coast of Calabrian Peninsula, comes under oligarchy until 510. 675 rcSI
c.675 POLEIUM founded on south coast of Italy by Siris river southwest of Metapontum by Greeks of Colophon.  It will gradually come to be called SIRIS. 690-60 wikSrs
680-50 CAH 3.3-162. 7.2
c.673 NUMA POMPILIUS dies.  2nd king of Rome from 716.  Warrior TULLUS HOSTILIUS succeeds 672-41. 677,3, or2 HRR     673 B76 VII-439, X-175, CDCC 486, 616, DGRBM, HRRP 1-12, 20, LEWH 82, MRDK, TToH     672 CAH 7.2, bk
c.672 ALBANS camp near Rome. 672 HRR
c.671 CLUILIUS, king of Alba Longa, sends embassy to Tullus Hostilius alledging a tresspass on his territory by Romans.  Tullus, wanting war, imprisons them. 671 GHH, HRR
c.670 WALLACHIA, occupied by Cimmerians from 2000, comes under late Cimmerian tribes until 300. 670 rcEB
c.670 Roman territory invaded by Albans.  Romans invade Alba Longa territory. 670 GHH, HRR
c.670 The 3 Horatii fight and kill the 3 Curiatti.  2 of the Horatii are killed. 670 GHH, HRR
c.670 Alba Longa submits to Rome. 670 GHH, HRR
c.665 Alba Longa, wants to regain independence, incites Veii and Fidenae to attack Rome, which allies with Latins and wars with Veii and Fidenae. 665/4 GHH, HRR
c.665 SENATE, 100 men from 753, increased to 200 until 616. 665 HRR
c.665 Alban general Mettius acts cowardly and treacherously in battle between Romans and Veii.  After the battle, Mettius is torn to pieces. 665 GHH, HRR
c.665 ALBA LONGA, leader of a Latin League, destroyed by Rome, which now takes over the League.  Albans transferred to Rome. 665 GHH, HRR 600 OCD 583
c.660 Legislator ZALEUCUS flourishes in Locri, south Italy:  Famed for conciliating social factions.   LAWS of ZALEUCUS , dictated to him in a dream by Athena.  Notorious for severity, but accepted in many Italian and Sicilian cities.  Makes Locri the 1st Greek city to have a law code. 670 OHG     664 Dur 2-167
663 GRG 325     662 DGRBM     660 B76 VI-293, Dur 2-66, GHH, HRR     650 OCD 1144
c.657 DEMARATUS, rich Bacchiad merchant of Corinth, banished by Cypselos, goes to Tarquinii, Etruria, marries an Etruscan woman. 657 DGRBM 1-959 655 Dur 3-14
c.657 Craftsmen Eucher, Diopus, and Eugrammus follow Demaratus to Tarquinii, Etruria, introduce Corinthian pottery. 664
DGRBM 2-62
c.657 ISTROS on the Danube delta at the Black Sea, founded by Greeks of Miletus. 657 CAH 3.3, GRG 326
c.650 CELTS, now dominant in western Europe, begin settling in south BRITAIN and IRELAND. 700 MCAW 70
650 vrb     500 be
c.650 2nd wave of Hallstatt culture into Spain, specifically into Portuguese land. 7th cen. wikTpR
c.650 ETRUSCANS of north Italy seek to expand into Campania.  Unfortunately Rome is in their way. 650 MCAW 76
c.650 CAULONIA, on toe of Italy, founded by Achaean Greeks. 650 CAH 7.2,
c.650 Hoplite armor introduced in central Italy. 650 CAH 7.2
c.650 Kopis swordKOPIS SWORD is first evidenced in Etruria.  Early examples have a blade length up to 65cm, making it almost equal in size to the later spatha.  Later Macedonian examples have a blade length of @48cm.  The kopis has a single-edged blade that bulges towards the point and concave near the hilt.  This shape is often termed "recurved". 7-600 wikKp

Picture {{PD-US}}
c.650 OLBIA, on Black Sea at mouth of Bug River founded by Aegina, Megara, Greeks of MiletosUnder Miletian tyrants until 500. 650 Dur 2-66, rcU 647 CAH 3.3-161
645 B76 16-438
c.641 TULLUS HOSTILIUS dies.  Warrior king of Rome from 672.  Sabine son of a dau of Numa, ANCUS MARTIUS succeeds to 616. 642 B76 X-175, CDCC 146, 486, MCAW 73     641 DGRBM, LEWH 82, OCD 1099 640 CAH 7.2, HRR, HRRP 1-20, 28, bk 638 DGRBM 1-168
c.641 ANCUS MARTIUS first act as king is to order the Pontifex Maximus to copy the text on performance of public religious ceremonies from the commentaries of Numa Pompilius to be displayed, so that religious rites should no longer be neglected or improperly performed. no date: wikAM
c.640 ANCUS MARTIUS king of Rome 641-16, builds bridge over Tiber. 642 MCAW 73
c.640 OSTIA, until now on the coast, refounded 3km inland by Ancus Martius. 642 HRR, MCAW 73
c.640 COLAEUS of Samos voyage to Tartessos, Spain until 638. 650 OCD 1039     640 CAH 3.3, GRG 324     638 OCD 949
c.630 Latins encroach on Roman lands.  Roman embassy seeks restitution for damage.  Latins refuse.  Ancus Martius declares war on Latins, takes Latin town of Politorium (near Lanuvium) by storm.  Politorians are relocated to the Aventine Hill as Roman citizens.  Other Latins occupy Politorium.  Ancus takes the town again and demolishes it.  Latin villages Tellenae and Ficana are also sacked and demolished. 640 HRR
no date: wikAM
c.630 ROME:  On the site of former huts, the royal shrine-dwelling of the Regia is constructed. 630 CAH 7.2-37
c.630 ROME:  The Comitium (assembly area) and the Curia Hostilia (senate-house) are built. 630 CAH 7.2-37
c.626 Fortified Latin town of MEDULLIA is taken by Rome.  More Latins are brought to Rome as citizens and settled at the foot of the Aventine near the Palatine Hill, by the temple of Murcia. no date: wikAM
c.625 Forum paved 2nd time. 625 CAH 7.2-37
c.625 SLAVONIA (area between Sava and Drava Rivers) occupied by Urnfield Celts from 1250, occupied by Hallstatt Celts until 425. 625 rcWB
c.621 LAURENTIAN FESTIVAL established. 621 HRR
c.620 Ancus Marcius incorporates the JANICULUM hill west of the Tiber, fortifying it with a wall and connecting it to Rome by a wooden bridge across the Tiber, the Pons Sublicius.  On the land side of the city he constructs the Fossa Quiritium, a ditch fortification. no date: wikAM
c.620 LATIN Λ ALPHABET V developed from Etruscan influenced by Chalcidian Greek.   (See Greek 750Zapotec 500,  Mesopotamia 500) 7-600 wss
pre-600 B76 VI-69
no date: OCD 48
c.616 Prior to the Tarquins, Rome has no images of gods.  During and after the Tarquin period, clay and wood statues of gods made by Etruscan artists appear. no date: DGRA 1068
c.616 ANCUS MARTIUS, dies.  Sabine king of Rome from 641.  Tarquinius Priscus, son of Demaratos of Corinth, guardian of Ancus's teenage sons, bids for crown by speeches to plebes, TARQUINIUS PRISCUS becomes 1st Etruscan king of Rome until 579.  Gains power over arisocracy. 618 Dur 3-1, HRR     617 CDCC 146, 486     616 B76 15-1086,
CAH 7.2, CDCC 331, DGRBM, HRRP 1-28, LEWH 82, MCAW 74, OCD 1038, RW, bk, vrb, mxfld 614 DGRBM 1-168
ETRUSCAN DYNASTY of Rome begins until 509.
c.616 Sabines and Latins conquered. 616 HRR
c.616 Foundation of the capitol laid. 616 HRR
c.616 SENATE, 200 men from 665, increased to 300 until ?.  The new 100 are named Minoes Gentes. 616 HRR
c.616 EQUITES doubled in number. 616 HRR
Circus Maximus
Circus Maximus facing Palatine Hill     Petar Milosevic
c.605 CIRCUS MAXIMUS built by Tarquinius Priscus between the Palatine and Aventine hills.  People sit on the hill slopes to watch sport events.  Senators and equites privately finance raised seating above that of the commoners.  Race horses and pugilists are imported from Etruria.  Still, it is little more than some wooden structures and a track until 329. 605 GHH, HRR
no date: Dur 3-18, wikLTP
c.600 Maiden Castle MAIDEN CASTLE built by Celts in south Dorset.  Similar to other hill forts in Britain, and covering 6.4 hectares (16 acres) until 450. 600 wikMC

left: pub dom
right Chris Downer
c.600 AUSTRIA, BOHEMIA, & CARINTHIA, under Urnfield Celts from 1250, occupied by Hallstatt Celts until 450. 600 rcCE
c.600 MORAVIA, under Urnfield Celts from 1200, occupied by Hallstatt Celts until 400. 600 rcCE
c.600 NETHERLANDS settled 1st time by CELTS. 600 PW 16
c.600 CELTS of Gaul trade with Greek colonies on Mediterranean.  Rich wagon burials show powerful Celt elite. 600 PW 16
c.600 GRAPES shipped by Phoenicians introduced into Gaul. 600 B76 X-471
c.600 MASSILIA, Gaul founded by Greeks of Phocaea and Lydia.  Site is obtained from Ligurian Segobriges.  Greeks soon begin exporting wine to Celts of Gaul. 600 B76 8-331, 346, 11-532, CAH 3.3-768, 4-83, DGRBM, Dur 2-66, GRG 325, LEWH 62, MCAW 78, MWΦ 233, OCD 265, 654, OHG, PW 16, RW, SHT 2-129, TTPC, TTT, mxfld
c.600 Despite the spread of efficient ovens, baking in hot ashes continues. 600 SHT 2-118
c.600 CELTS, in SPAIN from 700, receive new wave of Celts. 600 vrb
c.600 CELTS (or just natives with Celtic influences) penetrate to Northwest Spain. 600 wikTpR
c.600 TARTESSOS, Spain, under Iberians 700-510:  Phoceans arrive, introducing olives and grapes and befriend the ruler. 630 mxfld
600 OCD 1039
c.600 INSUBRES, a tribe of Gauls under Bellovesus, begin migrating into north Italy. 600 CAH 7.2-303
c.600 MELPUM (Mediolanum, Milan), Italy, founded by Gauls. 600 B76 17-190     504 GHH
c.600 First known  Italic inscriptions . 600 vrb
c.600 1st temple of HeraFirst temple of Hera at Posidonia built by Greeks.  Has wide, dish-shaped Doric capitals.  2nd 455. 600 wikPst
550 pstm

Norbert Nagel
c.600 The area that will become the ROMAN FORUM ceases to be used as a cemetery. 600 MCAW 79
c.600 TARQUINIUS PRISCUS 1st Etruscan king of Rome 616-579, adds 100 men from minor leading families to the Senate.  Among them is the Octavii. no date: wikLTP
c.600 CAPUA, Italy, founded by ETRUSCANS. Under Etruscans until 425. 800 CDCC 163
600 OCD 410, ane, wikCap
c.600 CAMPANIA, Italy, full of Greek colonies from 750, invaded by ETRUSCANS, who establish a league of 12 cities headed by Capua. 600 OCD 199, 203
c.600 POSEIDONIA near coast of Campania, founded by Greek colonists from Sybaris or Troezen. 600 wikPst
c.600 CUMAE, Italy, Greek colony 750-421, resists Etruscans. 600 OCD 199
c.600 Parthenope, a Cumaean settlement on the north of the Bay of Naples from c.800, becomes called Palaeopolis "old city" when a new settlement is founded by Greeks of Cumae just south of it.  This is called NEAPOLIS "new city".  Remains under Greeks until 327. 675 CAH 7.2,     600 CAH 4-117, GRG 325, OCD 725, rcSI
c.600 SYBARIS south Italy rises in prominence and luxury.  Music and other arts are cultivated. 600 GHH, HRR
c.590 Latin town of APIOLAE stormed and captured by Tarquinius Priscus, taking much loot. pre-588 wikLTP
c.590 Etruscan ARCH adopted by Roman architects.   (See Mycenean 1300Smyrna 825) 590
c.590 LUDI "games" ROMANI, a religious festival honoring Jupiter, established annually in September by Tarquinius Priscus to celebrate his capture of Apiolae.  It lasts only one day until 509. no date: wikLR
c.590 After a flood, the damp lowlands of Rome are drained by construction of the CLOACA MAXIMA (sewer system) begins until 575. 600 GHH, HRR
590 MCAW 83
no date: wikLTP
c.585 SABINES, with Etruscan auxiliaries, invade Rome, and are defeated in the streets by Tarquinius Priscus.  In following peace negotiations, Tarquinius receives the town of Collatia, and appoints his nephew Aruns Tarquinius, surnamed Egerius, as commander of the garrison which he stations there. no date: wikLTP
c.585 Shrine to Aphrodite-Turan founded at GRAVISCA, port of the Etruscan city of Tarquinii. 590-80
CAH 7.2-48
c.585 TARQUINIUS PRISCUS king of Rome, returns to Rome and celebrates a triumph for victories over Sabines. 585 wikLTP
c.584 5 Etruscan cities declare war on Rome.  7 other Etruscan cities to join forces with them.  Etruscans capture the Roman colony at Fidenae.  Tarquinius eventually defeats and subjugates them.  Each of these wars brings loot to Rome. no date: wikLTP
c.580 Roman wallTARQUINIUS PRISCUS king of Rome, builds a stone wall around Rome, still restricted to the Palatine hill east of the Tiber. no date: wikLTP
c.580 GRAPE VINE is now cultivated in Rome. 580 SHT 2-122
c.580 Latin cities:  Corniculum, old Ficulea, Cameria, Crustumerium, Ameriola, Medullia, and Nomentum are subdued and become Roman. no date: wikLTP
c.580 SYBARIS, south Italy, Smindyrides becomes ruler until 560.  Sybaris peaks during his rule. 580 DGRG 2-1075
c.579 Temple to Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Capitoline Hill is begun by Tarquinius Priscus, partly funded by plunder from Sabines.  Finished 509. last act: wikLTP
c.579 Son of Demaratos of Corinth, TARQUINIUS PRISCUS dies.  1st Etruscan king of Rome from 616, killed by sons of former king Ancus Martius. 579 B76 15-1086, CDCC 331, OCD 1038, RW, bk     578 CAH 7.2, DGRBM, HRRP 1-29, LEWH 82, MRDK
Patricians try to reduce monarchy to a religious role.
c.578 TANAQUIL, widow of Tarquinius Priscus, gets crown for her son-in-law.  SERVIUS TULLIUS becomes king of Rome until 534.  (1st king not chosen by the people) 579 RW, bk     578 B76 IX-76, CDCC 486, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-35, MCAW 82 MRDK     no date: Dur 3-14
c.578 ESQUILINE and VIMINAL hills added to the city tribes. 578 GHH, HRR
c.578 1st Roman COINS minted by Servius Tullius.  Earliest Roman coins are not struck, but cast in a mold.  Sometimes the mold contains no figure, but merely shapes the circumference. 578 HRR
no date: DGRA 766, wikST
c.575 cloaca maximaCLOACA MAXIMA (Roman sewer system), begun 590, completed.  3 concentric stone arches, innermost 14 ft diameter.    575
B76 15-1078
c.575 EMPORION "trading place" Spain founded by Ionic colonists from Phocaea, on a small island at the mouth of the river Fluvia, in a region inhabited by the Indigetes.  See 550. 575 wikEmp, wikTpR
c.570 LIBERTINI (aka aerarii, landless freemen who were born slaves) placed by Servius Tullius in the 4 urban tribes until 312. no date:
DGRA 731
c.570 SERVIUS TULLIUS king of Rome 578-34, fortifies Rome with bank and ditch.  Opposed by patricians.  Allies with richer plebes and army.  Reorganizes Rome into a soldier state. 578 MCAW 85, Dur 3-14
550 HRR
Lapis Niger plan
pub dom   Lapis Niger plan
Lapis Niger
pub dom       Lapis Niger
Latin inscriptions
Latin inscriptions
c.570  LAPIS NIGER "Black Stone" , a shrine in the forum, contains a stone block with one of the oldest extant Latin inscription.  It proves:
1. that Romans remained Latin-speakers when some historians thought they had become Etruscanised.
2. Rome had kings at this time.
CAH 7.2-81, wikLat     570-50 wikLN
Discovered 1899 in Roman forum.
c.570 Roman army organized by Servius Tullius.
5 infantry classes based on wealth.
LEGION:  4,000 infantry, 600 cavalry, divided into centuries of 100 men.  This system lasts until c.500
no date:
CDCC 510
c.566 1st LUSTRUM performed by Servius Tullius after completing a census.  Originally a sacrifice for expiation and purification offered by one of the censors in the name of the Roman people at the close of the census taking.  Censuses are taken every 5 years, thus a lustrum becomes the 5-year inter-census period.       566 CDGRA 399, DGRA 719, HRR, wikLs
c.565 ATRIA on Po River delta, founded by Greeks and Etruscans. 560s GRG 327
c.560 1st CENSUS in Rome taken by Servius Tullius:  84,700 adult males.  Counts people and property.  Divides citizens into 6 classes by wealth, not birth, which determines taxes and position in army.  Those who can afford horse and armor are equites (cavalry).  Counts 80,000 soldiers.  Only the proletariat are exempt from military service. 566 GHH, HRR
560 Dur 3-15
no date:
CAH 7.2-137, MCAW 85
c.560 SERVIUS TULLIUS redivides Rome into 35 new tribes by locale rather than kinship or rank, thereby weakening cohesion of aristocracy.  This lasts until 508. no date: Dur 3-15
c.560 COMITIA CENTURIATA, begun by Servius Tullius, designed to mirror the Roman army during the time of the Kingdom.  193 Centuries, each divided into 1 of 3 grades:  officer class (cavalry or equites), enlisted class (infantry or pedites), miscellaneous class (mostly unarmed adjuncts).  Officer class is grouped into 18 Centuries, 6 of which are composed of Patricians.  Enlisted class is grouped into 170 Centuries divided into 5 classes, each with a separate property requirement:  1st class:  soldiers with heavy armor, lower classes had successively less armor, the soldiers of 5th class have slings and stones.  During a vote, all Centuries of a class vote before Centuries of the next lower class vote. 550 GHH, HRR
no date: wikCA
c.560 SMINDYRIDES, ruler of Sybaris south Italy from 580, ends. 560 DGRG 2-1075
c.556 MASSILIA Gaul attacked by Salii Gauls under Comanus unsuccessfully. 556 GHH
c.550 CELTS begin arriving in IRELAND, some to England and Scotland. 550 MCAW 90
c.550 EMPORION Spain on a small island at the mouth of the river Fluvia from 575, moved to the mainland, and called Neapolis "new city".  The island is then called Paleopolis "old city". 550 Dur 2-66, MWΦ 233, wikEmp
c.550  WRITING  in modified Phoenician alphabet appears in southern Portugal. 6th cen wikTpR
c.550 Spain:  Many Phoenician colonies are deserted. 6th cen wikTpR
c.550 Greeks begin settling Mediterranean coast of Spain.  There are no Greek colonies west of Gibraltar, only voyages of discovery. 6th cen wikTpR
c.550 Cult of Dionysus is established in Greek cities of south Italy. 6th cen acdm
c.550 MANTUA, a settlement on banks of Mincio river from 2000, re-founded by Etruscans.  Named for Etruscan god Mantus of Hades. 6-500 wikMnt
c.550 ELEA (Velia), Italy founded by Phocaeans who had been driven from Corsica to Rhegium. 580-70 or 535 CAH 7.2     550 Dur 2-66 540 CAH 3.3-161, OCD 377
535 B76 8-331, CAH 4-117
c.550 SYBARIS, south Italy, Acahaean colony from 721, builds loose federation of Achaean cities.
CROTON, another Achaean city, becomes chief rival.
B76 8-346
c.550 Ionian fashion comes to Etruria.  Wool tunics are replaced by thin linen Ionic tunics.  Pointed shoes for men and women appear until 475.  A Greek veil often covers women's hair.  Men wear long hair.  Mantles for women remain rectangular, but are not worn in contemporary Greek fashion.  Men wear a rounded mantle. 550 B76 5-1022-3
c.550 Temples of FORTUNA and DIANA built by Servius Tullius. no date: wikST
c.550 SERVIUS TULLIUS expands Rome to include the Quirinal, Viminal and Esquiline hills. no date: wikST
c.550 Wall and ditch around Rome. 550 GHH
c.550 30 PLEB tribes in Rome. 550 GHH
c.550 SCYTHIANS, in Europe from 750, appear in Balkans, keep coming until 500. 550 B76 2-615
c.543 10,000 Locrians and Rhegians defeat 130,000 Crotoniates on Sagra River. 540 GRG 230
c.540 TOLEDOCH (later Toletum) Spain on Tagus River founded by Phoenicians. 540 DGRG 2-1215
c.540 IBYCUS, poet of Rhegium, flourishes.  1st known to mention "Famous Orpheos" as a king of Thrace. 560 GHH, HRR     540 OHG     530 orti
c.536 Olives and grape vines from Greece imported thru Massilia to central Gaul. 536 GHH
c.535 THELINE Gaul, under the Liguri from ?, taken by the Salluvi until 123, renamed ARELATE. 535 lvArl
c.535 Greeks of SPAIN from 620, forced out by Carthaginian control of trade. 535 MCAW 93
c.535 TARQUIN-II, grandson of Tarquinius Priscus, charges SERVIUS TULLIUS with ruling illegally.  Servius calls for a plebiscite and wins unanymously. 535
Dur 3-15
c.534 SERVIUS TULLIUS dies.  2nd Etruscan king of Rome from 578, murdered by instigation of dau Tullia and son-in-law L. Tarquinius Superbus, son of Tarquinius Priscus, who siezes throne without election.  L. TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS succeeds until 509. 535 CDCC 486, bk     534 B76 IX-76, CDCC 331, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-35, 40, LEWH 82, MCAW 92, 95, MRDK, OCD 1038, RW
38 yr reign: Dur 3-14
T.S. succeeds 510 CDCC 486
c.534 L. TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS 3rd Etruscan king of Rome 534-09, executes many senators, revokes concesions to plebs, builds temple to Juno on Capitoline Hill, hires bodyguard, crucifies citizens in forum. 534 GHH, HRR,
MCAW 92-3
no date: Dur 3-15
c.534 LATIUM attacked and conquered by Romans.  Rome becomes head of Latin League. 534 GHH, HRR
c.534 Romans send colonies to Signia, Circeii, and Cora. 534 HRR
c.534 Wealthy Volscian towns of SUESSA and POMETIA taken by Tarquinius Superbus.  Pometia under Rome until 503/2. 534 GHH, HRR
no date: wikLTS
c.534 Tarquinius Superbus uses the wealth of Suessa and Pometia to complete the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, begun 579.  This involves leveling the top of the Tarpeian Rock that overlooks the Forum and removal of some ancient Sabine shrines. 534 HRR
no date: wikLTS
c.531 City of DICAEARCHIA ("Just government", later called Puteoli) founded near Neapolis by politically exiled Samians from Cumae. 531 CAH 3.3-161 530 CDCC 735
521 OCD 901
c.531 PYTHAGORAS, mystic, mathematician, devotee of Apollo, leaves Samos Island, goes to Croton, Italy, teaches there until 510. 550 GHH     532 B76 VIII-326     531 BNTH 51, GRG 324, 326, OCD 903, bk     530 CAH 7.2 post-530 B76 8-346     529 Dur 2-66,142     525 B76 15-322     522 RAH 167
c.530 EMPORION, Phocaean colony in Spain on the river Fluvia from 550, receives influx of Phocaean refugees after conquest of Phocaea by king Cyrus-II. 530 wikEmp
c.530 PYTHAGORAS at Croton, founds religious/ethical/political society which lasts until 455.  Allows women in.  Strict discipline, silence, introspection. 530 OCD 300, TAWH 17
no date: B76 VIII-326, OCD 904
c.530 Greek ALCMAEON son of Peirithous leaves home on Samos Island for Croton, where he becomes a famous physician until death 490. 530 sepAlc
c.530 CAMPANIA occupied by Etruscans. 530 OCD 856
c.530 SYBARIS south Italy, under oligarchy from 721, comes under democracy until 520. 530 rcSI
c.530 Greek trade ports of south Italy:  Croton, Sybaris, Metapontum, unite to wipe out their flourishing competitor SIRIS. 600-550 CAH 3.3
530 CAH IV-114, bk
c.525 ALBION (island of the Albiones) is recorded as the name of Britain by a Greek seaman from Massila. 525 OCD 34
c.525 HYBERNIA (Ireland) is discovered by a Greek seaman from Massila. 525 OCD 514
c.525 LONG MARCH of Etruscans and others against Cumae. 525/4 GRG 326
c.525 2nd TEMPLE of VESTA in the Roman Forum reconstructed on a larger scale on a new podium. 525
CAH 7.2-76
c.525 Figured Attic pottery imports to Rome surge until 510, followed by an equally sharp decline. 525
CAH 7.2-131
c.524 CUMAE besieged by barbarians, led by Tyrrhenians (Etruscans). 525 DGRG 1-860 524 DGRG 1-630
c.524 ARISTODEMUS tyrant of Cumae defeats Etrustan attackers. 525/4 GRG 321     524 CAH 7.2,
Dur 3-17, HAG 92, OCD 111, OHG
c.524 Sybarites build Doric temples at Poseidonia, south Italy. 524 MCAW 97
c.523 SPINA on Po River delta south of Atria, founded by Greeks and Etruscans. 525-20 GRG 327
c.522 TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS Etruscan king of Rome 534-09 declines an offer by CUMEAN SIBYL to buy  9 Sibylline books  for 300 gold pieces.  This is probably Cumae Italy, and not Cuma Euboea or Cyme Aeoloia. no date: MCAW 101
c.520 CELTIC PRINCESS tomb at Vix on Seine River shows great riches including cups and wine-mixing bowls from Greece.  Shows celtic wealth, esthetics, and love of luxury. 520
MCAW 101
c.520 TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS Etruscan king of Rome 534-09, makes Rome head of the LATIN LEAGUE by guile, military victory, and diplomatic marriage. 520
MCAW 101
c.520 Octavius Mamilius, a leading man of Latin Tusculum, marries a dau of Tarquinius Superbus, bringing Latins into close alliance with Rome. no date: wikLTS
c.520 LATINS form military union, the LATIN LEAGUE, with Rome under Tarquinius Superbus. 520 MCAW 101
no date: wikLTS
c.520 TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS Etruscan king of Rome 534-09, makes peace with the Aequi, renews treaty with Etruscans. no date: wikLTS
c.520 TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS Etruscan king of Rome 534-09, begins building the capitol building. 520
MCAW 101
c.520 TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS Etruscan king of Rome 534-09, ends up buying  3 Sibylline books  from Cumae for 300 pieces of gold - the same price that would have gotten him 9 books previously.  2 men (duumviri) are appointed to take care of them until 367. 520 GHH, HRR, MCAW 101
c.520 Roman army has 70,000 men. 520 GHH
c.520 SYBARIS south Italy, under democracy from 530, comes under tyrant Tyles until 510. 520 rcSI
c.520 DOGGIE BAG invented by Romans during reign of Tarquinius Superbus.  Banquet guests are expected to wrap leftovers in a napkin to take home.  To do otherwise insults the cooking. pre-500 EOET 81

PYTHAGORAS flourishes.

METAPHYSICS V:  The Λ UNIVERSAL SUBSTRATUM V (See Thales 600, Heraclitos 500) is NUMBER.  "All is number."  All existence is composed of form, not matter, and can be reduced to numerical relationships.   (See Xenophanes 480)
Asserts REINCARNATION V.  SOUL V is a fallen diety entombed in a body, a self moving algorythm going thru metempsychosis toward purification.
Introduces concept of "FORM," (See Plato 386) meaning "limit", also understood in numerical terms.
(See Upanishad 500)

MATH V:  Discovers the relationship between arithmetic and geometry.
(See Baudhayana 800 China 800, zero 520)

Λ MUSIC V:  Discovers the numerical ratio of intervals on the musical scale.
550 HRR
no date:
B76 VIII-326,
OCD 904
c.520 COSMOLOGY:  SPHERICAL EARTH proposed by PYTHAGOREANS.   (See Thales 600, geocentric theory 550, Anaximander 550, Anaxagoras 450) post-525 OCD 463
c.520 XENOPHANES of Colophon, Greek poet, wandering Mediterranean from 530, settles in Elea, Italy, flourishes 480 until death. 546 GHH     510 Dur 2-167
no date: B76 X-780, RAH 167
c.515 PARMENIDES, pupil of Xenophanes, 1st MONIST philosopher, flourishes in Elea.  Opens a school.  Main tagline: All is one.  1st to consider the meaning of being.  Change, motion, past & future don't exist.  Nothing can be created or destroyed.  What can be known exists, and is all that exists.  Reality is changeless, singular, eternal, finite, indestructible, a homogeneous sphere.  Rational proof is the method for evaluating assertions.  Eros created the 1st of all gods. 520-11 TTS
504 GHH, HRR
no date:
B76 VII 766, OCD 377, 782, wikPrm
c.513 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486, newly arrived in Thrace, moves 7-800,000 troops across Danube on a boat bridge, leaves Histiaeos tyrant of Miletos in charge of it, crosses into Scythian land.  Gives orders that if he does not return in 60 days, destroy the bridge.  The 60 days elapse.  Athenian Miltiades the Younger advises destroying the bridge.  Histiaeos refuses, figuring that Persian help against local democrats was more important than freedom from Persians. 516 CAH 4-96, 103
514 or 12 CHEIA 101
513 DGRBM 2-498, GRG 327, IDB 1-769, MCAW 100, OCD 688 512 Dur 2-234, HAG, OCD 520, RAH 691, bk     508 GHH
c.513 DARIUS-I demands earth and water from Idanthyrus chief of royal Scyths.  Idanthyrus sends him a bird, a mouse, a frog, and 5 arrows.  It causes some head scratching, but the invasion continues into Asia. 508 DGRBM 2-562
c.513 DARIUS-I, having failed to conquer Scythians, crosses Danube back into Thrace. 512 OCD 968
c.511 ETRURIA consists of 12 confederated cities. 511 GHH, HRR
c.510 IRON WORKING in Britain, and Cornish tin production begin until year 1. 510 SHT 2-10, 46
c.510 TIN mines in Brittany begin operating. 510 SHT 2-46
c.510 TARTESSOS, Spain, under Iberians from 700, probably destroyed by Carthaginians.  Comes under Carthaginians until 206. 6th cen. wikTpR     533 rtatl     510 rcIb
500 B76 IX-832, OCD 1039, wikTpR
c.510 TAVIRA south Portugal, under Phoenicians from 900, destroyed by violence.  Abandoned until 450. 6th cen. wikTpR late 500s wikTv
c.510 CROTON, on east coast of Calabrian Peninsula, under oligarchy from 675:  Strife breaks out against ruling Pythagoreans.  PYTHAGORAS, head of school at Croton from 530, displaced by coup of rival party, flees to Metapontum, where he dies.  CROTON under democracy until 389. 510 CDCC 577, bk, rcSI
500 B76 15-325
510-01 TTS
dies 499 HRR
497 TToH     472 HRR
c.510 ARDEA near coast of Latium besieged. 510 GHH, HRR
c.510 Sons of Tarquinius Superbus have dispute with their cousins. 510 GHH, HRR
c.510 DOREIUS, half bro of Cleomenes of Sparta, bound for Sicily, chances upon the Croton strife with Sybaris.  Joins Croton as a mercenary leader. 510 DGRBM 1-1066
c.510 SYBARIS, Achaean colony from 720, under tyrant Tyles from 520, defeated by Croton at Crathis river, taken and destroyed by Milon of Croton and Spartan mercenary Dorieus.
CROTON becomes dominant in south Italy until ?.  Sybaris under Croton until 452.
511 DGRBM 2-1087, GHH, HRR
511/10 CAH 7.2     510 B76 8-346, 353, CAH 4-89 115, DGRG 1-700, Dur 2-66, GRG 226, 230, LEWH 67, MCAW 102, OCD 300, 363, 687, bk, lvG, rcSI
c.510 Spartan DORIEUS is rewarded by Croton and continues to Sicily. 510 DGRBM 1-1066
c.510 BONONIA (Bologna), Italy occupied by Villanovans from 1050, an economic power from 750, occupied by Etruscans until 350, renamed FELSINA. 510 B76 IV-89
500 OCD 172
c.509 LUCRETIA, dau of Sp. Lucretius Tricipitinus, and wife of L. Tarquinius Collatinus, raped by SEXTUS TARQUINIUS, son of Tarquinius Superbus, king of Rome.  Lucretia tells her father and husband, makes them swear vengeance, then stabs herself in the heart. 509 CAH 7.2-172, DGRBM 3-601, GHH, HRR, TTPC, wikLTC
no date: B76 VI-375, LEWH 82

L. TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS deposed.  3rd Etruscan king of Rome from 534, overthrown by patrician revolt, led by L.(1) Junius Brutus.  Etruscan dynasty ends.  Began 616.  Etruscans ousted from Rome.  Period of kings from 753 ends.
REPUBLIC begins until 44.  Absolute power given to 2 consuls (called praetors at first) elected for 1 year terms.
SENATE:  carried over from days of the monarchy.  Assembly of most influential patres familiarum, who originally elected and advised the king.  In the time of the republic they are originally composed of patrician heads, but come to include all former city magistrates.  Originally appointed by kings, now by consuls, later by censors.  Lifetime membership.  Status depends on posts previously held and seniority.  Senate has much more power than the people's Assembly.
510 CDCC 486, DGRBM 3-979,
HRRP 1-40, LEWH 82,
MCAW 102, OCD 926, 1038, TAWH 17, vrb
509 B76 VII-439, 15-1085, CAH 7.2, CDCC 331, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-152, MCAW 103, MRDK, RAH, RW, SHWC 103, SORH, TTPC, bk
508 Dur 3-15
no date: B76 15-1088
According to Varro, this happened in 509, but there are strong indications that it happened some 4 years later. lvR
c.509 L. TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS flees north to Etruria.  Seeks help from Lars Porsena, chief magistrate of Clusium. 510 CDCC 501     509 Dur 3-16
504 MCAW 102
c.509 Feast of REGIFUGIUM "king flees" instituted as an annual feast according to Varro and Ovid.  Plutarch, explains it as the symbolic departure of the priest with the title rex sacrorum. 510 wikRg 509 GHH
c.509 1st CONSULS:  L.(1) JUNIUS BRUTUS and L. TARQUINIUS COLLATINUS elected by popular assembly grouped by centuries.
Suffects: P. Valerius Poplicola, M. Horatius Pulvillus, Spurius Lucretius Tricipitinus
509 B76 15-1087, CAH 7.2-628, CDCC 470, DGRBM 1-813, 2-828, 3-601, 1174, GHH, LEWH 83, OCD 183, 1039, bk, csm, wikCon
c.509 LUSTRUM, a sacrifice begun 566 for expiation and purification offered by the king in the name of the Roman people at the close of the census, is taken over by consuls until 443. no date: wikLs
c.509 Romans defeat forces of Tarquinii and Veii led by deposed king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus at Silva Arsia.  Consul L.(1) Junius BRUTUS, is killed in battle with Etruscans, and replaced by aged suffect Sp. Lucretius Tricipitinus. 509 GHH, HRR, DGRBM 3-604, 1174, wikLRB
c.509 Consul Sp. Lucretius Tricipitinus dies a few days after appointment, and is replaced by M. Horatius Pulvillus. 509 DGRBM 3-604-5, 1174
c.509 Papirius is pontifex maximus. 509 wikPM
c.509 CAPITOLINE TEMPLE to Jupiter, Juno, & Minerva, begun 579, dedicated by Etruscans.  Roman patriotism obscures the fact, saying the Etruscans were ousted, and that the Roman praetor maximus, M. Horatius dedicated it. 510 PW 16     509 B76 15-1087, CAH 7.2-287, CDCC 71, MCAW 103, SORH, wikTJOM
509 or 07 B76 15-1064,
CAH 7.2, HRR
c.509 LUDI "games" ROMANI, a religious festival in honor of Jupiter held at Rome somewhat annually in Sept. from 590, increased to 2 days until 494. 509 wikLR
c.509 LUDI SAECULARES, a secular festival involving sacrifices and theater, for 3 days and nights to mark the end of a saeculum and the beginning of the next may have been this early. 509 wikSG
c.509  Lex Valeria de Provocatione  By (consul?) P. Valerius in order to dispel the notion that he wished to re-establish the monarchy.
1.  establishes "provocatio", allows citizens condemned by a magistrate to death or scourging, the right of appeal to a committee of senators, patricians, and plebs.
2.  execution & forfeiture of property for any person trying to be king.
509 CAH 7.2-191, 219, invf, unrv, wikValPor
508 CDGRA 383, DGRA 700
no date: LEWH 83
c.509 Main duties of the comitia curiata, which now includes plebs as well as patricians, pass to the comitia centuriata, both assemblies of the whole people.  Comitia curiata has all votes equal.  Comitia centuriata has votes according to wealth.  It now elects consuls and receives appeals.  Thus plebs cannot be magistrates. 509 SORH
c.509 ROME is now 822 km2. 509 CAH 7.2-312, Dur 3-35


REPUBLICAN ARMY follows Etruscan or Greek models of organization and equipment:
CAVALRY:  1st 18 Centuries
1st CLASS:  Heavy infantry carrying 2 spears, sword, dagger, helmet, cuirass, greaves, shield
2nd CLASS:  same, but no cuirass
3rd & 4th CLASSES:  no armor
5th CLASS:  slings and stones
No pay until 405.  Loot distributed according to rank.
509 wikRL
500 wikRA
no date:
Dur 3-33, 34
LEGION:   4,000 infantry, 600 cavalry, divided into centuries of 100 men from 570, revised to 3,000 heavy infantry, 1,200 light infantry (javelin-throwers), 600 cavalry, and auxiliaries.
Divided into centuries (originally 100 men) commanded by centurions.
Republican legions, except for Legio I - IV, which are consular (2 per consul), are levied by campaign, and dismissed afterward.  Italian allies must provide a legion to support each Roman Legion.

PHALANX:  (6 lines of 500 men) forms the base of the legion until 366.
Cowardice punished by anything from death to flogging.
A general may behead any soldier or officer for any disobedience, even if that disobedience caused a favorable result.
Disertion and theft punished by amputation of right hand.
c.508 Carthage / Rome  1st treaty VRome to stay out of Sardinia, west Mediterranean, and Africa, except in maritime emergencies.  Carthage to stay out of Latium. 510 MWΦ 233     509 CAH 7.2,
DGRG 1-539, mxfld     508 B76 13-149 Dur 3-43, GHH, HRR, LEWH 83, MWΦ 208, OCD 208, bk     506 OCD 703 496 MCAW 105
c.508 Sale of SALT is made a state monopoly. 508 CDGRA 553
c.508 Roman CENSUS registers 130,909 adult males. 508 CAH 7.2-137, CDCC 179, csun 507 GHH, HRR
c.508 LATIN LEAGUE formed until 338 by city states formerly subservient to Etruscan monarchy in opposition to Roman Republic until 493. 508 Dur 3-35, OCD 583
c.508 ETRUSCAN ARMY under Lars Porsena & Tarquinius Superbus advances on Rome. 508 DGRBM 3-1174, Dur 3-17, HRR
c.508 Tarquin partisans in Rome, including 2 sons of L.(1) Junius Brutus, revolt unsuccessfully.  Sons of L.(1) Junius Brutus are captured, flogged, and beheaded while L.(1) looks on with approval. 508
Dur 3-17
c.508 Sep. CONSULS:  P. Valerius Poplicola (2nd) and T. Lucretius Tricipitinus 508 CAH 7.2-628, DGRBM 3-602, 1174, csm, wikCon
c.508  Lex Valeria de Aerari  passed by consul P. Valerius Poplicola.  Establishes the AERARIUM, Roman treasury in the temple of Saturn until 27.  Introduces office of 2 quaestores classici appointed by consuls and responsible for the public treasury (not to be confused with the regal office of quaestores parricidii or public accusers). 509
B76 I-111, SORH     508 invf, unrv
c.508  Lex Valeria de Provocatione  passed by consul P. Valerius Poplicola.  Secures right of appeal to all Roman citizens.  Judicial power is transferred from consuls to quaestores until 149.  508 CDGRA 709, DGRA 648, GHH, HRR
c.508 ROMANS burn bridges at Tiber River.  HORATIUS COCLES holds off the whole Etruscan army. 508 Dur 3-17
c.508 LARS PORSENA, chief magistrate of Clusium, Etruria, takes Rome, reassigns some Roman cities to territory of Veii and other Latin towns, does not reinstate Tarquinius Superbus. 508 Dur 3-17, GHH, HRR, LEWH 83, bk
508/7 CAH 7.2
c.508 LEGEND:  C. Mucius volunteers to murder Lars Porsena.  Kills his attendant by mistake.  Brought to Etruscan tribunal, Mucius says he is one of 300 young Romans sworn to murder Porsena.  To prove his devotion, Mucius puts his right hand in a fire until it is destroyed.  Porsena gets scared, and orders Mucius freed, then makes peace with Rome.  Mucius is granted land by the Tiber, and surnamed Scaevola (left handed). 508 B76 VIII-940
c.508 Consul T. Lucretius Tricipitinus wounded in the battle. 508 DGRBM 3-1174
c.508 35 TRIBES of Rome from 560 reduced to 20. 508 GHH, HRR
c.507 Sep. CONSULS:  P. Valerius Poplicola (3rd) and M. Horatius Pulvillus (2nd) 507 CAH 7.2-628, DGRBM 3-602, csm, wikCon
c.506 ETRUSCANS in north Italy from ?, driven south by Gauls. 506 GHH, HRR
c.506 War with Aricia.   Aruns, son of Lars Porsena, is defeated.  Porsena quits Rome to fight against Latins. 506 GHH, HRR
c.506 MILO, general of Croton with 100,000 men, defeats 300,000 Sybarians.  SYBARIS is destroyed. 506 GHH, HRR
c.506 Sep CONSULS:  Sp. Larcius Rufus (Flavus?) (1st?) and T. Herminius Aquilinus 506 CAH 7.2-628, DGRBM 1-253, 2-175, csm, wikCon
c.505 SABINES attacked and defeated by Romans. 505 wikAC
c.505 ARISTODEMUS, tyrant of Cumae, aided by city of Aricia, defeats Etruscans under Lars Porsenna of Clusium, at Aricia.  Latium, under Etruscans from ?, becomes independent until ?. 506 DGRG 1-862
505 DGRG 1-716, OCD 107, 111
504 CAH 7.2-2
c.505 Sep. CONSULS:  M. Valerius Volusus(?) and P. Postumius Tubertus 505 CAH 7.2-628, DGRBM 3-514, 1180, csm, wikCon
c.504 Incursion of Gauls. 504 HRR
c.504 CLAUDIANS, a powerful Sabine clan under ATTIUS CLAUSUS (later called Appius Claudius Sabinus Regillensis), defects to Rome, granted citizenship on favorable terms. 505 Dur 3-35
504 GHH, HRR, wikAC
c.504 Sep. CONSULS:  P. Valerius Poplicola (4th) and T. Lucretius Tricipitinus (2nd) 504 CAH 7.2-628, DGRBM 3-602, 1174, csm, wikCon
c.504 Consuls Poplicola and Tricipitinus defeat the Sabines. 504 DGRBM 3-602, 1174
c.504 Sabine soldier ATTIUS CLAUSUS, with 5,000 family members and clients, moves from Regillum to Rome.  Attius is admitted to patrician rank.  CLAUDIAN tribe begins. 504 B76 II-977, CAH 7.2-24, 180, DGRBM 1-762, 3-1187, SORH
c.504 Land across Anio river is distributed to the Claudii. 504 CAH 7.2-139, DGRBM 1-765
c.504 FIDENAE, Etruscan town 8km north of Rome, taken by Rome and garrisoned. 504 CAH 7.2, wikFdn 496 DGRG 1-899
c.503 Roman CENSUS registers 120,000 adult males. 503 CAH 7.2-137, CDCC 179, csun
c.503 P. Valerius Poplicola dies. 503 DGRBM 3-602, GHH, HRR
c.503 CUMAE Italy under aristocratic oligarchy from 750, comes under oligarchic republic until 425. 503 rcSI
c.503 Sep CONSULS:  Agrippa Menenius Lanatus and P. Postumius Tubertus (2nd) 503 CAH 7.2-628, DGRBM 2-716, 3-510, 1180, OCD 671, csm, wikCon
c.503 Consuls Postumius and Menenius defeat Sabines at Eretum. 503 DGRBM 2-715, DGRG 1-848
c.503/2 Latin cities Pometia and Cora, under Rome from , defect from to the Aurunci until 495.  Romans begin war against Aurunci. 503 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-343, 667 502 HRR
c.502 ARISTODEMOS, with a bodyguard, Siezes Cumae, becomes tyrant until ?.  Disarms the citizens, removes male descendants of exiled nobles to the suburbs, and enslaves them. 502 DGRBM 1-304
c.502 Latins defeat Romans at PometiaOne of the consuls is badly wounded by a spear. 502 wikLRB
c.502 Sep CONSULS:  Opiter Verginius Tricostus and Sp. Cassius Vecellinus 502 B76 II-617, CAH 7.2-628, DGRBM 1-621, 3-1174, 1271, OCD 211, csm, wikCon
c.502 SABINES defeated by consul Sp. Cassius Vecellinus. 502 B76 II-617
c.502 POMETIA Volsci taken by consuls. 502 DGRBM 3-1174
c.502 CAMERIA Latium destroyed by consul Verginius.  Disappears from history. 502 DGRG 1-489 501 CDCC 849
c.501 GADIR (later called Cadiz) on south coast of Spain, under Phoenicians from 1110, occupied by Carthaginians until 206. 530 GHH
501 B76 II-429, rcIb     500 hifiC
c.501  Lex De Dictatore Creando  Establishes DICTATORSHIP in emergencies.  No appeal from dictator's authority.  Originally limited to 6 months.  Requires a senatus consultum. 501 GHH, invf, unrv
498 DGRBM 2-175
c.501 Romes 1st dictator, T. Lartius Flavus appointed by senate for 6 months.  Sp. Cassius Viscellinus appointed first magister equitum. 501 disputed DGRBM 3-1271, GHH, HRR, SORH, bk
501 or 498 CAH 7.2, wikLRD
498 DGRBM 2-175

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