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Concept Clarifier

for definitions of concepts not terms

Dictionaries tell us how terms are used, whether they are used correctly or not.  Dictionaries don't tell us how to identify the concepts (often eternal concepts) labeled by those terms.  Nor do they tell us how those concepts interrelate.  This "clarifier" attempts to do that.  Instead of saying, "Here's what this term means," we're saying, "Here is one single concept this term has labeled, but we're not going to confuse it with other concepts this term has labeled, and we're not going to confuse this term with other terms that have labeled this concept."  If a term labels multiple concepts, those concepts are numbered.  Not all concepts can be stated with perfect clarity due to language limitations.  But all concepts can be stated with maximum clarity, which is attempted here.  This is a step toward an integrated system of mutually compatible concept identifiers.  Currently it's a work in progress.  Once stabilized and completed, it will hold the infrastructure for all philosophical inquiry in English, and can be used as a standard against which all conflicting definitions are seen as non-systematic.
This should have been done centuries ago by philosophers whose shoulders we should now be standing on.

BLUE:     terms     links to terms     links to outside references
RED italic:     abbreviations of philosophical terms:     abs. - absolute     rel. - relative     obj. - objective     sbj. - subjective     ont. - ontological     epis. - epistemological     axi. - axiological     pop. - popular definition     p.b.c. - properly basic concept
GREEN italic:    common dictionary abbreviations     cross referencing     notes
BROWN:    examples
abduct 1.  (v.t.)  to take something away from where it belongs
2.  (v.i.)  to move away from center   (ant. adduct)
A.  (v.t.)  to take, push, or pull away from center
abduction (n.)
1.  taking something away from where it belongs
2.  moving away from center   (ant. adduction)
A.  taking, pushing, or pulling away from center
3.  a syllogism whose major premise is certain but whose minor premise is only probable
ability (n.)   p.b.c.   (contrast to energy , power1 , strength)
a necessary2 attribute of something that can do something
able (adj.)   p.b.c.  having what it takes to do something
about (adv.  prep.)
1.  abstractly1 connected to   (see relate2 )
2.  near to something   (see around2)
A.  approximately
above (adv.  adj.)   (opposite below)   (see up)   rel.   always relative to a person judging direction
1.  farther than something else from a point which is considered lowest
2.  farther than something else from the center of the Earth
absence (n.)  not existing
1.  rel.  not existing in a particular place
absent (adj.)   (ant. present1)  not existing
1.  rel.  not existing in a particular place
absolute (compare to objective)   (see moral absolutism , truth , values)
1.  (adj.)  seen without reference to anything else  (ant. relative)
e.g.  absolute truth, reality
A.  independent of arbitrary standards of measurement
e.g.  absolute zero (thermodynamically)
2.  (adj.)  not dependent on, or limited by anything outside itself  (ant. contingent1 )
e.g.  absolute power, freedom
3.  (adj.)  whole or complete1   (ant. partial)
e.g.  absolute knowledge = omniscience
4.  (adj.)  beyond which nothing more is necessary
e.g.  absolute proof, certainty
A.  beyond which nothing more is possible   (see ultimate1B )
e.g.  absolute secrecy, trust, zero (numerically)
One thing cannot be more absolute than another.  But one thing can be closer to absolute than another.
5.  (n.)  a thing that is absolute1,2,3,4
absolute value (n.)  the number of increments (and fractions thereof) that a positive or negative rational number is from zero
abstract
1.  (adj.)  existing independently of concrete1 space/time
A.  (n.)  something abstract1
e.g.  logic, mathematics, propositions, relations
2.  (adj.)  an unchanging property2 of nature1 existing in various and changing instantiations of it  (which is concrete4 by contrast)   (syn. universal1Bii )
A.  (n.)  something abstract2   e.g.  beauty, color
abstract
(v.t.)  to reduce information
1.  to retain only that which is relevant for a particular purpose
2.  to a generality   e.g.  Joy reduces to an emotion.
accept (v.t.)   (ant. reject)
1.  to take1 or receive1 what is offered
A.  willingly
B.  favorably
2.  to agree to:
A.  terms presented
B.  the truth of a proposition
accident (n.)   (contrast to chance)
1.  an unexpected event interrupting a series of expected events
2.  an unnecessary1B attribute of something
A.  which it might not have had
B.  without which it would still be what it is  (contrast to essence2A )
3.  something not intended
accidental (adj.)   (compare to random)
1.  unexpected
2.  of attributes:  unnecessary1B
3.  not intended or deliberate1
accomplish (v.t.)
to complete2 a task  (syn. achieve1 )
accord (n.)   (denotatively synonymous with accordance)   (see conformity , consistency)
agreement,  metaphorical harmony
accuracy (n.)   (see precision)
1.  the fact of being without error
2.  (incorrectly)   proximity to accuracy1
accurate (adj.)   (see correct1A , exact , precise)  without error
accusation (n.)
1.  the fact of accusing
2.  the content of accusation1
If I say, "You did X," that's an accusation.  If I say, "I think you did X," that's not an accusation.  It says something about me, but nothing about you.
accuse
(v.t.)   to say someone did, or is doing, something
1.  to say someone did, or is doing, something blameworthy
A.  to bring charges against
accute (adj.)   (see obtuse)
of angles:  between zero and 90 degrees
1.  sharp
achieve (v.t.)   (syn. accomplish)
1.  to complete2 a task
2.  to reach a goal   (syn. succeed2 )
acknowledge (v.t.)   (contrast to recognize )
1.  to affirm to be true or as stated
A.  to affirm the claims of someone
2.  to affirm something having happened
A.  to affirm having received something
acquire (v.t.)   (syn. get )
1.  (act.)  to come to a state of having   (see gather , possess , take)
A.  actively:  by means of effort
e.g.  to acquire knowledge
B.  passively:  without effort
e.g.  to acquire an inheritance
2.  (pass.)  to come to a state of being had
A.  actively:  by means of effort
e.g.  to acquire a taste,  a habit,  a reputation
B.  passively:  without effort
e.g.  to acquire an illness
act p.b.c.  (superset of react)
1.  (v.i.)  to do something  (superset of behave)
A.  voluntarily   (see proceed)
i.  to pretend
B.  involuntarily
2.  (n.)  something done   (subset of event , syn. action)
A.  voluntarily   (see willful)
B.  involuntarily
action (n.)   (syn. act2 )   (superset of reaction)
something done
1.  voluntarily   (superset of procedure)   (see willful)
2.  involuntarily
active (adj.)
1.  acting or changing1
2.  able to act or change1
3.  causing action or change3
4.  characterized by much action or change3
5.  the voice of a verb whose subject does the action of the verb   (ant. passive3 )
activity (n.)
1.  acting or changing1
2.  a specific action or pursuit
actual (adj.)   (syn. existing , real1 )
a  p.b.c. understandable only in contrast to supposed antonyms:

1.  existing as opposed to apparent2
2.  existing as opposed to imaginary1A
A.  existing as opposed to fictitious
i.  existing as opposed to hypothetical
3.  existing as opposed to possible
4.  existing as opposed to potential
ad hoc (adj.)   lit.  "to this,"  for this specific purpose
ad hoc hypothesis (n.)  a hypothesis introduced in order to:
1.  explain away facts that seem to refute a weak but favored theory
2.  complicate the issue when available evidence points to an unfavorable conclusion
add (v.)   (opposite: subtract)
1.  to increase an amount
A.  to combine so as to increase
2.  to combine two numbers on a number line1A such that the second number is counted in increments from the first number
adduce (v.t.)   (syn. cite)   to mention something as an example, evidence, explanation, or proof
adduct
1.  (v.i.)   (ant. abduct)  to move toward center
A.  (v.t.)  to take, push, or pull toward center
adduction (n.)
1.  moving toward center   (ant. abduction)
A.  taking, pushing, or pulling toward center
2.  the position of a part resulting from adducting
adhere (v.i.)   to attach
1.  by means of many small or microscopic fasteners
e.g.  velcro, glue
2.  abstractly
e.g.  Joe adheres to his political party.
adherence (n.)   attachment
1.  by means of many small or microscopic fasteners
e.g.  by velcro or glue
2.  abstract attachment
e.g.  adherence to a political party
adjacent (adj.)   (subset of beside1 )   by the side of
not necessarily touching, but not separated by other things of the same kind
adjust (v.t.)   to alter so as to make as desired
administer (v.t.)
1.  to manage , conduct , direct people
2.  to dispense in measured amounts to specific recipients
e.g.  to administer rewards or punishments
to administer medication
admiration (n.)
1.  thinking that something is good   (see approval)
A.  esthetically
B.  ethically
2.  thinking that something is superior2
admire (v.t.)
1.  to think that something is good   (see approve)
A.  esthetically
B.  ethically
2.  to think that something is superior2
admit (v.t.)   (see acknowledge)
1.  to allow to enter
2.  to affirm the truth of something stated or implied about the admitter
adversary (n.)   (superset of enemy , opponent)
a being having a mind and will who opposes
Computer generated adversaries are only virtual adversaries.
adverse (adj.)
1.  of sentient beings:  opposed in will or desire   (syn. contrary3 )
A.  for something to be true
B.  for something to happen
2.  unfavorable
A.  harmful
advice (n.)  that which is advised
advise (v.t.)   (see prescribe2 )   (contrast to order1 )  to tell someone what he should do
aesthetic Who needs this dippy spelling?   Go here.   esthetic
affect (v.t.)   (contrast to effect , influence)
to cause an effect1
When you affect something, you have an effect on it.
Unfortunately affect is sometimes used as a noun and effect as a verb, which screws everything up.
affirm (v.t.)   (see acknowledge , admit , confirm)
to say positively
1.  to say something is true   (syn. assert)   (ant. deny)
2.  to say yes
a fortiori (adj. and adv.)
1.  "all the more"
2.  (specifically of arguments)  that which must be admitted for an even stronger reason
e.g.  If A has attribute X, then B has more attribute X.
or  If A has attribute X, then B more certainly has attribute X.
after (adv.   prep.)
1.  behind something else   This + behind constitute a  p.b.c.   (opposite: before1 )
A.  in time  (syn. following)
B.  in place
C.  in order
2.  in search of
again (adv.)
1.  another time,   once more   e.g.  Let's do it again.
2.  back into a former condition   e.g.  We left and returned again.
3.  in addition   (see besides)   e.g.  as much again
A.  furthermore   e.g.  A, and again, B.
against (prep.)   p.b.c.   a relationship of two things seen together
1.  facing each other
A.  across a given midpoint   (see opposite)
2.  in contrast with each other
3.  opposing each other
A.  conflicting with each other
4.  touching each other
agglutinate 1.  (v.)  to adhere together
2.  (adj.)  adhered together
agnostic
1.  (adj.)  without knowledge   (ant. gnostic   see pithanostic)
A.  not knowing anything
B.  not knowing any objective truth
i.  not knowing knowing a particular objective truth
2.  (n.)  a person without knowledge  (contrast to skeptic)
A.  a person who doesn't know anything   (a theoretical category with no members)
B.  a person who doesn't know if objective truth is knowable
i.  a person who doesn't know if a particular objective truth is knowable
Within this category:
A "hard" agnostic says no one knows something is knowable, and it is impossible to know it.
A "soft" agnostic says he does not know if something is knowable, but someone may, and it might be possible to know it.
A.  and who wants to know it  (worth talking to)
B.  but doesn't want to know it  (a total waste of time)
A soft agnostic is the only pure agnostic, because a hard agnostic claims to know something isn't known.
2Bi includes theological agnostics who don't know if God exists  (contrast to atheist)
Theological agnostic requires a further definition of God.
agree (v.i.)   (contrast to conform)
1.  to be or become of the same opinion
2.  to pretend to be of the same opinion
3.  to say you're of the same opinion even when it's obvious that you're not
4.  to say you will do something requested or commanded   (syn. consent to)   (subset of promise1 )
agreement (n.)   (contrast to conformity)
1.  being in a state of agreeing1   (syn. unity3 )
2.  being in a state of agreeing4   (syn. contract1 )
A.  the terms of that state of agreeing
i.  those terms written down
algorithm (n.)   a finite sequence of precise steps:
1.  that produces a result (procedural algorithm)
A.  that always produces the same result (deterministic algorithm)
B.  that produces a probable result (probabilistic algorithm)
2.  that leads to a conclusion (logical algorithm)
A.  that always leads to the same conclusion (deterministic algorithm)
B.  that leads to a probable conclusion (probabilistic algorithm)
all p.b.c.   The terms that might be used to define it are themselves defined by it:   entire , every , total , whole
1.  (adj.)  the totality of some concept
e.g.  all England, all time, all sincerity, all whatever
A.  the total number of elements of a set
e.g.  all cats, all white cats, all white cats in Egypt
2.  (pron.)  every person in a set
e.g.  All were invited.  A good time was had by all.
3.  (adv.)  entirely, totally, wholly
e.g.  We're all worn out, and all done.
allege (v.t.)   (syn. affirm)   (ant. deny)   (subset of assert)
to say something is true without proof
allegiance (n.)   (see loyalty)
devotion1C to a ruler or governing principle
allegory (n.)   (see parable)
a fictitious story in which the literal meaning illustrates the intended meaning
allow
(v.t.)   This + consent2 to, let, and permit are synonyms, each defining the others, thus constituting a p.b.c.
alter (syn. change2 )
1.  (v.i.)  to change deliberately
2.  (v.t.)  to change something deliberately
alternate 1.  (adj.)  becoming other, then returning repeatedly
e.g.  of the form: A - B - A - B... etc.
2.  (v.i.)   to become other, then to return repeatedly
3.  (n.)   one member of a pair of alternating2 things
alternative 1.  (adj.)  offering choice1
2.  (adj.)  imposing choice2
3.  (n.)   a choice3
ambiguity epis.   (n.)
1.  possibly being one of two or more things
2.  having more than one possible meaning
ambiguous epis.   (adj.)   (contrast to vague)
1.  possibly being one of two or more things
2.  having more than one possible meaning
among (prep.)   (see between)   with several of some things
1.  surround by
2.  included with
3.  in the company of
amount (n.)   (see magnitude)
1.  the sum of a quantity of units
A.  the sum of a quantity of numbers
2.  a non-specific quantity or size
anagenesis (n.)   (ant. cladogenesis)
evolution of one entire group of things into a distinctly other group such that no branching occurs and the ancestral group is extinct
1.  biological:  evolution of one species into another such that no branching occurs and the ancestral species is extinct
2.  sociological:  evolution of a culture into a distinctly other culture such that no branching occurs and the original culture is extinct
analysis (n.)
1.  separation of a whole into its parts  (opposite: synthesis)
A.  in order to discover new facts about the parts and the whole
B.  a statement of the results of analysis1A
2.  looking at or into carefully   (syn. examination)
A.  in order to discover new facts
analytic (adj.)  separated into parts  (opposite: synthetic1 )
analytic statement (n.)   (opposite: synthetic statement)
one relating a subject concept to a predicate concept which is denotatively indistinguishable from the subject concept
i.e.  The statement separates a subject into a subject and predicate, thus saying nothing but a tautology.
analyze (v.t.)
1.  to separate a whole into its parts
A.  in order to discover new facts about the parts and the whole
2.  to look at or into carefully   (syn. examine)
A.  in order to discover new facts
B.  in order to judge
anger (v.i. and n.)   (subset of emotion)   (superset of rage)
being displeased by someone or something
1.  and desiring to change that person or thing
2.  and disliking that person or thing   (syn. hate1 & 1A)
You can be displeased by your kid, but not dislike your kid.
A.  and desiring to harm that person or thing
Connotatively, anger2 is:  1. less intense than hate1 ,  2. caused by what something does rather than what it is,  3. briefer.
angle (n.)  of two straight lines that meet
1.  the shape formed by them
2.  the amount of difference in direction between them, measured in degrees
types:  accute , right4 , obtuse
animal (n.)  a living organism that can move by its own choice1
animism (n.)  the world view that all things, animate or inanimate, have soul/spirits.
(contrast to supernaturalism)
annoy (v.t.)  to cause displeasure
This is denotatively synonymous with torture.  The only differences are connotative.  Connotatively the main difference is in degree of displeasure, but any attempt to draw a line between these concepts will prove arbitrary.
answer 1.  (v.t.)  to reply to a question
2.  (n.)  a reply to a question
antecedent 1.  (adj.)  prior to something else
A.  logically prior
B.  temporally prior
2.  (n.)  the term that states the prior condition of any conditional statement
e.g.  If (antecedent) then (consequent),
or  (Consequent) if (antecedent)
or  (Consequent) unless (antecedent)
anthropic principle (n.)  the principle2 that we would not be here to observe natural2 phenomena if they were not compatible with our existence - the point being that its rather silly to marvel at the improbability of natural phenomena creating us
anticipate (v.t.)   (contrast to expect)
to act as though a certain event will happen
antinomy (n.)  a pair of equally defensible yet contradictory conclusions
antipithanostic (adj.)   (ant. pithanostic   see apithanostic )
From Greek pithanos, meaning probable or likely
thinking something improbable
e.g.  a particular proposition
anti-realism (n.)   (superset of conceptualism and nominalism)
the theory that:
1.  real objects don't exist, have properties2 or relationships independently of some knowledge or experience of them  (opposite: realism1 )
2.  universals1Bii don't exist external to minds.  (opposite: realism2 )
antonym (n.)
Given a particular word, an antonym has some kind of reverse meaning, but not necessarily a true opposite.
apathy (n.)   (syn. indifference)  not caring,  usually about some particular thing
apithanostic (adj.)   (see pithanostic , antipithanostic )
From Greek pithanos, meaning probable or likely
having no opinion concerning probability
e.g.  of a particular proposition
apodictic (adj.)  demonstrable
This word is good for nothing but to enable sophists to confound lesser educated challengers.
apologetics (n.)  defense of the truth of a position3 , usually of a world view
a posteriori (adj.)   (ant. a priori)
1.  after and/or dependent on experience
e.g.  a judgment, principle2 , or argument based on experience
2.  inductive reasoning from particular instances to general principles, or from effect to cause
apparent (adj.)
1.  easily perceived1 by one of the senses   (syn. evident)
e.g.  visible
2.  appearing2A to be actual or true or a particular way, but not necessarily being so
appear (v.i.)
1.  to become perceived1 by one of the senses, usually sight
2.  to become understood
A.  to be thought to be some way without necessarily being that way
appearance (n.)
1.  being perceived1 by one of the senses, usually sight
2.  the way something appears1 to one of the senses, usually sight
A.  the way something is thought to be
appoint (v.t.)  to select for a particular purpose
apportion (v.t.)  to distribute1 in specific quantities
approach (see attract)
1.  (v.t.)   to come or go nearer1 to that which is approached
2.  (n.)   the fact of approaching1
3.  (n.)   a way to approach1
appropriate
1.  (v.t.)   to take or set aside
A.  for one's own use
B.  for a specific purpose
2.  (adj.)  regarded as the way something should2B be
approval (n.)
1.  thinking something to be good or satisfactory   (see admiration)
2.  thinking favorably about something proposed
A.  officially granting the proposal
approve (v.t.)
1.  to think something good or satisfactory   (see admire)
2.  to think favorably about something proposed   (syn. consent1 to)
A.  to officially grant the proposal   (syn. confirm2A )
approximate
1.  (adj.)   (see about , around , similar)  near to something
A.  in quantity
B.  in a particular quality
2.  (v.t.)  to be or become approximate1
a priori (adj.)   (ant. a posteriori)
1.  based on reason alone prior to and/or independent of experience
e.g.  a judgment, principle2 , or argument based on reason alone prior to and/or independent of experience
2.  deductive reasoning from general principles to particular instances, cause to effect
arbiter (n.)   (syn. judge5 )  a sentient being who judges2
arbitrary (adj.)   (compare to random)
chosen by the will of a chooser
1.  as opposed to an absolute standard
2.  as opposed to an objective standard
arbitrate (v.t.)
1.  to judge2 a dispute
2.  to submit a dispute to a judge5
arc (n.)   (part of a circle)
an unclosed line of points existing on plane and equidistant from another point on that plane
area (n.)   (superset of region)   (see plane)
1.  a part of a surface
2.  that which is within a given closed boundary or between given boundaries
argue (v.i.)
1.  to present reasons for or against the truth of a proposition
2.  to verbally disagree
argument (n.)
1.  a sequence of propositions such that the former (premises) give reason to accept the latter (conclusion)
(types:  valid and invalid , deductive and inductive , logical2 and rhetorical)
2.  a verbal disagreement
arithmetic (n.)   (subset of mathematics)
the rules for combining rational numbers logically.
Arminianism (n.)   (contrast to Calvinism)
a subphilosophy (but not sect) of Protestantism
1.  Salvation depends on two and only two things:
•  Gods grace in offering it
•  every individuals choice to accept the offer.
2.  conditional predestination:  i.e.  God has predestined Himself to save those who voluntarily choose to repent & believe in Jesus.
around (adv.  prep.)
1.  in circular form
2.  near to something   (see about)
A.  approximate
3.  on the outside of something
arrange (v.t.)
1.  to put things in desired positions and locations   (syn. order2 )
2.  to try to cause events to happen as desired
A.  and succeed
arrangement (n.)   (see configuration , structure)
1.  the way things are positioned4 in a particular group
e.g.  accidental/deliberate , scattered/together, loose/tight , orderly/disorderly
Any kind may or may not show evidence of design or pattern.
2.  the result of having been arranged
art (n.)   sbj.   (contrast to science)
1.  the process of deliberately arranging items so as to make what is desired
2.  the product of art1
Greatness of art is directly proportional to the desirability of the product, and inversely proportional to the number of people able to create it.
artificial (adj.)   (ant. genuine)
1.  made by human effort  (similar to synthetic1 )
2.  made to immitate something else  (similar to counterfeit , fake)
A.  made to immitate something natural
aside (adv.)
1.  on or to one side   (see beside)
2.  out of the way   (see away)
ask (v.t.)   (syn. request)   (see question)
to express a desire for someone to do something
assent (compare to consent)
1.  (v.)  to accept a proposition as true
A.  without knowing it
B.  without evidence
2.  (n.)  the mental act of assent1
assert (v.t.)   (syn. affirm)   (ant. deny)   (superset of allege)
to say something is true
assertion (v.t.)  a statement that something is true  
assign (v.t.)  to connect a specific abstract to something
1.  a specific attribute to something
2.  a specific purpose to something
associate
1.  (v.t.)   (syn. relate)  to abstractly connect
A.  of persons:  to come into the presence of
2.  (adj.)  associated1
3.  (n.)  a person associated1
association (n.)
1.  an abstract connection
A.  of persons:  coming into the presence of
2.  a group of persons created for a purpose
assume (v.t.)
1.  to take something abstract
A.  to take a proposition to be true   (superset of know)
i.  without verification   (syn. believe1 )
ii.  without justification   (syn. presume)
B.  to take on something abstract
e.g.  a right, responsibility, role, title, form, pretense
2.  to receive something abstract
assumption (n.)
1.  taking something abstract
A.  taking a proposition to be true   (superset of knowledge)
i.  without verification   (syn. belief1 )
ii.  without justification   (syn. presumption)
B.  taking on something abstract
e.g.  a right, responsibility, role, title, form, pretense
2.  receiving something abstract
at (prep.)   p.b.c.   Basic prepositions like this are somehow understood by the brute assumption of understanding them.
atheism (n.)   (opposite: theism)
1.  the doctrine that (gods or) a God does not exist
A.  and behavior based on that assumption   (subset of religion1 )
2.  pop.  the doctrine that (gods or) a God is irrelevant to human life
The above definitions require a further definition of god or God.
atheist (n.)   (opposite: theist)
1.  a person who says that a God does not exist
A.  and behaves accordingly   (see religion1 )
2.  pop.  a person who says that a God is irrelevant to human life
3.  pop.  a person who "doesn't profess a belief in a God"
(a popular but inaccurate definition held by agnostics who want to be called atheists1 , but are smart enough to know they can't show that a God doesn't exist)
The above definitions require a further definition of god or God.
atimioreme (n.)   a word, the meaning of which is cared about only by vocabulophiles
atone (v.i.)
1.  to return to amiability with an offended party
A.  by means of compensation
2.  to accept or seek punishment for crimes
atonement (n.)
1.  returning to amiability with an offended party
A.  by means of compensation
2.  accepting or seeking punishment for crimes
attach (syn. fasten)   (see adhere)
1.  (v.i.)  to connect and be unable to disconnect except by detaching   (see bind , hold)
A.  abstractly
e.g.  to be attached emotionally
2.  (v.t.)  to cause to attach1
attachment (n.)   (see adherence)
connection and inability to disconnect except by detaching
1.  abstractly
e.g.  emotional attachment
attack (v.t.)   (ant. defend)
1.  to harm
2.  to try to harm
A.  to initiate an attempt to harm
attempt (v.t.)   (syn. try1 )   (see effort)
to do what must be done in order to achieve a goal
attend (v.t.)  to be present at
attend to (v.t.)
1.  to look to   (compare to observe1 )
A.  to look to and care2A for
2.  to act with respect1B for   (see observe2 )
attention (n.)   (see regard)
observation1 of something and care1A for it
attitude (n.)   (see pride and humility)
1.  originally the angle of something relative to the ground   (subset of position1 )
The definition was then expanded to describe:
2.  body language
It was then expanded to praise or criticize a person's facade while pretending to praise or criticize the actual person (and sometimes the reverse).  Now people often use this term to justify pretense. (e.g.  a "good attitude")  The word itself confuses appearance and reality.  "Attitude" is used to describe both.
3.  one's true emotions or opinions  (consciously expressed or not)
4.  outward expression of emotions/opinions
A.  outward expression of one's true emotions/opinions
i.  expressed consciously
ii.  expressed unconsciously
B.  outward expression of faked emotions/opinions
i.  expressed consciously
ii.  expressed unconsciously
attitude game
(n.)  pretense of judging truth while in fact viewing truth from the angle that appears most beneficial to you
attract (v.t.)
1.  to cause something to approach
2.  to cause something to want to approach
attribute
(v.t.)  to assign to, or think of as belonging to, produced by, or resulting from
e.g.  to attribute honesty or intelligence to one's child
attribute
(n.)  something that is attributed
An attribute is a subjective property2.
i.e.  If a mind thinks A is a property of B, then A is at least an attribute of B from the viewpoint of that mind.
A property becomes an attribute when someone attributes it.
e.g.  Honesty may be an attribute of your child whether it is a property of your child or not.
Blackness and roundness are both attributes and properties of a handball.
audience (n.)   (see communicate)  persons to whom information is transmitted
augment
1.  (v.t.)  to make something greater
A.  by being added to it
2.  (n.)  something that makes something greater
A.  by being added to it
authentic (adj.)
1.  confirmed1 by authority   (see genuine2 )
2.  trustworthy, reliable
authority (n.)   (see command , influence)
1.  a right2
A.  to be thought reliable (with or without the power)
B.  to be obeyed (with or without power to enforce it)
2.  power
A.  to be thought reliable (whether reliable or not)   (informative power)
B.  to enforce obedience (with or without the right)   (coercive power)
3.  an entity that has authority1,2 (granted or not)
e.g.1  legitimate expert testimony
e.g.2  a person pointing a gun at you
4.  an entity to which authority1,2 is granted
e.g.1  another person's testimony,   the person himself
e.g.1 and/or 2  a professor, doctor, coach, or referee
This definition allows one to put logic, observation, common sense, etc. all under the heading of authority, causing possible confusion or equivocation with definition 1.
authorize (v.t.)
1.  to officially permit someone to do something
A.  without interference
2.  to give someone:
A.  a right2 to be obeyed concerning a particular matter
B.  power to enforce obedience concerning a particular matter
automatic (adj.)
1.  happening without being caused by a will
2.  done without conscious volition   (compare to spontaneous)
automatically (adv.)
1.  without being caused by a will
2.  without conscious volition   (see spontaneously)
average (adj. and n.)   a measure of central tendency among a set of values2
types:
1.  mean3:  the sum of the values divided by the number of values
2.  median:  the value at the midpoint in the set of values
3.  mode3:  the most frequent value in the set
(As adj. see normal2 , ordinary1 , standard3 )
avert (v.t.)   (compare to prevent)
to avoid an unpleasant future event
1.  by deflecting it
2.  by sidestepping it
avoid (v.t.)   (compare to avert , prevent)
1.  to make void
2.  to get away from   (syn. escape)
A.  to stay away from
aware (adj.)   (syn. conscious)   (see sentient)
experiencing thoughts , sense perceptions, and emotions.
Sense perceptions are not experienced while dreaming.
awareness (n.)   (syn. consciousness , perception1 )
a sense of presence prior to thought , sense perceptions, and emotion
the state in which a self experiences thoughts, sense perceptions, and emotions
Sense perceptions are not experienced while dreaming.
away (see aside)
1.  (adv.)  from something
A.  in location
B.  in direction
2.  (adj.)  not present
axiology (n.)   (part of philosophy)   (sibling set of epistemology and ontology)
the theory or study of values , usually divided into two parts: esthetics and ethics.
axiom (n.)   (contrast to dogma)   (compare to law2A )
1.  a basic principle2 that cannot be deduced from other principles but is the starting point from which other statements are derived or deduced.
2.  a dogmatic statement which must be assumed true if the universe is rational and coherent.
back
1.  (n.)   (opposite: front1 )  the side of a two sided object that is:
A.  less active or functional
B.  farther from the viewer
2.  (adj.)  at the back1 side:   (opposite: front2 )
A.  at the less active or functional side
B.  at the side farther from the viewer
3.  (adv.)  to or toward the back1:
A.  to or toward the less active or functional side
B.  to or toward the side farther from the viewer
bad (adj.)   (see pleasure / displeasure)
one of the two primary values   (opposite: good)
commonly divided into esthetic bad (unpleasant) and ethical bad (evil)
1.  rel.  disliked, unpleasant, not accepted
An event is bad if it is not accepted by, disliked by, or unpleasant to an evaluator.
2.  abs.  not accepted by, disliked by, unpleasant to the Supreme Being
I dare you to come up with a more workable definition.
balance
1.  (n.)  of two or more things:  equality in some attribute
A.  equal distribution2
B.  equality of opposing forces
2.  (n.)   (see stability)  not changing when change is likely to happen
e.g.  not falling over when falling is likely
3.  (v.t.)  to cause balance1,2
base
1.  (n.)  the part of something that supports the rest of it
A.  by gravity   (syn. foundation)
e.g.  the base of a column
B.  by attachment
e.g.  the base of a tree branch
2.  (n.)  a stable place in unstable surroundings
e.g.  a military base
3.  (adj.)  abstractly low
A.  low audio frequency
e.g.  base drum
B.  dishonorable
be p.b.c.  (v.i.)  There's no point in trying to define it.  We all must assume we know what it means.
beauty (n.)   (see esthetic)  whatever please one or more of the senses   Though conventionally reserved for visual, audio, and olfactory senses.
because (conj.)   (opposite: therefore)
for the following reason
e.g.  ont.  An effect happens because a cause happened.
epis.  I know X is true because I know Y is true.
Some statements must be converted in order to work.
e.g.  In the following statement:
Because X is true, Y is true.
"Because" is undefinable.  The statement must be converted to:
Y is true because X is true.
become (v.i.)  to change from not existing to existing
before (adv.   prep.)
1.  in front of something else   (opposite: after1 , behind)
A.  in time   (syn. previously)
B.  in place
C.  in order
2.  not yet
A.  not yet reached
B.  not yet accomplished
e.g.  Our task is before us.
begin (syn. start) 
1.  (v.i.)  to change from not happening to happening
2.  (v.t.)  to cause to begin1
behave (v.i.)  to do something in a particular manner  (subset of act)
1.  as expected or not expected
2.  as desired or not desired
behavior (n.)  way of acting   (syn. conduct , manner , mode2A )
behind (adv.   prep.)   This + after1 constitute a p.b.c.
after something else   (opposite: before1 )
A.  in time  (syn. following)
B.  in place
C.  in order
being
1.  (n.)  a thing that can be identified as a distinct part of the whole of reality
A.  an existing thing or object, material1 or immaterial   (syn. entity)
B.  that universal1B2 unchanging quality1 in which all existing things participate
2.  (part. of be)  existing
A.  and not changing  (in contrast with becoming)
belief (n.)   (see essay)
1.  a probability2 judgment short of certainty2   (syn. opinion)
(denotatively indistinguishable from faith1A )
2.  a willful decision to act as though a particular proposition or position3 is true or probable  (syn. trust2 )
(denotatively indistinguishable from faith3A )
A.  a willful decision to claim to think something is true or probable2 in order to get the benefits of the claim
3.  that position3 referred to in 2
believe (v.)
1.  to think2 a particular proposition or position3 is true or probable2   (syn. opine1 )
2.  to willfully choose to act as though a particular proposition or position is true or probable  (syn. to trust1 )
A.  to claim to think something is true or probable2 in order to get the benfits of the claim
below (adv.  adj.)   (opposite above)   (see down)   rel.   always relative to a person judging direction
1.  closer than something else to a point which is considered lowest
2.  closer than something else to the center of the Earth
bend
1.  (v.i.)  to change from straight to not straight without breaking   (see flex)
A.  to become curved
B.  to become crooked
2.  (v.t.)  to change something from straight to not straight without breaking it
A.  to make curved
B.  to make crooked
3.  (n.)  a place where bending1,2 occurs
beneficent (adj.)   producing improved condition
benefit 1.  (v.t.)  to improve condition
2.  (n.)  improvement of condition
beside (prep.)   (syn. next to)
1.  by the side of   (see aside)
2.  in addition to
3.  other than
4.  in comparison to
e.g.  Joe looks fat beside Bob.
besides (adv.)
1.  in addition   (see again)
2.  except for what was mentioned
3.  moreover, furthermore
best (adj.)   (superlative of good , better)
sbj.  most good
bestow (v.t.)  to give a specific thing or things with official or legal effect
bet (see risk)
1.  (v.i.)  to invest2 resources on the chance that a given proposition is true
2.  (n.)  an investment on the chance that a given proposition is true
better (adj.)   (comparative of good)   (superlative: best)
sbj.  more good
between (prep.)   (see among)
1.  in what separates two things
A.  in the space that separates two objects   e.g.  between your ears
B.  in the time that separates two moments   e.g.  between 4:00 and 4:30
i.  in the time that separates two events   e.g.  between world wars
C.  in the interval that separates two abstractions
e.g.  between red and blue , a rock and a hard place , alternatives
2.  in what connects two things   e.g.  between friends
3.  in common   e.g.  ten dollars between them
beyond 1.  (prep.)  on the far side  
A.  greater than
i.  farther than
2.  (adv.)  to the far side
Bible (n.)
1.  the set of 39 books from Genesis through Malachi  (Torah)
2.  #1 plus the 27 books of from Matthew through Revelation  (Protestant Bible)
3.  #2 plus the 12 books of the apocrypha  (Catholic Bible)
4.  #3 plus 3 more books of the apocrypha plus Psalm #151  (Orthodox Bible)
5.  #4 plus 2nd Esdras  (Russian and Georgian Bibles)
6.  #5 minus the 3 books of Maccabees  (Anglican Bible)
7.  any book or set of books regarded as authoritative
big (adj.)   (comparative: bigger)
p.b.c.  definable only by its synonyms:  large , huge, or in contrast to its opposite:  little in reference to magnitude or size
bind (v.t.)   (see fasten , restrain, retain)   (ant. free1 )
to hold in a particular state
1.  abstract state
e.g.  by contract1
2.  physical state
blade (n.)
a hard edged linear instrument used to chop or slice
blur
1.  (v.i.)  to be or become indistinct3 in outline or shape
2.  (v.t.)  to cause to blur1
3.  (n.)  the state of being blured1
body (n.)   (see mind-body relationships)
1.  the main part of something
A.  the central part of something
B.  the most important part of something
2.  the material2 part of something
A.  as opposed to energy parts
B.  as opposed to abstract parts
e.g.  mind , emotions
i.  as opposed to spiritual parts
e.g.  soul , spirit
3.  something seen as a unit
A.  a group of things seen as a unit
e.g.  a body of soldiers
B.  a mass of something seen as a unit
e.g.  a body of water
boundary (n.)   (denotatively indistinguishable from: edge1 , border, perimeter)   (see limit)
Collectively they are definable as a location where one thing stops and another starts.
A two dimensional boundary is either a hiatus having no thickness or a stripe having thickness.
A three dimensional boundary is either a surface having no thickness or a skin having thickness.
A boundary is either distinct (hard edged) or indistinct (soft edged).
An abstract closed boundary is a category.
burden of proof (n.)   In a dispute between one whose point is provable and one whose point is not provable, b.o.p. is an obligation on him whose point is provable to do so.
(see essay)
calculate
(v.t.)   (syn. figure2 )   to process2A data
1.  by logic
2.  by arithmetic
Calvinism (n.)   (not exactly contrasted to Arminianism)
Calvinism is not a concept.  It's a package of concepts.  The 1619 Synod of Dort produced the standard five canons (acronym TULIP) of Calvinism carefully omitting the one that gets them in trouble - its foundational premise - the absolute sovereignty of God.  When all Calvinist premises are seen together, their coherence cannot be shown, except when it leads to Christian determinism.

The sovereignty of God must be defended at all cost.  Therefore God is absolutely sovereign over either:
1.  every event
in which case no event is accidental, random, or uncontroled.
or
2.  salvation
in which case there are two types of it:  Supralapsarianism & Infralapsarianism
Supralapsarianism:  Before the Creation, God predestined some for heaven and others for hell.
Infralapsarianism:  Before the Creation, God predestined some stuff, but left the hell issue unclear.  After the Creation, God predestined some people for heaven.
In its existing forms, Calvinism is either logically inconsistent, or it implies that God deliberately creates some people to condemn them to eternal torment.
cancel (v.t.)   (see discontinue , end , terminate)
1.  to cause something to stop
2.  to cause something to not exist
3.  to cause something to reverse back to what it was previously
cardinal (adj.)
1.  on which something depends
2.  of number , expressing quantity rather than place in a sequence   (contrast to ordinal)
care
1.  (n.)  attention to something plus action to make it as desired
A.  plus action to preserve it
2.  (v.t.)  to want something to be the case
A.  to act to preserve something   (see attend to)
Cartesian product
(n.)  The set of all possible ordered pairs < a,b >, where a is an element of set A and b is an element of set B, is the Cartesian product of A and B.  It is written A x B, and can be graphed as rows x columns.
e.g.  In a deck of cards, the set of all 4 suits multiplied by the set of all 13 denominations equals the 52 cards (the Cartesian product of SUITS x DENOMINATIONS).  It can be graphed as a table of 4 rows by 13 columns or 13 rows by 4 columns.
categorical relationship (n.)   (see critical thinking2 )  a way in which two categories relate to each other
There are at least three and no more than four possible relationships between any two categories:   (see essay)
1.  separation:  No members of one category are members of the other.
2.  intersection:  Some members of each category are contained, and not contained in the other.
3.  hierarchy:  One category is contained in the other.
If you count two identical categories as two categories, then identicality is a fourth possible categorical relationship.
categorize (v.t.)  to identify a category by a common criterion which is not common to all other things
category (n.)   (syn. set)   (composed of concepts usually called members)
an abstract closed boundary containing concepts which are distinguished2 from all other concepts by having at least one criterion in common which is not common to all other concepts
Such a boundary exists theoretically even when nothing is in it.
catholic (adj.)  universal
cause (contrast to: induce , influence , motivate , persuade)
1.  (v.t.)  to make a change happen  (denotatively synonymous with force)
2.  (n.)  that which is responsible for any change  (which is its effect)
There are no such things as necessary and sufficient causes.  There are necessary and sufficient conditions to cause effects, or necessary and sufficient causal conditions.
The difference may seem trivial, but a "necessary cause" is not necessarily a cause.
caused (adj.)   (syn. determined , inevitable)
happening of necessity rather than chance
center
1.  (n.)  a point half way between extremes   (syn. middle)
A.  a point half way between two other points
B.  a point equidistant from the points of a periphery
i.  an approximation of this point
2.  (n.)  an area around a center1
3.  (v.t.)  to put something at a center1
certain (adj.)   (contrast to probable , possible)
relative to propositions

1.  abs. obj.  true and known to be true   (i.e. proven)
2.  sbj.  thought to be known3
certainty (n.)
1.  abs. obj.  that which is true and known to be true (i.e. proven)
relative to propositions
2.  sbj.  thinking2 you have knowledge3
relative to sentient beings   (opposite: doubt1 )
There are no degrees of certainty1.  Therefore any probability2 judgment short of certainty1 is belief1.
If you want to talk degrees, try certitude.
certitude (n.)   (opposite: doubt2 )
sbj. the degree of confidence you have that you know something
chance (syn. possibility1 )   (contrast to accident , probability)
1.  ont.  (adj.)  able to be or not be   (contrast to necessary)
2.  ont.  (n.)  something that may or may not be
A.  something that may or may not have been in the past
B.  something that may or may not be in the present
C.  something that may or may not be in the future   (syn. potential2 )
3.  epis.  (adj.)  not predictable
A.  (n.)  the quality of unpredictability
B.  (n.)  an event the occurrence of which is unpredictable
change denotatively identical to convert   (see transform)
1.  (v.i.)  to become different   (see vary)
2.  (v.t.)  to cause to become different   (syn. alter)
3.  (n.)  the result) of changing1
cheat
1.  (v.t.)  to violate a contract1
A.  of a written contract
B.  of an implied contract
2.  (n.)  a sentient being who cheats1
choice (n.)   (see alternative , free will , preference)
1.  ability to do or have one thing out of a fixed3 range of options2
A.  ability to do or have one of multiple options within a given range
B.  ability to do or have X or Y
C.  ability to do or have X, or not do or have X
2.  necessity to do or have one thing out of a fixed3 range of options2
A.  necessity to do or have one of multiple options within a given range
B.  necessity to do or have X or Y
C.  necessity to do or have X, or not do or have X
If the range is not fixed, no choice1 or 2 is necessary.
3.  the objects of choice1 or 2
e.g.  chocolate, strawberry, or vanilla;   stay or go;   to be or not to be
choose (v.t.)   (superset of select1 )   (see free will2 )
to do or have one option2 out of a fixed3 range of options2   (If the range is not fixed, no choice is necessary.)
A.  to do or have one of multiple options within a given range
B.  to do or have X or Y
C.  to do or have X, or not do or have X
chop (v.t.)   (see slice)
to cut by pushing a blade through
Christian I can't be sure any creedal statement includes all Christians and excludes all non-Christians.  Therefore I offer your choice of the following attempted definitions.
1.  (adj.)  that set of beliefs which accepts the existence of a historical Jesus of Nazareth, and some combination of one or more of the following:
A.  that he is identical to the God to whom we are accountable
B.  that he is a necessary mediator between us and the God to whom we are accountable
C.  that everything he said is true
D.  that everything the Bible says he said is true
E.  that he said everything the Bible says he said
F.  that everything the Bible says about him is true
G.  that we should do what he said to do
H.  that we should usually do what he said to do
I.  that we should try to do what he said to do
J.  that we should usually try to do what he said to do
K.  that even if we don't try to do what he said to do, he will forgive us and make us happy forever if we just believe in him
i.  but only if we repent
2.  (adj.)  pop.  that set of beliefs which cause a person to do some combination of #1 "in his heart2"
3.  (adj.)  that set of beliefs which cause a person to think he is a Christian
A.  and behaves a certain way
4.  (n.)  a person who thinks some combination of #1 is true
A.  and behaves a certain way
5.  (n.)  a person who thinks some particular creedal statement is true
A.  and behaves a certain way
6.  (n.)  a person who tries to maintain a personal relationship with Jesus
A.  and behaves a certain way
i.  but only if he has the right Jesus
a.  and behaves a certain way
Christian justice (n.)   i.e.  justice according to most Christians
deserving damnation for any violation of any commandment of God, regardless of any amount of good works also done
circle (n.)   (see arc , cycle , sphere , spiral)
a closed line of points existing on plane and equidistant from a middle point called its vertex1A
circuit (n.)   (syn. cycle1 )  circular motion
circular (adj.)
1.  in the form of a circle
2.  starting and stopping at the same point
A.  starting and stopping at the same location
circumference (n.)
1.  the line around3 a plane figure
A.  in the form of a circle
2.  the measurement of a circumference1
circumstance (n.)
1.  a fact or event accompanying another fact or event
A.  accidentally
B.  as an essential determining factor
2.  (pl.)  surrounding details or conditions
cite (v.t.)   (syn. adduce)   to mention something as an example, evidence, explanation, or proof
clade (n.)   Greek for branch   (see cladogenesis)
an abstract branch used to connect items in a hierarchy
cladogenesis (n.)   (ant. anagenesis)  splitting into more than one branch such that the original trunk does not necessarily become extinct
1.  biological:  evolution of a species into more than one branch
2.  sociological:  evolution of a culture or society into more than one form
clarity
(n.)   (adj. = clear)   allowing passage through
1.  allowing light to pass through
2.  being unobstructed
3.  epis.  of propositions or sets of propositions:
not being illogical , ambiguous , or vague
Clarity1 is not related to understanding.
e.g.  Calculus is perfectly clear whether I understand it or not, though it may be explained unclearly.
clause (n.) 
1.  a sequence of words containing a subject and verb which forms a sentence or part of a sentence
2.  a separate section of a legal document
clear
1.  (adj.)   (n. = clarity)   allowing passage through
A.  allowing light to pass through  (syn. transparent, opposite: opaque)
B.  unobstructed
C.  epis.  of propositions or sets of propositions:
not illogical , ambiguous , or vague
Clarity1 is not related to understanding.
e.g.  Calculus is perfectly clear whether I understand it or not, though it may be explained unclearly.
2.  (adj.)  unblemished
3.  (v.i.)  to become clear1,2
4.  (v.t.)  to make clear1,2
close (adj.)   (see near)
(v.)   (see shut)
codepend (v.i.)   (see depend)
1.  to be in relationship to something else such that each influences the other
A.  each determines the other
2.  to be in relationship to something else such that each needs the other
A.  in order to satisfy some criterion
i.  in order to exist
ii.  in order to serve some purpose   (see rely2 )
coerce (v.t.)   (subset of persuade)
to persuade by means of displeasure for non-cooperation
coercion (n.)   (subset of persuasion)
persuasion by means of displeasure for non-cooperation
cohere (v.i.)
1.  to adhere together
2.  to be logically consistenta , integrated, and intelligible
coherence (n.)
1.  adhering together; cohesion
2.  logically consistent1A , integrated, and intelligible
A.  under theories of truth, the sibling set of correspondence theory
Coherence2 is not related to understanding.
e.g.  Calculus has coherence whether I understand it or not, though it may not be explained coherently.
coherence theory of truth (contrast to correspondence theory of truth)
The truth of a body of beliefs and/or propositions is determined by their internal and mutual consistency.
This and correspondence theory are not mutually exclusive, and therefore constitute attributes of truth, rather than opposing theories.
coherent (adj.)
1.  adhering together
2.  logically consistent1A , integrated, and intelligible
Being coherent2 is not related to being understandable.
e.g.  Calculus is perfectly coherent whether I understand it or not, though it may not be explained coherently.
collect (v.t.)  to gather repeatedly over time
combine (v.)   (see add , join , merge , mix , unite)
1.  (v.i.)  to come into union
2.  (v.t.)  to bring into union
command
1.  (v.t.)  to tell someone to do something   (syn. demand1 , order)
A.  with authority1,2 to do so
B.  without authority1,2   Authority is implied, but not necessary.
C.  with power1 to enforce obedience
D.  without power1, to enforce   Such power is implied, but not necessary.
2.  (v.i.)  to have authority1,2
3.  (v.i.)  to have power1 to enforce obedience
4.  (n.)  a sentence expressing a command1
common (adj.)
1.  shared by many or all members of a set
2.  of or belonging to a community   (syn. public1 )
3.  plentiful
A.  existing in many places   (syn. prevalent , general2A )
B.  occurring often   (syn. general2B )
4.  having few or no distinguishing features   (syn. ordinary2 )
common sense
1.  (n.)  that faculty by which minds know that logic is reliable, recognize foundational premises , and comprehend induction
2.  (n.)  probability judgment based on remembered observation of consistent cause-effect relationships interpreted by inductive reasoning
3.  (adj.)  generally agreed on   (a vague, ambiguous, and subjective term)
A.  (n.)  category of unproven propositions on which most people agree  ("Most people" is another can of worms.)
communicate (v.t.)   (syn. say , speak2 )   (see audience)
to transmit information from a source to a receiver
comparative (adj.)
1.  having the nature of comparing
2.  indicating greater or lesser degree of some attribute
A.  the greater or lesser degree of an adjective or adverb   (sibling set of superlative)
compare (v.t.)   of two concepts:
1.  to note similarity and/or difference
2.  to note greater or lesser degree of some attribute
compatible (adj.)   not conflicting
1.  of propositions:  not contradictory or mutually exclusive
2.  of animals:  not antagonistic
compatiblism (n.)   (a subset of determinism)
the theory that causal determination of human conduct is compatible with the freedom required for moral responsibility
compel (v.t.)  to force1A
compensate (v.t.)  to counterbalance an imbalance in order to achieve balance
1.  to counterbalance a lack or deficiency
2.  to counterbalance an offense
A.  by doing something to please the offended party
3.  to counterbalance a state of injustice
A.  to pay a debt   (see requite)
compensation (n.)  counterbalance in order to achieve balance
1.  counterbalance of a lack or deficiency
2.  counterbalance of an offense
A.  by doing something to please the offended party
3.  counterbalance of a state of injustice
A.  payment of a debt   (see requital)
complement (n.)  the set of all and only those things that are not included in the set designated  (see antonym , negative)
e.g.  The complement of A is everything in the universe that is not A.
complete
1.  (adj.)  having all the parts and attributes it needs   (syn. whole)
A.  to fulfill1 some criterion
i.  to be what it's called
e.g.  A proton is a complete proton but an incomplete hydrogen atom.
A hydrogen atom is an incomplete helium atom. etc.
A car minus a radio may or may not be a complete car depending on how you define car.
Completeness of X depends on definition of X.
2.  (v.t.)  to make something complete1   (see accomplish)
3.  to bring to an end   (syn. fulfill2 )
complete system (n.)  a system whose axioms1 or rules of inference1 are adequate to demonstrate every true proposition, or to justify any valid argument
complex (adj.)  containing more than one kind of part  (contrast to composite and simple)
comply (v.i.)   (ant. refuse)
1.  to do what is requested   (syn. consent3a )
2.  to do what is commanded   (syn. obey )
component (n.)  an essential part1
compose (v.)  to put parts together
composite (adj.)   (opposite: incomposite)   (contrast to complex and singular)
containing more than one part
composition (n.)
1.  what a thing is made of;  ingredients
2.  a thing made of ingredients
compress (v.t.)
1.  to press together
2.  to cause to take up less time or space   (see contract)
concede (v.t.)
1.  to refrain from contesting2 an assertion
2.  to give up a contest3   (syn. yield2A )
concentrate
1.  (v.i.)  to go toward a center
A.  to come to s single location
2.  (v.t.)  to cause to go toward a center
concentrated (adj.)  gathered around a center
concentration (n.)   (see focus)
1.  gathering around a center
2.  the fact of being concentrated
concept (n.)  a unit of thought  (syn. idea1 )  that is recognizable as such
A term corresponds to a concept, which corresponds to a thing.  A concept can be labeled by one or several terms.
e.g.  "Dog" is a concept.  "Big black dog" is a concept.  "Big black dog on a surfboard" can be seen as one or two concepts, because there are no official rules delimiting what a concept can be.
Types of concepts exist in opposing pairs:
1.  abstract1 concept:  not space/time dependent  (often called imaginary)
extended2 concept:  space/time dependent  (often called real)
2.  singular concept:  containing no parts or sub-concepts
composite concept:  containing more than one part or sub-concept
A.  simple concept:  containing one kind of part or sub-concept
B.  complex concept:  containing more than one kind of part or sub-concept
3.  incremented concept:  containing degrees or fractions of itself
non-incremented concept:  containing no degrees or fractions of itself
4.  properly basic concept:  cannot be defined
definable concept:  can be defined in terms of other concepts
Multiple concepts of the same type are seen collectively as a category.
concept identification (n.)   (part of critical thinking2 )
locating the boundaries of a concept
Complete concept identification locates all boundaries necessary to distinguish a concept from everything that is not that concept.
Sufficient concept identification locates those boundaries necessary to distinguish a concept in the context in which it is seen.
conceptualism (subset of anti-realism)   (sibling set of nominalism)
the theory that:
Only particulars and collections of particulars exist.
Properties2 exist, but are dependent on minds to exist.
Universals1 are properties that can be in more than one particular at the same time.  Universals are reducible to particular concepts in minds.
conclude
1.  (v.i.)  to become finished, ended
2.  (v.t.)  to make finished, ended
a.   to end a thought process   (syn. to decide)
conclusion (n.)   the end of something
1.  the last part of something before the end
2.  the end of a thought process   (see decision)
A.  a proposition which logically follows from two (or more) premises of a valid argument
concrete (adj.)
1.  physical
2.  perceivable by the senses
3.  referring to a particular entity, as opposed to its general category
4.  referring to a whole particular, as opposed to an attribute of it  (which is abstract2 by contrast)
condition (n.)
1.  an essential requirement for the existence of something
2.  anything that modifies an attribute of something else
3.  a state of affairs
A.  in relation to something that implies it
B.  in relation to something that it implies
conditional 1.  (adj.)  expressing a condition or conditions
A.  (adj.)  containing a condition or conditions
2.  (adj.)  implying a condition or conditions
3.  (adj.)  dependent on a condition or conditions
4.  (n.)  a statement which is conitional1,2,3
conditional statement (n.)   (part of deduction)   (sibling set of syllogism)   (superset of modus ponens , and modus tolens)
A statement of the form: if p, then q  is written  p ⊂ q .
Conventionally, lower case letters are used.
The if clause is antecedent.  The then clause is consequent.
The minimal requirement for the truth of a conditional statement is that the consequent not be false when the antecedent is true.
"⊂" is also used to denote a subset.
conduct (v.t.)  to show or point the way   (syn. direct , guide , lead3 )
e.g.  to conduct an orchestra
A.  to channel motion
e.g.  Copper wire conducts electricity.
conduct (n.)  way of acting   (syn. behavior)
confidence (n.)   (compare to courage)
belief1 that what you want to be true is true
configuration (v.t.)   (subset of position)   (see form)
arrangement of the parts of something
e.g.  bent, erect, crooked, crouched, folded, twisted
configure (v.t.)   to arrange the parts of something
confirm (v.t.)   (see affirm , establish)   to make firm, stable, or settled
1.  of something uncertain as being true
A.  to do so officially
2.  of something proposed as being approved
A.  to do so officially   (syn. approve2A )
conflate (v.)  literally blow together
to treat two or more things as though they were one thing
1.  to combine two differing accounts as though they were one account
e.g.  to combine variant readings into a single text
A.   for the sake of determining probable truth
B.   for the sake of denying contradiction
2.  to combine fact and fiction into one story
A.   for the sake of esthetics
B.   for the sake of deception
3.  to assume that a lack of connotative difference implies a lack of denotative difference
e.g.  to sloppily treat two different concepts as though they were indistinguishable
conflict
1.  (v.i.)   (see contest)   to actively oppose
A.  in words
B.  physically
2.  (n.)   active opposition
A.  in words
B.  physically
conform (v.i.)   (contrast to agree)
to be or become of the same form
conformity (n.)   (contrast to agreement)
1.  accordance of form
2.  equality of form
connect
1.  (v.i.)  to touch1   (see join1 )
A.  and fasten together   (see attach , unite)
2.  (v.t.)  to touch1 something  (see join1 , contact1 )
A.  and fasten to it
connection
(n.)   (see attachment)  touching1
1.  and fastening together
connote (v.t.)   (contrast to denote2 )
to suggest or imply2 something in addition to its explicit meaning
connotation (n.)   (contrast to denotation2 )
something suggested or implied2 in addition to its explicit meaning
Connotations of a term are all attributes of that term.
conscious (adj.)   (syn. aware)   (see sentient)
experiencing thoughts , sense perceptions , and emotions.
Conscious action is deliberate.
Thoughts and emotions are experienced while dreaming, but sense perceptions are not.  Only the illusion of them is experienced.
consciousness (n.)   (syn. awareness , perception1 )
The state in which a self experiences thoughts , sense perceptions , and emotions
Thoughts and emotions are experienced while dreaming, but sense perceptions are not.  Only the illusion of them is experienced.
consent (compare to assent)
1.  (v.i.)  to think favorably about something proposed   (syn. approve)
2.  (v.i.)  to permit something requested   (see willing)
3.  (v.i.)  to agree to comply1 with something proposed or requested
A.  to actually comply with it
4.  (n.)  approval of something proposed
5.  (n.)  permission of something requested
6.  (n.)  agreement to comply with something proposed or requested
A.  actual compliance with it
consequence
(n.)   (syn. result1 )   (superset of payment)
a final or relevant effect of a cause
consequent 1.  (adj.)  following as a result1
2.  (n.)  a proposition resulting from an antecedent proposition
e.g.  If (antecedent) then (consequent)
(Consequent) if (antecedent)
or  (Consequent) unless (antecedent)
consider
(v.t.)  to think1A about in order to understand or decide
1.  to evaluate
2.  to care about  specifically the emotions of other emotional beings
3.  to think of as acceptable or possible
consistency (n.)
1.  degree of logical or intuitive connection
A.  with itself
B.  with something else
2.  degree of accord or agreement
A.  with itself
B.  with something else
3.  degree of firmness, thickness, viscosity, uniformity
consistent (adj.)
1.  in logical or intuitive connection
A.  with itself   (syn. coherent)
b. with something else
2.  in accord or agreement
A.  with itself   (syn. coherent)
B.  with something else
constant 1.  (adj.)  not changing  (contrast to continual , continuous)
A.  within a finite time period
B.  within an indefinite time period
C.  never changing (immutable1 )
2.  (adj.)  not likely to change
A.  within a finite time period
B.  within an indefinite time period
C.  never likely to change
3.  (n.)  something which is constant1,2
constrain (contrast to: force)
(v.t.)  to prevent a change from happening
1.  to forbid a willful action
constraint (n.)   restrictive force2
contact
1.  (n.)  (syn. touch1,2,3 )  the relationship of two things that are as near as possible without causing deformity to at least one of them
2.  (v.)  to come into a contact1 relationship
A.  abstractly:  to communicate
3.  (n.)  the act of contacting2
contain (v.t.)
1.  to hold1 within the holder
e.g.  A cup holds liquid in the cup.
2.  to be able to hold1
e.g.  A gallon jug holds a gallon even when it's empty.
3.  to have as an essential part
e.g.  10 contains 3 + 7, or 2 x 5.
content (n.)  all that is in something:
1.  abstract content
A.  verbal content
i.  meaning as opposed to style
2.  physical content
content 1.  (adj.)  happy enough to be satisfied
2.  (v.t.)  to satisfy
contest
1.  (v.i.)  to enter or be in conflict with an opposing will
2.  (v.t.)  to contest1 a particular matter
3.  (n.)  two or more wills in conflict
contingent (adj.)   (opposite: non-contingent)   (subset of relative)   (see truth)
from Latin, "to touch1 on all sides"
1.  dependent on, or limited by something else for its specific nature  (syn. relative1,  ant. absolute2 )
2.  possible1 and not necessary1
e.g.  B is possible1 in the case:
    If A then B.  If not A then maybe B.
B is contingent on A in the case:
    If A then maybe B.  If not A then not B.
continual (adj.)   (contrast to continuous , constant1,2 , perpetual)
happening, happening again, happening again, etc.   (see repeating)
A.  within a finite space or time period
B.  in an indefinite space or time period
C.  in infinite space or eternal time
continue (opposite: discontinue)   (see keep , remain , stay)
1.  (v.i.)   to not stop
2.  (v.t.)   to cause something to not stop
continuous (adj.)   (contrast to continual , constant1,2 , perpetual)
extending without interruption
A.  within a finite space or time period
B.  in an indefinite space or time period
C.  in infinite space or eternal time
contract
1.  (n.)  an agreement2 between two or more persons to do something
A.  the terms of that agreement
i.  those terms written down
2.  (v.i.)  to make a contract1
contract (v.i.)   (ant. expand)   (see compress)
to be reduced in at least one dimension
contradict (v.t.)   (superset of deny)   (see rebut)
to say that a previously stated proposition is false
contradiction (n.)   (contrast to contraries)
relationship of two propositions which cannot both be true and cannot both be false
contrapositive (adj. and n.)   (sibling set of converse and obverse)   (contrast to antonym)
relationship of two categorical propositions of the same form such that the subject term of each is the complement of the predicate term of the other.  (logical equivalents for A and O propositions)
i.e.  A (All S are P) contraposes to (All non-P are non-S).
O (Some S are non-P) contraposes to (Some non-P are non-S).
contraries (n.)   (opposite: subcontraries)
a pair of propositions which cannot both be true, but can both be false  (contrast to contradiction)
contrary
(adj.)   opposed
1.  in truth value
2.  in opinion
3.  in will or desire   (syn. adverse1 )
A.  for something to be true
B.  for something to happen
control
1.  (v.t.)  to force behavior to be as the controler desires   (see manage , regulate)
A.  by strength
B.  by authority
2.  (n.)  ability to control1
converse (adj. and n.)   (sibling set of contrapositive and obverse)   (contrast to reverse)
the relationship of two categorical propositions of the same form such that the subject term of each is the predicate term of the other
(logical equivalents for E and I propositions)
i.e.  E (No S are P) converts to (No P are S).
  I (Some S are P) converts to (Some P are S).
converse (v.i.)  to speak to in order to communicate   (syn. talk)
conversion (n.)   (sibling set of contrapositive and obverse)   (contrast to reverse)
relationship of two categorical propositions of the same form such that the subject term of each is the predicate term of the other
(logical equivalents for E and I propositions)
i.e.  E (No S are P) converts to (No P are S).
I (Some S are P) converts to (Some P are S).
convert denotatively identical to change
1.  (v.i.)  to become different
2.  (v.t.)  to cause to become different
coordinate system (n.)   (see frame of reference)
a set of orthogonal axes relative to which the location of a point is determined
cop-out
1.  (v.i.)  to fail to behave in accordance with an obligation
A.  to fail to fulfill a commitment
B.  to fail to fulfill a responsibility
2.  (n.)  failure to behave in accordance with an obligation
A.  failure to fulfill a commitment
B.  failure to fulfill a responsibility
3.  (n.)  an excuse for cop-out2
4.  (n.)  a person who cops-out1
correct
1.  (adj.)  conforming to a standard
A.  an absolute standard
     e.g.  truth , logic   (see accurate, right1 )
B.  an arbitrary standard   (see proper)
2.  (v.t.)  to try to compel something to conform to a standard
A.  and succeed
correspond (v.i.)
1.  to be paired with one among multiple possibilities
A.  to conform to one among multiple possibilities
B.  to be similar to one among multiple possibilities
2.  that which each member in a relation2 does with respect to the other
3.  to communicate indirectly
correspondence (n.)  the relationship2 of the members of an ordered pair
correspondence theory of truth (contrast to coherence theory)
The truth of beliefs and propositions is determined by one to one correspondence between their terms and implications and external facts.
This and coherence theory are not mutually exclusive, and therefore constitute attributes of truth, rather than opposing theories.
corrigible (adj.)   (opposite: incorrigible)
1.  able to be changed
2.  willing to be changed
Connotatively the change implies improvement.
cosmological argument for the existence of God (n.)   (see ontological , teleological , and transcendental arguments)
1.  Assuming that rest is natural2 , and motion unnatural2 , a Prime Mover is necessary.  (Plato)
2.  Everything now existing was either caused by something, or it is eternal.  An infinite regression of causes is impossible.  Therefore a first cause existed, and is therefore eternal, and therefore exists now and forever.  There is no conceptual difference in the argument presented by Aquinas, Kalam, or Craig.
counterfeit (syn. fake1 )   (subset of simulate, simulation)   (see artificial)
1.  (adj.)  made to appear to be something else with intent to deceive
2.  (v.t.)  to cause to appear to be something else with intent to deceive
3.  (n.)  something made to appear to be something else with intent to deceive
courage (n.)   (compare to confidence)
1.  that emotion which induces aggressive action in spite of danger   (opposite: fear)
2.  aggressive action in spite of fear
create
(v.t.)  to cause existence
1.  of matter by conversion from energy
2.  of energy by conversion from matter
3.  of form by conversion from another form   (produce1 )
4.  of anything by conversion from nothing
creed (n.)   (see religion)  a collection of mutually compatible belief1 statements used to define a named category of persons who believe them
critical (adj.)
1.  expressing judgment of the truth or value of something
A.  characterized by the tendency to do this
2.  verbally disapproving
A.  characterized by the tendency to be this way
3.  sufficient to determine X or not X
A.  sufficient to determine a decision
4.  (pop.)  important
critical thinking (n.)
1.  any thinking that is critical1,2,3
2.  systematic thinking for the purpose of determining truth or falsity
i.e.  identification and application of the principles of truth recognition
parts:
A.  understanding of necessary truth
i.  logic
B.  concept identification
C.  understanding of categorical relationships
D.  miscellaneous principles
e.g.  There is no logical connection between is and ought.
Conflating concepts causes confusion.
Once you understand critical thinking you can figure out anything that can be figured out from any body of data the vocabulary of which you understand.
criticize (v.t.)
1.  to express judgment of the truth or value of something   (see evaluate2)
2.  to state reasons for disapproval
criterion (n.)  a standard1
1.  by which a category can be identified
2.  by which a judgment can be formed
cross 1.  (v.t.)  to go from one side of something to the other
2.  (v.t.)  of lines and linear objects:  to meet and continue   (see intersect1 )
3.  (n.)  anything in the form of a "+"
curse (contrast to profanity2 , swear)
1.  (v.t.)  to verbally wish harm on someone
A.  invoking a supernatural agent to carry it out
2.  (v.i.)  to verbally wish general destruction or displeaure on some annoying part of reality
A.  invoking a supernatural agent to carry it out
3.  (n.)  the content of curse1,2
curve (see bend , straight)
1.  (n.)  a gradual change in direction
A.  the line resulting from a gradual change in direction
2.  (v.i.)  to become curved1
3.  (v.t.)  to make curved1
custom (n.)   (see manner , habit)
a usual and/or repeated practice of a society
customary (adj.)
1.  according to custom
2.  established by custom
cut
1.  (v.t.)  to make a linear opening
A.  and create a separation   (superset of chop , slice)
2.  to pass through or across
3.  to make less   (syn. diminish2 , lessen2)   (see decrease2 )
cycle (n.)
1.  circular motion   (syn. circuit)
2.  an abstract circle
A.  the interval of time between recurring events   (syn. period1 )
cylinder (n.)  a three dimensional figure that is a circle in one plane and a rectangle in an orthogonal plane
danger (n.)  possibility of unpleasantness
data (n.)   (see information , statistics)
plural of datum1   (may be accurate or inaccurate)
a collection of facts or propositions used to try to draw a conclusion
datum (n.)   (see statistic)
1.  a fact or proposition used to try to draw a conclusion  (singular of data)   (may be accurate or inaccurate)
2.  a point from which measurements are taken
dead (adj.)
1.  not living1
2.  not active
death (n.)
1.  the act of dying
2.  the state of being dead
3.  termination of something
A.  termination of life
deceive (v.t.)   (contrast to lie1 )
to cause a thinker to think2 what is not true
deceived (pass. v. and adj.)  thinking2 what is not true
deceiver (n.)   (contrast to liar)
that which causes deception
deception (n.)   (contrast to lie2 )
that which causes a thinker to think2 what is not true
decide (v.t.)   (see conclude , determine)
1.  p.b.c.  to do the mental act that causes a willful action
2.  to choose between alternatives   (syn. judge3 )
A.  to make one of two possible choices
decimal 1.  (adj.)  based on ten
2.  (n.) a fraction2 expressed in tenths
decision (n.)   (see conclusion)
1.  the mental act that causes a willful action
2.  judgment3 between alternatives
declarative statement (n.)  a statement that says something is true
declare (v.t.)  to say that something is true
decrease (opposite: increase)
1.  (v.i.)  to become less or fewer   (see diminish1 , lessen1 )
2.  (v.t.)  to make less or fewer   (see diminish2 , lessen2 )
3.  (n.)  the fact of decreasing1
4.  (n.)  the amount of decrease
Decrease can happen in a quality or quantity.
decrement (n.)   (opposite: increment)
1.  a specific amount of decrease
2.  the quantity by which a variable3 decreases
deduce (v.t.)
1.  to draw a necessary logical conclusion from given premises
2.  to infer1 from a general principle to a probable particular
3.  to trace the course or derivation of
deduction (n.)   (subset of logic)   (a type of argument along with induction)   (superset of syllogisms , modus ponens , and modus tolens)
1.  the process of drawing a necessary logical conclusion from given premises
2.  the conclusion drawn from deduction1
It is often said that deduction proceeds from general or universal propositions to particular examples.  This is a specific form of deduction (a priori2 )   (synthesis3 ) which is not always the way deduction works.
e.g.  All A is B.  All B is C.   Therefore all A is C.
Some A is B.  All B is C.   Therefore some A is C.
deep (adj.)   (n. = depth)
1.  physically long   (perpendicular to tall and wide)
A.  in the direction of the center of the Earth
B.  in the direction away from one end of it
C.  in the direction away from the viewer
2.  physically distant
A.  in the direction of the center of the Earth   (ant. high2 )
B.  in the direction away from the viewer
3.  abstractly long or distant
A.  as a dimension of mind, soul, spirit
defeasible (adj.)
1.   open in principle to:
A.  revision
B.  legitimate objection
C.  forfeiture
D.  annulment
2.   inconclusive
defeat
1.  (v.t.)  to gain dominance over
A.  to cause to become ineffectual
2.  (n.)  being defeated1
defect (n.)
1.  obj.  a lack of something necessary
A.  to fulfill some criterion
2.  sbj.  a lack of something desired
defective (adj.)   (ant. whole)
1.  obj.  lacking something necessary
A.  to fulfill some criterion
2.  sbj.  lacking something desired
defend (v.t.)   (ant. attack)
1.  to prevent harm
2.  to try to prevent harm
defense (n.)   (ant. offense)
1.  prevention of harm
2.  an attempt to prevent harm
define (v.t.)   (see determine)   (contrast to describe)
1.  to be a boundary , edge , or border
A.  to be the criteria for which a thing is inside or outside of a category
2.  to identify something by its boundary, edge, or border
A.  to identify criteria for which a thing is inside or outside of a category
defined (adj.)   (contrast to vague)
1.  having a boundary, edge , or border
2.  having identified boundaries, edges, or borders
definition (n.)  a description which isolates a concept or category:
1.  from everything else  (exhaustive definition)
Most concepts and categories have no exhaustive definition because of borderline cases.
e.g.  life, chair, beard, forest
2.  enough to identify it in the context under discussion  (sufficient definition)
types of definitions according to usage:
precise:  contains no ambiguity and minimal vagueness
lexical:  reports the way a term is used (dictionary definition)
theoretical:  proposes an understanding2 of a term in relation to certain theories
stipulative:  arbitrarily defines a term for use in a particular context
persuasive:  attaches emotive significance to a term
types of definitions according to contents:
genetic:  where it comes from, or what it's part of
compositional:  lists enough of its parts to distinguish it
attributive:  lists enough of its attributes to distinguish it
degree (n.)   (see comparative , superlative)
1.  the division of a concept into a numeric sequence of parts based on a measurable criterion
A.  division of two dimensional space into 360 parts radiating from a point
2.  any of the sequential steps in that division
deism (n.)  the world view that a personal Being (see God) created this world, but:
1.  never acted in this world
2.  at some time stopped acting in this world
delay 1.  (v.t.)  to cause to not happen until a later time
2.  (n.)  that which causes something to not happen until a later time
delete (v.t.)
1.  (abs.)  to make something nonexistent
2.  (rel.)  to change the essence of something so that it is no longer what it was   (see remove2 )
deliberate
1.  (adj.)  of willful actions:  thought out before performed  (see conscious , intent , volition)   (ant. accidental)
A.  done to achieve a purpose
2.  (v.t.)  to consider reasons for and against doing a willful action
deliberately
1.  (adv.)   to achieve a purpose
delineation (n.)
1.  drawing a line
A.  methodically between distinguishable things
B.  arbitrarily
i.  randomly
2.  an outline of something   (see description)
demand
1.  (v.t.)  to tell someone to do something   (syn. command1 , order1 , require2)
2.  (n.)  that in which a demanded1 thing is
e.g.  Something popular is in demand.
demiurge (n.)   a supernatural personal being who:
1.  designed this universe out of pre-existing material, but didn't create it   (meaning it is eternal or created by another being)
2.  manages this universe, or part thereof
A.  benevolently in accordance with the will of its creator
B.  malevolently against the will of its creator
demonstrable (adj.)  able to be shown (see proof1, prove1, apodictic)
demonstrate (v.t.)  show (see proof1, prove1 )
denotation (n.)
1.  a marking applied to members of a set in order to form a subset
2.  of a term:
A.  that for which the term stands
B.  the explicit meaning without secondary implication2  (contrast to connotation)
The denotation of a term is that set of members included in the term.
denote (v.t.)
1.  to designate, mark, indicate , signify
2.  of a term:
A.  to correspond1 to that for which the term stands
B.  to mean or signify explicitly without secondary implication2   (contrast to connote)
deny (v.t.)
1.  to say something is false   (ant. affirm , assert)
2.  to contradict an accusation
depend (v.i.)   (see codepend)
1.  to be influenced by something else
A.  to be determined by something else
2.  to need something else
A.  in order to satisfy some criterion
i.  in order to exist
ii.  in order to serve some purpose   (see rely2 )
dependent (adj.)
1.  being influenced by something else
A.  being determined by something else   (syn. contingent1 )
2.  needing something else
A.  for support or aid   (see rely2 )
depression (n.)   (opposite: happiness)
1.  the most unpleasant emotion , and the one people try the most to avoid
It is denotatively synonymous with sorrow and sadness regardless of what causes it.
2.  a low place in a line or surface
depth (n.)   (adj. = deep)   (subset of length)
1.  physical length   (perpendicular to width)
A.  in the direction of the center of the Earth
B.  seen as closer to the center of the Earth than the viewer   (opposite of height)
C.  in the direction away from the viewer   (perpendicular to height and width)
2.  abstract length
A.  as a dimension of mind, soul, spirit
describe (v.t.)   (contrast to define)
1.  to say something about something
A.  to list attributes of something
B.  to illustrate something by means of words
2.  to trace an outline of something
description (n.)   (contrast to definition)
1.  that which says something about something
A.  a list of attributes of something
B.  an illustration of something by means of words
2.  an outline of something   (see delineation)
deserve (v.t.)   (see good and evil , worthy)
to need something in order to achieve propriety2
1.  to require reward or punishment in order to achieve justice1
A.  as payment for past willful acts
B.  as rectitude for past injustice received
Only free-will emotional beings can deserve1 something.
design
1.  (n.)   (superset of plan)   (contrast to pattern)
systematic arrangement1   (see method , order)
There is no such thing as accidental design.  However, the appearance of design may occur by accident.
2.  (v.t.)  to make a design1
desire 1.  (v.t.)  This + want + wish constitute a p.b.c.
2.  (n.)  the part of emotion that influences the will to act
destiny (n.)   (syn. fate)   (see determinism)
that which happens of necessity1
e.g.  death and taxes
1.  that which necessarily will happen
2.  that which happens because it is determined
3.  that which has happened because it was determined
Other than logical and physical necessity, this concept cannot be shown to exist, except relative to a given truth.
e.g.  If A is true, then B will happen.
destroy (v.t.) 
to alter the form of something such that it no longer is what it was
1.  to make non-functional
2.  to kill
3.  to make non-recognizable
4.  to make non-existent
detect (v.t.)   (see discover, spot2 )
to try to find something and succeed
determine (v.t.)
1.  to set limits to   (see define)
2.  to decide
A.  conclusively
B.  beforehand
3.  to be the cause or deciding factor of
A.  to direct
4.  to figure out or learn something
determined (adj.)   (syn. caused , inevitable)
happening of necessity rather than chance
determinism (n.)   (opposite: indeterminism)   (For levels and kinds, see essay)
the theory that:
1.  All events occur as inevitable consequences of antecedent causes.
(Determinism1 equals causality.)
A.  including the first event
B.  except the first event
2.  Some events occur as inevitable consequences of antecedent causes.
(Determinism2 doesn't equal causality.)
A.  free-will decisions not included
B.  within a given range of possibilities:
i.e.  Given X number of possible events, one of them must happen.
C.  Particular events occur as inevitable consequences of antecedent causes.  (fatalism)
The opposite of determinism is indeterminism - not free will.  The opposite of free will is bound will, which implies no will.  Free will can exist in a determined or undetermined universe.
Between determinism1 and complete indeterminism (randomness) are degrees of causation inversely proportional to degrees of chance.
e.g.  from 99.n% chance to 50% chance in a binary system.
from 99.n% chance to 0.n% chance in an unbounded system.
deterministic (adj.)
1.  caused by necessity
2.  necessarily causing something
deviate (v.i.)  to turn aside
1.  from a course
2.  from a standard
3.  from a pattern
deviation (n.)  turning aside   (compare to variation)
1.  from a course
2.  from a standard
3.  from a pattern
devote (v.i.)  to act in support of something
1.  to act in accordance with a particular principle
2.  to act in support of a particular cause
3.  to act with intent to benefit a particular person or group of persons
devoted 1.  (v.i.)  the past tense of devote
2.  (adj.)  having the quality of devotion2
devotion (n.)
1.  action in support of something
A.  action in accordance with a particular principle
B.  action in support of a particular cause
C.  action with intent to benefit a particular person or group of persons   (see allegiance , loyalty)
2.  the mindet or emotion associated with 1
differ (v.i.)   (see vary)   (contrast to change)
1.  ont.  not being the same
2.  epis.  appearing to not be the same
difference (n.)   (see significance)
1.  ont.  an attribute of a thing that is not the same as another thing
2.  epis.  an attribute of a thing that appears not to be the same as another thing
different (adj.)   (ant. same)   (compare to distinct)
1.  ont.  not the same
2.  epis.  appearing not the same
differentiate 1.  (v.i.)  ont.  to become different
2.  (v.t.)  ont.  to make different
3.  (v.t.)  epis.  to observe the appearance of difference   (see distinguish)
difficult (adj.)   (ant. easy)
1.  requiring much effort to do
2.  causing displeasure in order to do
difficulty (n.)   (ant. ease)
the condition or fact of being difficult
digit (n.)   a number from 0 to n-1 in a base-n system
e.g.  from 0 to 9 in the base-ten system
dignity (n.)
1.  deserving honor
2.  an attribute of something that is honored
3.  an assumed attribute of someone who wants to be honored
dimension (n.)   (contains time and distance , but not space because space includes three distance dimensions)
1.  any linear sequence or order of units
2.  any quantity capable of increase or decrease
A.  over a certain range
B.  infinitely
diminish (syn. cut2,3 , lessen1 )   (see decrease1,2 ) 1.  (v.i.)  to become less
2.  (v.t.)  to make less
direct
1.  (v.t.)  to show or point the way   (syn. conduct , guide , lead3 )   (see indicate)
A.  to get something to do what the director wants   (see manage)
i.  to tell someone what to do
e.g.  to direct traffic, direct a movie
2.  (adj.)  having the same direction1 throughout its length   (syn. straight)
direction (n.)
1.  a straight line from any point in space
2.  the way from any point in space to any other point in space
A.  a way to get to a destination
3.  a verbalized direction1
A.  telling someone what to do
discern (v.)   (see distinguish , notice)
to identify sameness or difference
discontinue (opposite: continue)   (see cancel)
1.  (v.i.)   to stop
2.  (v.t.)   to cause something to stop
discover (v.t.)   to be first to learn something
1.  to be first to find something
A.  to be first to detect something
disintegrate (v.)  to separate into fragments   (see resolve)
dispense (v.t.)   (subset of distribute1 )   (superset of administer2 )
to distribute1 things in measured amounts to specific recipients
dissolve (v.)
1.  to make or become liquid
2.  to disintegrate into liquid
3.  to become non-existent by means of disintegration
distance (n.)   (see dimension , interval , length)
1.  that which is between two points in space
The form1A of a distance1 is necessarily a straight line.
e.g.  the distance from the Earth to the moon
2.  a series of distance1s laid end to end in a not necessarily straight line
e.g.  the distance from Paris to Rome by car
3.  abstract distance = abstract space
e.g.  more distance between 1 and 5 than between 1 and 3
more distance between king and surf than between king and duke
more distance between joy and sorrow than between joy and love
distant (adj.)   a relationship of two things that are separate4
1.  having distance between them
e.g.  The moon is 384,403 kilometers distant from the Earth.
A.  rel.  having much distance between them   (subset of far1 )
The following examples are relatively speaking.
e.g.  The moon is very distant from the Earth.
i.  sbj.  having much distance between self and other
e.g.  The moon is very distant.
2.  having some abstraction between them
e.g.  a distant relative
distinct (adj.)   (opposite: indistinct)
1.  different from something next to it
A.  appearing to be so
2.  different from everything that is not it
A.  appearing to be so
distinguish (v.t.)
1.  to differentiate something from something next to it
2.  to differentiate something from everything that is not it
distribute (v.t.)   (see apportion , divide)
1.  to bestow portions of a quantity
A.  in a specific area
B.  among a specific range of recipients
2.  to put things in various distinct places   (superset of dispense)
3.  in logic, to use a term so as to refer to every member of a set
distributed (adj.)
1.  bestowed among a specific range of recipients
A.  in a specific area
B.  among a specific range of recipients
2.  put in various distinct places
3.  in logic, to refer to every member of a set
distribution (n.)
1.  the fact of distributing or being distributed
A.  the spatial property of being distributed
2.  the manner of distributing or being distributed
e.g.  70% / 30%,   60% / 40%,   50% / 50%
3.  in logic, refering to every member of a set
4.  in statistics, an arrangement of values of a variable showing their frequency of occurrence
divide
1.  (v.i.)  to separate1
A.  into groups , parts , or sections
B.  into factors  i.e.  to divide mathematically   (see quotient)   (ant. multiply)
2.  (v.t.)  to cause to separate
A.  into groups, parts, or sections   (see distribute)
i.  into equal groups, parts, or sections
divsion (n.)   (see fraction)
1.  separation
A.  into groups , parts , or sections
B.  into factors  i.e.  mathematical division   (see quotient)   (ant. multiplication)
2.  one of those groups, parts, or sections
do p.b.c.  (v.t.)  There's no point in trying to define it.  We all must assume that we know what it means.
dogma (n.)   (contrast to axiom)
a proposition or doctrine asserted to be true without epistemological necessity or justification
dogmatic (adj.)   (see pontificate)
pertaining to a proposition or doctrine asserted to be true without epistemological necessity or justification
dominance (n.)   (compare to supremacy)
having power over
dominant (adj.)   (compare to supreme)
having power over
dominate (v.t.)   (compare to defeat)  to have power over
double aspect theory (n.)   (subset of epiphenomenalism)
the mind-body view that body is basic, and produces mind.  Mind reflects body, and corresponds to body with no true interaction.
doubt
1.  lack knowledge
A.  (v.t.)  to lack knowledge
B.  (n.)  lack of knowledge   (opposite: certainty)
2.  lack confidence
A.  (v.t.)  to lack confidence
B.  (n.)  lack of confidence   (opposite: certitude)
down (adv.)   (opposite up)   (see below)
rel.   always relative to a person judging direction
1.  the direction toward a point which is considered lowest
2.  the direction toward the center of the Earth
dualism (n.)
1.  distinction of two essential and mutually irreducible components in one system  (metaphysical dualism)
e.g.  time/space , matter/energy
2.  the world view that the universe is composed of  (or explicable in terms of)  two basic entities
e.g.  mind/matter , appearance/reality  (contrast to monism and pluralism)
A.  the world view that the universe is composed of  (or explicable in terms of)  two antagonistic principles1
e.g.  good/evil
3.  the mind-body view that there are two underlying substances in humanness  (sibling set of monism3 )
(superset of parallelism , occasionalism , pre-established harmony , interactionism)
4.  the theological view that God is composed of two eternal opposing parts
e.g.  good/evil , male/female , spirit/matter ,  etc.
duration (n.)  a period of time expressed as a measurement
e.g.  minute, hour, day, week, month, year
duty (n.)   (compare to obligation)
that which is owed
dynamic (adj.)
1.  relating to change
A.  tending to change
2.  relating to motion   (see kinetic)
A.  tending to move   (ant. static)
3.  relating to energy or force
A.  causing force
B.  caused by force
each (adj. and pron.)   every one of two or more considered separately
ease
1.  (n.)  freedom from obstruction
A.  freedom from difficulty
B.  freedom from antyhing causing displeasure
2.  (v.t.)  to reduce obstruction
A.  to reduce difficulty
B.  to reduce antyhing causing displeasure
easy (adj.)   (ant. difficult)
1.  able to be done with little effort
2.  able to be done without displeasure
edge (n.)
1.  a location where one thing stops and another starts.   (syn. boundary)
2.  the linear hiatus where a physical object appears to end from the viewpoint of an observer   (superset of horizon)
3.  the location on a physical object where two planes meet at an angle
Locations formed by accute angles are called edges more often than locations formed by obtuse angles.
effect (n.)   (contrast to affect)
1.  that which is caused  (superset of result1 and reaction)
e.g.  The effect of the drug is drowsiness.
2.  power to produce that which is caused
e.g.  A drug is said to have an effect, when it's really the person who takes the drug who has the effect.
When you affect something, you have an effect on it.
Unfortunately affect is sometimes used as a noun and effect as a verb, which screws everything up.
effort (n.)   (syn. work2 )   willfully using energy to try to accomplish a task
element (n.)
1.  a basic part of something
A.  abstract:   e.g.  a principle , axiom
B.  physical
i.  part of a substance that can't be divided without becoming something else
i.e.   everything in the periodic table
archaic  earth, air, fire, water
2.  a unit in and of a set   (syn. member2 )
Symbol:  ∈  means, "is an element of".
Symbol:  ∉  means, "is not an element of".
emerge (v.i.)   (syn. issue1 )
to come or go out
emote (v.i.)   to register pleasure/displeasure
emotion (n.)   (part of mind)   (sibling set of thought , sense perception , will)   (opposites: indifference, apathy)
that part of mind which registers pleasure/displeasure and/or happiness/unhappiness , and converts thoughts and sense perceptions into value judgments
Just as flavors are made of four primary types in pairs of opposites, emotions are made of six primary types:  love/hate , joy/sorrow , courage/fear
Half are pleasant, and half are unpleasant.
pleasant:  love, joy, courage
Pleasant emotions cause a desire for them to continue.
unpleasant:  hate, sorrow, fear
Unpleasant emotions cause a desire for them to stop.
Emotions are involuntary events.  Any attempt to directly control them fails.  Attempts to condition them by willful decisions over time sometimes work, sometimes fail, and sometimes backfire violently.
Emotions influence (but do not cause) willful decisions.
No emotion affects ethics/morals, though they influence ethical/moral decisions.
emphasis (n.)   noteworthiness relative to things around it
1.  acknowledged noteworthiness
2.  declared noteworthiness
emphasize (v.t.)   to declare noteworthy relative to things around it
empirical (adj.)   (popularly contrasted with rational)
1.  relying primarily on sense perception for knowledge
2.  relying solely on sense perception for knowledge
empiricism (n.)
1.  the theory that our only source of knowledge is experience , specifically, sense perception.  (contrast to rationalism1 )
2.  trying to know by sense perception, experimental method
emptiness (n.)   the fact of containing nothing
Emptiness does not imply nothingness, because emptiness requires a container in which nothing exists.
empty
1.  (adj.)  containing nothing   (compare to hollow)
2.  (v.t.)  to cause to become empty1
end
1.  (n.)  (syn. limit1 )  the farthest point or boundary on something
A.  (v.t.)  to create or impose an end1
2.  (n.)  (syn. limit2 )  the highest or lowest degree of something
A.  (v.t.)  to create or impose an end2
3.  (n.)  the last part of something
4.  (v.i.)  (syn. terminate1,2)  to stop existing
A.  (v.t.)   (see cancel)  to cause to stop existing
enemy (n.)   an adversary
1.  who wants to harm or destroy you
2.  whom you want to harm or destroy
energy (n.)   (contrast to matter1B2 )
ability to do, cause, or act  (syn. power1 )
(Energy in Joules) = (mass in kilograms) X (300,000,000 meters per second squared).
enjoy (v.t.)   (syn. like3a )
to experience joy because of an enjoyed object
enough (adj.)   (syn. sufficient)   being at least the minimal amount necessary to fulfill1 a given condition
entity (n.)
1.  a thing that can be identified as a distinct part of the whole of reality
A.  an existing thing or object, material1 or immaterial   (syn. being1 )
entropy (n.)  a measure of disorder or randomness in a system
Increased entropy = increased randomness.
1.  abstract:  a measure of the loss of information in a transmitted message
2.  physical:  a measurement of energy which cannot be transformed into mechanical work in a thermodynamic system
epiphenomenalism (n.)   (subset of materialism1B )   (sibling set of physicalism2 )   (superset of double aspect theory)
the mind-body view that brain produces mind as a by-product.  Mind is a property2 of body and a relfection of brain.
epistemic (adj.)   of knowledge
1.  of what knowledge is
2.  of how we know
A.  of how we know that we know
B.  of how we know what we know
epistemic justification (n.)   (see justification)
1.  sufficient foundation2 to support:
A.  abs.  the existence of knowledge
B.  rel.  the existence of a particular type of knowledge
2.  sufficient reason3
A.  to believe1 a proposition is true
B.  to know3 a proposition is true
epistemic necessity (n.)   (see necessity)   an attribute of a premise such that the premise must necessarily be true:
1.  abs.  in order for knowledge to exist at all
e.g.  It is epistemically necessary that I know what knowledge is, though I can't define it without circularity.
It is epistemically necessary that I know I exist, think, emote, perceive, and will.  Any animal knows these things prior to language.
2.  rel.  in order for a particular type of knowledge to exist
e.g.  It is epistemically necessary that language be able to express reality in order to use language for that purpose.
It is epistemically necessary that logic be reliable for determining the truth of any proposition before using logic to prove anything.
epistemological (adj.)   (contrast to ontological)
1.  the fact that a thing is thought or known to be, as opposed to the fact that it exists  (which is ontological1 )
2.  what a thing is thought to be, or how it is known to be, as opposed to what it is  (which is ontological2 )
epistemology (n.)   (subset of philosophy)   (sibling set to ontology and axiology)
1.  obj.   the theory or study of knowledge
A.  what knowledge is
B.  how we know
i.  how we know that we know
ii.  how we know what we know
2.  sbj.   a person's chosen rules governing what he claims to know
equal (adj.)   of two or more things:
being the same in some attribute
1.  being of the same value
equality (n.)   (see balance)   of two or more things:
being the same in some attribute
1.  being of the same value
equilibrium (n.)   (see balance , stability)
a state in which all active influences are canceled by others
equivalent (adj.)   having the same value as something else
equivocal (adj.)   (contrast to univocal)
1.  an attribute of a term that is used with two different meanings as though it had one meaning
2.  an attribute of a term that allows more than one meaning before its meaning becomes univocal by a specific context or use.
equivocation (n.)   using the same term with two different meanings as though it had one meaning
errant (adj.)   (opposite: inerrant)
1.  containing at least one error1
A.  containing errors1
B.  characterized by errors1
2.  misleading
3.  misled  i.e.  thinking2 a false2 statement is true
error (n.)   (see wrong)
1.  a false2 statement thought to be true   (subset of untruth)
A.  by the person who made it
2.  the state of believing an error1
escape
1.  (v.t.)  to get away from   (syn. avoid2 )
A.  to stay away from
2.  (n.)  the act of escaping
A.  the state of having escaped
essence (n.)
1.  what something is  (contrast to existence)   (syn. nature1 )
2.  attributes of something  (syn. nature1B )
A.  attributes of something which make it what it is  (contrast to accident2B )
essential (adj.)   (contrast to accidental2B )   (see natural1 )
necessary for something to be what it is
establish (v.t.)   (see confirm )   to make firm, stable, or standing
1.  to set up
A.  for operation
B.  for recognition
i.  to set a precedent
2.  to prove or demonstrate
esthetic (adj.)  affecting pleasure/displeasure
esthetics (n.)  rel. sbj.  (subset of values)   (superset or sibling set of ethics)
1.  all values except ethics  (therefore including pragmatics)
2.  judgments of beauty vs. ugliness  (therefore not including pragmatics)
eternal (adj.)
1.  having infinite time
2.  atemporal
A.  having no temporal beginning or end
B.  having a temporal beginning but no temporal end (a created eternal)
C.  having no temporal beginning but a temporal end (a former eternal)
ethical (adj.)
1.  abs.  conforming to an objective standard1B for judging2A whether certain willful actions should or should not be practiced
There is no denotative distinction between ethical1 and moral.  Conventional usage slants "ethical" connotations toward business transactions and "moral" toward more emotional issues.
2.  rel.  conforming to an arbitrary standard1B for judging2A whether certain willful actions should or should not be practiced
ethics (n.)  rel. sbj.  (subset of values)   (subset or sibling set of esthetics)   (contrast to morals , piety)
a standard1B for distinguishing acceptable from unacceptable behavior in free-will beings, specifically willful acts which affect the rights or welfare of beings which feel pleasure/displeasure
Ethics are less relative than esthetics in the sense of being more temporally and culturally uniform.  Ethics are less subjective than esthetics in the sense of being more universally agreed on.
1.  that which should be done
A.  that which should be done by a given sentient being at a given time
2.  an ideal2B code of conduct for an ideal2B sentient being in an ideal2B society
There is no way to know if absolute1 and/or objective2 ethics exist.
Absolute1 ethics:  an eternal uniform code of ethics
Absolute1 ethics exist only if an absolute1 evaluator exists.
Absolute1 ethics affect the desires of the absolute evaluator the same at all times under all conditions.
Objective2 ethics:  a code of ethics remaining the same regardless of diverse opinions
Objective2 ethics exist only if an absolute1 evaluator exists.
Objective2 ethics may affect the desires of the absolute evaluator differently at different times or under different conditions.
evaluate (v.t.)
1.  obj.  to count or measure something quantifiable
2.  sbj.  to judge2 the value1 of something unquantifiable
evaluation (n.)
1.  obj.  count or measurement of something quantifiable
2.  sbj.  judgment2 of the value1 of something unquantifiable   (syn. opinion2 )
evangelical (adj.)
an attribute of statements which attempt to persuade someone to believe something
an attribute of persons who attempt to persuade others to believe what the evangelizer believes
event (n.)   (subset of fact1 )
a particular localized temporal segment of realityb
An event exists by happening.
every (adj.)
1.  each of all
2.  each interval of a specified number
e.g.  every third one, every other day
evidence (n.)   (contrast to proof)
1.  the condition of being evident
2.  something that makes the truth of a proposition evident
A.  grounds for belief
evident (adj.)
1.  easily perceived1 by one of the senses   (syn. apparent)
2.  easily understood
evil 1.  (adj.)  ethically bad
2.  (adj.)  willfully causing undeserved displeasure
3.  (n.)  that which is ethically bad   (contrast to sin)
4.  (n.)  that which causes undeserved displeasure   (see problem of evil)
evolution
(n.)   (see anagenesis , cladogenesis , orthogenesis)
gradual changes1 that take place over time
1.  in a system
2.  in a population of organisms
I don't know how to talk about biological evolution without making either the dogmatic assertion that it needs an external transcendent Mind to get started, or the dogmatic assertion that it doesn't.
evolve (v.i.)  to change1 gradually over time
exact (adj.)   (see accurate , precise)
without difference or deviation from a standard
examination (n.)
1.  looking at or into carefully   (syn. analysis)   (see observation)
A.  in order to discover new facts
2.  testing by looking at or into
A.  testing by questioning
examine (v.t.)
1.  to look at or into carefully   (syn. analyze)   (see observe)
A.  in order to discover new facts
2.  to test by looking at or into
A.  to test by questioning
excell (v.)
1.  to be greater2 than something else
A.  after having striven to be greater
2.  to have more of a particular quality  (usually a good quality)
A.  after having striven to have more of it
excellence (n.)   (syn. superiority) 
1.  being greater2 than something else
A.  after having striven to be greater
2.  having more of a particular quality  (usually a good quality)
A.  after having striven to have more of it
excellent (adj.)   (syn. superior)   (see better)
1.  greater2 than something else
A.  after having striven to be greater
2.  having more of a particular quality  (usually a good quality)
A.  after having striven to have more of it
excess (see extreme , great)
1.  (adj.)  beyond what is reasonable
A.  (n.)  amount, degree, or quantity beyond what is reasonable
2.  (n.)  amount, degree, or quantity by which one thing is more than another
exist (v.i.)  p.b.c.
1.  to be
2.  to be actual or real  (but not necessarily material1,2 )  as opposed to being possible1 or imaginary2
existence (n.)  p.b.c.
1.  the state of being
2.  the state of being actual or real (but not necessarily material1,2 ) as opposed to being possible1 or imaginary2
3.  that which has a definable place in reality
expand (v.i.)   (ant. contract)
to increase in at least one dimension
expect (v.i.)   (contrast to anticipate , predict)
to think2 something will happen
1.  and want it to happen   (see hope)
experience
1.  (n.)  a change in a property2 of consciousness , including sense perception , emotion , and/or thought
2.  (v.t.)  to have an experience1
experiment (superset of test)
1.  (n.)  any action done to see what happens when it's done
A.  to prove a particular proposition or propositions
2.  (v.i.)  to perform an experiment1
explain (v.t.)
1.  to make something appear understandable
A.  to make something understood
2.  to state possible reason or reasons for something
A.  to state the correct reason or reasons for something
explanation (n.)
1.  something that makes something else appear understandable
A.  something that makes something else understood
2.  a possible reason or reasons for something
A.  the correct reason or reasons for something
An explanation may be so incorrect as to lead one further from truth.
explicit (adj.)   (contrast to special , specific)
clearly stated, as opposed to implied2
(syn. precise2 )   (ant. implicit1 )
exponent (n.)  the number of times a number is multiplied by itself
express literally: press out
1.  (v.t.)  to externalize thoughts and/or emotions
2.  (adj.)  exact
3.  (n.)  a method or service for transporting something quickly
extend
1.  (v.t.)  to stretch something in space and/or time
2.  (v.t.)  to occupy concrete1 space/time
3.  (v.i.)  to be extended1,2
extension (n.)
1.  part of something stretched out or added on
2.  concrete1 space/time as opposed to conceptual space/time of mathematics
A.  that property2 of an object by which it occupies space/time
external (adj.)   (opposite: internal)
1.  on the outside
A.  of the outer surface
2.  originating from outside
externalize (v.t.)   (ant. internalize)
to transfer from inside to outside   (see express)
extraneous (adj.)
1.  being, coming, or acting from outside  (syn. extrinsic2 )   (opposite: intrinsic)
2.  not relevant
extreme
1.  (adj.)  to a great degree
A.  to the greatest degree
2.  (n.)  something extreme1
extrinsic (adj.)
1.  existing in something as a separable attribute  (opposite: inherent)
2.  being, coming, or acting from outside  (syn. extraneous1 )   (opposite: intrinsic)
facilitate
(v.t.)  to make better   (syn. help1 , improve)
1.  to make easier
2.  to make more effective
fact (n.)
1.  ont.  a particular localized moment of reality  (superset of event)
A.  that reality which corresponds to a true proposition
2.  epis.  fact1 expressed
A.  as a true proposition
faction (n.)   a group of people opposing2B another group of people
factor (n.)
1.  an essential element
2.  any of the circumstances that produces a result
3.  any of two or more numbers which are multiplied1B together   (see product)
faculty (n.)
1.  ability of an animal to do some particular thing
e.g.  one of the five senses
A.  an acquired faculty1
e.g.  speech
2.  a subset of an organization of persons
fair rel.  (adj.)
1.  treating all interested parties equally
relatively just2
Fair is relative.   Just is absolute.
e.g.  If 9 out of 10 people are cheated equally, it is unfair to the 9 that the 1 was not cheated.
2.  esthetically pleasant
fairness rel.  (n.)
1.  equal treatment of all interested parties
relative justice2
Fairness is relative.   Justice is absolute.
e.g.  If 9 out of 10 people are cheated equally, it is unfair to the 9 that the 1 was not cheated.
2.  esthetic pleasantness
faith (n.)
A.  according to apparent odds  (denotatively indistinguishable from belief1 )
i.e.  normal probability judgment
B.  against apparent odds
i.e.  perception distorted by emotion
i.   that by which desired conclusions2 are arrived at   (contrast to logic3 , intuition1A )
2.  illusion or pretense of knowledge
3.  a willful decision to act as though a particular proposition or position3 is true
A.  according to apparent odds  (denotatively indistinguishable from belief2 )
B.  against apparent odds
4.  that position3 referred to in 3
fake
1.  (adj.)  made to appear to be something else   (syn. counterfeit)   (compare to artificial)
2.  (adj.)  appearing to be something else
3.  (n.)  something that is fake1,2
e.g.1  a toupee
e.g.2  a good toupee
fallacy (n.)
1.  falseness
2.  an error in logical reasoning
A.  formal fallacy:  a logical mistake making a deductive argument invalid
B.  informal fallacy:  a stated implication that frequently (but not always) is untrue.
e.g.  Guilt by association: "He hangs out with bad kids, therefore he must be a bad kid."
fame (n.)  being known by many people   (syn. glory1 )
false (adj.)
1.  ont.  not real
2.  epis.  not true
falsifiable (adj.)   able to be proven false
able to be proven false, but not able to be proven true  (opposite: verifiable)
Ability to be proven false does not necessarily imply inability to be proven true.
e.g.  All S are P can be proven false by finding an S which is not P.
All S are P can be proven true only by examining all S and finding none which are P.
Some S are P can be proven true by finding one S which is a P.
Some S are P can be proven false only by examining all S and finding none which are P, or by examining all P and finding none which are S.
If a statement is falsifiable but not verifiable, then burden of proof rests on him who says it is false.
familiar (adj.)  recognized because of repeated association
far
rel.  (adj.)   (opposite: near)   a relationship of two things that are separate
All examples are relatively speaking.
1.  having much of some dimension between them   (superset of distant2 )
e.g.  The moon is far from the Earth.
The Jurassic is far from the Cenozoic.
A.  having much of some dimension between self and other
e.g.  The moon is far away.
The Jurassic is far from the present.
2.  having more of some dimension between self and other
e.g.  the far side of the moon
the far past
3.  having more of some abstraction between them
e.g.  The king is far from the peasant.
fasten (syn. attach)   (see adhere)
1.  (v.i.)  to connect and be unable to disconnect except by unfastening   (see bind , hold)
2.  (v.t.)  to cause to fasten1
fatalism (n.)   (partial determinism2C )
the theory that a given event is determined to happen, but one or more of the following is not determined:
the agent by which it happens
the object to which it happens
the time in which it happens
the place in which it happens
fate (n.)   (syn. destiny)   (see determinism , potential)
that which happens of necessity
e.g.  death and taxes
1.  that which necessarily will happen
2.  that which happens because it is determined
3.  that which has happened because it was determined
Other than logical and physical necessity, this concept cannot be shown to exist, except relative to a given truth.  e.g.  If A, then B will happen.
favor 1.  (v.i.)  to prefer one thing over another
2.  (v.t.)  to give preferential treatment
3.  (n.)  liking something more than something else   (syn. preference)
A.  preferential treatment   (syn. grace2 )
i.  something done because of preferential treatment
favorable (adj.)
1.  worthy of favor
2.  judged worthy of favor
fear
1.  (n.)  that emotion which induces action to avoid displeasure or death   (opposite: courage)   (see terror)
2.  (v.i.)  to experience motivation to avoid displeasure or death
3.  (v.t.)  to experience motivation to avoid something likely to cause displeasure or death
few (adj.)   (opposite: many)
small in quantity, but not necessarily in magnitude   (see less)
fewer (adj.)   (opposite: more)
comparative of few
fewest (adj.)   (opposite: most)
superlative of few   (see least)
fiction (n.)   (superset of hypothesis)
something imaginary created for a purpose
figure
1.  (n.)  the shape of an object
A.  defined by its outline1A
2.  (v.i.)  to process a data   (syn. calculate)   (see think)
figure out (v.t.)  to figure2 successfully
find (v.t.)   (see detect, discover)
1.  to learn the location of something
2.  to get by searching
finite set (n.)  a set with a finite amount of elements, and all of its elements are theoretically countable
All finite sets have countable elements, but not all sets with countable elements are finite.   (see infinite set).
e.g.  If set A has no elements: A = { }, they are countable:  Zero!  A is the null set.
If set A has three elements: x, y, z:   A = {x,y,z}, they are obviously countable.
If set A consists of all the atoms in the universe, they are still theoretically countable.  i.e.  If set A consists of an unknown number of elements, it is written:  A = {1,2,3...n}  where n stands for an unknown whole number, in this case greater than 3.  The last atom in the universe is number n.
If we include specific fractions, we can still count them:  {0, ¼, ½, ¾, 1...n}.
But if we include all the rational numbers, we can't count them, because there are an infinite amount of fractional numbers, even between zero and 1.
firm (adj.)  not easily changed
1.  not easily moved
first (adj.)   (opposite last)
preceding all others in a sequence or hierarchy
fix (v.t.)
1.  to alter something to be as desired
2.  to restore to functionality
3.  to make firm
A.  to make immobile
fixed (adj.)
1.  altered to be as desired
2.  restored to functionality
3.  firm
A.  immobile
flaw (n.)
1.  obj.  an impurity  (see pure)
A.  a deviation in a pattern
B.  a deviation from a given standard
2.  sbj.  a disliked part or attribute of something
fleemish (n.)   Fleemish has not been defined, but its use has been characterized thusly:
You can decide to use non-standard fleemishes and the reader can still gloork the meaning from the context, but there ix a limit;  If too many ot the vleeps are changed, it becomes harder and qixer to fllf what the wethcz is blorping, and evenually izs is bkb longer possible to ghilred frok at wifx.  Dnighth?  Ngfipht yk ur!  Uvq the hhvd or hnnngh.  Blorgk?  Blorgk!  Blorgkity-blorgk!
It is therefore a term, the meaning of which may be known to its user, but is unknown to its audience, but is nevertheless intuitively understandable by its context, unless too many of them are used.
flex (v.)
1.  to bend something easily bendable
2.  to contract without breaking
focus
1.  (n.)  concentration of something that has direction
A.  concentrated attention
B.  concentrated electromagnetic waves
i.  a concentrated ray
2.  (n.)  that point or area resulting from focus1
3.  (n.)  visual appearance that most closely approximates physical reality
4.  (v.i.)  to be or become in a state of focus1,2
5.  (v.t.)  to cause to be in a state of focus1,2
follow (v.t.)   (syn. succeed1 )   (ant. lead)
to come next after1 another
force (contrast to: constrain)
1.  (v.t.)  to make a change happen  (denotatively synonymous with cause1 )
A.  to cause something that is resistant to being caused   (syn. compel)
2.  (n.)  ability to cause   (syn. power1 , connotatively, coercive power)
A.  transferred motion
forgive (v.t.)   (see mercy)
1.  to refrain from punishing someone who has committed an offense1 against you
a.  i.e. an undeserved offense
b.  i.e. a deserved offense
2.  to stop being angry at someone who has committed an offense against you
a.  i.e. an undeserved offense
b.  i.e. a deserved offense
Forgiveness can occur for deserved as well as undeserved offenses.
An offendee can forgive1 an offender without forgiving2, or vice versa.
But even if punishment is believed to be for an offender's benefit, the offendee cannot both punish the offender and claim to be forgiving1 him.
form (n.)
1.  the shape and structure of a substance or object as opposed to its compositional1 matter   (see configuration)
A.  visual representation
B.  style as opposed to content
2.  an abstracted ideal1 of a substance or object  (Plato)
foundation (n.)  that on which something exists
1.  that on which something is built
A.  physically
e.g.  the foundation of a house
i.  the lowest part of it   (syn. base)
ii.  the thing under it
B.  temporally
e.g.  Greece being the foundation of democracy
i.  the earliest part or example of it
ii.  the thing that preceeded it
2.  abstract:  that on which something depends   (see precondition)
A.  for its existence
B.  to meet some relevant condition
fraction (n.)
1.  any division of something  (superset of part)   (contrast to subset)
A.  seen as a complete unit (part1 )
e.g.  an engine being part1 of a car
B.  not seen as a complete unit   (see fragment below)
e.g.  the front quarter of a car
2.  a division of a whole number   (see decimal2 )
A.  a quantity greater than 0 and less than 1
fragment
(n.)  a randomly or arbitrarily delineated fraction1B of something, which has been removed from it   (see part2 )
frame of reference
(n.) 
1.  a set of ideas, conditions, or assumptions for determining something
A.  how something will be perceived, understood, evaluated, or approached
2.  a particular viewpoint of space-time where everything is stopped (or is moving at exactly the same velocity)
e.g.  My home constitutes a F.O.R. which is virtually indistinguishable from the F.O.R.s of my neighbors' homes.  A home in Australia is moving in roughly the opposite direction (when viewed from a non-rotating F.O.R. which encompasses the entire earth).  If we move out farther, and use a non-rotating F.O.R. which presumes the sun is stationary,  USA and Australia are both circling the sun at over 60,000 mph (with whichever of us is on the night-side of the earth, moving a couple thousand mph faster.
Within a single F.O.R., clocks all tick at the same rate.
free (adj.)
1.  not bound
2.  not restrained
free will (n.)   (see choice1)
1.  ability to do or not do
2.  ability to choose   (syn. option1)
3.  pop.  ability to do X or not-X
This one is incorrect, because you can't do other than what you want to do.
frequent
(adj.)  recuring often at brief intervals
front
1.  (n.)   (opposite: back1 )   the side of a two sided object that is:
A.  more active or functional
B.  closer to the viewer
2.  (adj.)  at the front1 side:   (opposite: back2 )
A.  the more active or functional side
B.  the side closer to the viewer
fulfill (v.t.)
1.  to sufficiently meet1A a set of requirements   (syn. satisfy)
2.  to bring to an end   (syn. complete)
function (n.)
1.  a normal characteristic action of something
A.  an essential action of a thing which makes that thing what it is
B.  a normal1 characteristic action of a thing without which that thing would be considered defective
C.  a normal characteristic, but unessential action of a thing
2.  a thing that depends on and varies with something else   (see relation1B )
A.  a variable quantity that depends on and varies with another variable quantity
functional (adj.)
1.  able to act normally
A.  able to act as designed
2.  useful
functionality (n.)
1.  ability to act normally
A.  ability to act as designed
2.  usefulness
future (adj.)   (subset of time)   This concept is interdependent with its siblings, present2 and past.  None of them can be understood except in relation to each other.
existing or happening after1A the present2
the future (n.)   the time period after1A the present2
fuzzy logic (n.)  logic applied to vague concepts or categories by means of arbitrarily assigning boundaries to those concepts or categories
Black and white are distinct concepts when they have distinct boundaries.  Gray is an area between black and white.  But gray is made indistinct by its shade gradations.  One gray may be very different from another gray.  Fuzzy logic applies enough specific degrees to a catgory to make it clear whether a given concept is in that category or out of it.
e.g.  Gray:  between 100% black and 100% white
Gray1:  between 100% black and 70% black/30% white
Gray2:  between 70% black/30% white and 50% black/50% white
Gray3:  between 50% black/50% white and 30% black/70% white
Gray4:  between 30% black/70% white and 100% white
Any number of gray categories can be thusly identified.
gas
1.  (n.)  the form of matter1B such that the atoms or molecules can move away from adjacent atoms or molecules   (compare to liquid , solid)
A.  and fill any container in which they exist
2.  (v.t.)  to administer gas1
gather (v.t.)   (see collect , join)
1.  to cause to come together from various places
2.  to acquire1 several things gradually
general (adj.)
1.  of or from the whole or all   (as opposed to particular1 or local)
A.  applying to a whole category
2.  plentiful
A.  existing in many places   (syn. common3a )
B.  occurring often   (syn. common3b )
3.  epis.  describing overall features and lacking details   (see vague)   (ant. precise3 )
generic (adj.)
1.  non-specific
A.  including all members of a set
B.  being any one of all members of a set
2.  having the attributes of all members of a set
A.  having all of the attributes of all members of a set (mixed)
B.  having only those attributes common to all members of a set
genotype (n.)
1.  a type distinguished by genetic traits rather than perceptible attributes   (see phenotype)
2.  all individuals belonging to a genotype1
phenotype (n.)
1.  a type distinguished by perceptible attributes rather than genetic traits   (see genotype)
2.  all individuals belonging to a phenotype1
genuine (adj.)   (ant. artificial , counterfeit)
1.  being what it appears to be
e.g.  What appears to be gold is genuine if it's gold.
2.  being what it is said to be   (adj.)   (see authentic1 )
e.g.  What is said to be gold is genuine if it's gold.
get (v.t.)   (syn. acquire)
1.  (act.)  to come to a state of having   (see take)
A.  actively:  by means of effort
     e.g.  to get a job,  a car,  a house
B.  passively:  without effort
     e.g.  to get pregnant
2.  (pass.)  to come to a state of being had
A.  actively:  by means of effort
     e.g.  to get on a bus,  get addicted,
B.  passively:  without effort
     e.g.  to get cheated,  rained on
3.  to come to be in a particular condition or situation
e.g.  to get home;  get to work;  get wet
give (v.t.)   (see bestow , surrender)
to transfer possession of something from self to other
1.  without compensation
glory (n.)
1.  being known by many people   (syn. fame)
2.  a big deal made about something for its importance   (see praise)
A.  admiration gained by doing something important
B.  honor gained by doing something important
gnostic (adj.)   (ant. agnostic 1   see pithanostic)
1.  having knowledge
A.  of the truth or falsity of a particular proposition
2.  a believer of Gnosticism
god (n.)
1.  a supernatural personal being (see spirit2 ) whose existence is hypothesized by a cultural group, and who is worshipped by some
2.  an image of a god1
3.  any object of adoration
God (n.)  ambiguous
1.  the Supreme Being (assumed to be personal)
2.  the being (assumed to be personal) who created this universe
3.  the being (assumed to be personal) who created mankind
4.  an assumed personal being to whom mankind is accountable
5.  the God of Abraham
(who may be further subdivided according to world view)
Even with a capital G, the term is so ambiguous that it may be all or any combination of the above.
6.  pop.  that than which nothing greater can be imagined   (see perfect)
This definition fails for lack of an objective quality2 of greatness.
good p.b.c.  (adj.)   (comparative: better)   (superlative: best)   (see pleasure / displeasure)
one of the two primary values  (opposite: bad)
commonly divided into esthetic and ethical good (in which case pragmatic good is a subset of esthetic good)
It can also be divided into esthetic, pragmatic , and ethical good.
1.  sbj.  accepted, liked, or preferred
An event is good if it is accepted, liked, or preferred by an evaluator.
2.  obj.  accepted, liked or preferred by the Supreme Being
I dare you to come up with a more workable definition.
good and evil (adj.)   Good and evil exist subjectively and objectively.
sbj.  Good is pleasure;  evil is displeasure.
obj.  Good is deserved pleasure and deserved displeasure.
obj.  Evil is undeserved pleasure and undeserved displeasure.
What is deserved is that quantity of pleasure or displeasure that one expected to cause by his willful actions.
govern (v.t.)   to control action or behavior
1.  specifically of people   (see politics)
A.  specifically of a particular community of people
grace (n.)   (see essay: Justice, Law, Mercy, Grace)
1.  beauty, usually of motion
2.  preferential treatment   (syn. favor3a )
A.  unmerited favor  (a superset of mercy2 )   (contrast to justice)
B.  unrequired favor  (a superset of mercy3 )
Grace2 has two abstract locations: a dispensing end, and a receiving end.
3.  pop.  name commonly given to a prayer before a meal
gracious (adj.)   (a superset of merciful2
dispensing favor3a
1.  dispensing unmerited favor
2.  dispensing unrequired favor
graph
1.  (n.)   a grid on which quantifiable data is represented by its position
2.  (n.)   to put data into the form of a graph1
graphic (adj.)
1.  a in the form of a graph
2.  two dimensional representation   (see write)
3.  containing more than the expected amount of visual imagery
great rel.   (adj.)   more than ordinary or expected
Great + much constitute a p.b.c.
1.  obj.  in some measurable attribute
e.g.  size, weight, speed, quantity
2.  sbj.  in some particular quality2
e.g.  importance, popularity, goodness, fame
An absolute quality2 of greatness cannot be shown to exist or not exist.
greater
rel.  (adj.)   (comparative of great)   a  p.b.c. definable only by its synonym: more
1.  obj.  in some measurable attribute   (see quantity , magnitude)
2.  sbj.  in some particular quality2   (syn. better)
greatest rel.  (adj.)   (superlative of great)   a  p.b.c. definable only by its synonym: most
1.  obj.  in some measurable attribute   (see quantity , magnitude)
2.  sbj.  in some particular quality2  (syn. best)
grid (n.)   (see graph)   a two dimensional surface containing two sets of parallel lines at right angles
group (n.)   (see set)
more than two things perceived as a unit
guarantee
1.  (n.)   (see security)  a statement imposing a penalty on a promiser if he fails to keep his promise
2.  (v.t.)  to make a guarantee1
guide
1.  (v.t.)  to show or point the way   (syn. conduct , lead3 )
A.  to channel motion
2.  (n.)  something that shows the way
A.  something that channels motion
habit (n.)   (see manner , custom)
a usual and/or repeated practice of an individual
happen
(v.i.)   to take place   (syn. occur3 )
Anything that happens is an event.

1.  to take place by chance2   (see accident)
happiness (n.)   (opposite: sadness)  the most pleasant emotion
that emotion which causes the most desire for it to continue
It is denotatively synonymous with joy and pleasure1 regardless of what causes it.
Connotatively, it is more caused by circumstance than joy, and less caused by sensation than pleasure.
happiness / unhappiness (n.)   (see pleasure / displeasure) (either a part or subset of emotion or a category of mind in itself when stimulated sensually or intellectually)
the base of all values,  i.e.  the reason why good is good and bad is bad
that part of self which causes desire to exist or not exist in degrees radiating from a point of indifference
Either it or it's causes are very complex.  e.g.  A wealthy celebrity may commit suicide, or a soldier endure torture rather than give up.
happy (adj.)   (opposite: sad)
experiencing happiness, joy, and/or pleasure1
harm (compare to hurt)
1.  (v.i.)  to diminish functionality
2.  (n.)  diminished functionality
harmony (n.)  arrangement that is pleasant to one or more of the senses
hate (v.t. and n.)   (opposite: love)
1.  a subset of emote (v.t.), or emotion (n.)   disliking someone or something   (syn. anger2 )
A.  and desiring to harm the hated person or thing
Connotatively, hate1 is:  1. more intense than anger2 ,  2. caused by what something is rather than what it does,  3. longer lasting.
B.  desiring to be away from the hated person or thing
2.  a subset of willful effort
A.  effort to harm the hated person or thing
B.  effort to be away from the hated person or thing
3.  a psychological relationship that tends to generate, or be generated by hate1 and tends to generate hate2
have (v.t.)   p.b.c.  There's no point in trying to define it.
(see acquire , hold , possess)
heart (n.)
1.  the part of an animal which pumps blood
2.  pop.  a metaphorical part of a person such that to believe1 something "in one's heart" is somehow greater than believing it "in one's head"   (see Christian2 )
Until I see this metaphor clearly articulated, I dismiss the distinction as bogus.
hedonism (n.)
1.  the value1 system which regards pleasure as the highest value  (superset of materialism2 )
2.  the psychological theory that pleasure is the ultimate motivator of willful decisions
3.  pleasure seeking as a way of life  (which makes perfect sense to those who have enough foresight to seek that which will ultimately give them the most pleasure for the duration of their existence)
height (n.)
1.  highness
A.  degree of highness
2.  distance measured from the center of the Earth
3.  vertical length   (syn. tallness)   (perpendicular to depth and width)
help
1.  (v.t.)  to make better   (syn. improve , facilitate)
A.  to make easier
B.  to make more effective
2.  (v.t.)  to join in effort
3.  (n.)  anything that helps1,2
here (opposed to there)
1.  (n.)  this location
2.  (adv.)  at or to this location   (see present1Ai )
heresy (n.)
1.  thought contrary to a given standard
A.  abs.  thought contrary to truth
B.  rel.  thought contrary to a given world view or paradigm
2.  teaching contrary to a given standard
A.  abs.  teaching contrary to truth
B.  rel.  teaching contrary to a given world view or paradigm
e.g.  The religion of Abraham is heresy2B relative to the previous Canaanite religions.  Christianity is heresy2B relative to Judaism.
Islam is heresy2B relative to Judaism and Christianity.
hermeneutics (n.)   the theory and practice of interpretating documents and words therein according to a chosen set of principles
This set of principles is arbitrarily chosen, and can be logical and sensible or selected for the purpose of achieving a desired interpretation.
hiatus (n.)   (see boundary)
a location (without thickness) where one thing stops and another starts
A hiatus can be a point , line , or plane
hierarchy (n.)   a system of order3 arranged in levels of some criterion
types of criteria:
category:    kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
rank:   general, colonel, major, captain, lieutenant
The criterion may also be subjective or arbitrary.
high rel.   (n. = height)   High and its opposite: low , cannot be defined except in relation to each other.  Therefore high/low constitues a p.b.c.
1.  (adv.)  distant from a point which is regarded as the lowest possible
e.g.  the center of the earth
A.  very so distant
B.  more so distant than the person judging highness
C.  more so distant than usual or expected
e.g. jumping high
2.  (adj.)  being distant from a point which is regarded as the lowest possible   (ant. deep2A)
e.g. the center of the earth
A.  being very so distant
B.  being more so distant than the person judging highness
C.  being more so distant than usual or expected
e.g.  a high jump
3.  (adv.)  of rank: near to the highest possible place in a hierarchy
e.g. the ruler
A.  very so near
B.  nearer than the person judging highness
4.  (adj.)  of rank: being near to the highest possible place in a hierarchy
e.g. the ruler
A.  being very so near
B.  being nearer than the person judging highness
history (n.)
1.  those events which happened
A.  any subset thereof
2.  those events which are said to have happened
A.  any subset thereof
hold
1.  (v.t.)   (superset of restrain , restrict)   (see bind , fasten , possess , retain)
to have and prevent from doing something
A.  to prevent something from acting
B.  to prevent something from falling or slipping
2.  (v.i.)  to remain still, firm, or steady
hollow (adj.)   (compare to empty)
1.  of three dimensional objects   containing space/time and gas (usually air), but not containing liquid or solid material
2.  sunk below the surrounding surface   (syn. concave)
holy (adj.)
1.  relating to God or a god
A.  set apart for religious use   (syn. sacred)
2.  pop.  relating to something considered spiritual or supernatural
3.  sbj.  woo woo
honest (adj.)
1.  not unethical
2.  not lying
honesty (n.)
1.  refraining from unethical activity
2.  refraining from lying   (see integrity3 )
honor
1.  (v.t.)  to think2 something is ethically good   (see praise , respect1 )
A.  to think something deserves preservation
2.  (v.t.)  to behave toward something as though one thinks it's ethically good
A.  to behave toward something as though one thinks it deserves preservation
B.  to behave formally toward
C.  to behave submissively toward
3.  (n.)  appearance of being ethically good   (see dignity)
A.  being ethically good
B.  deserving preservation
hope 1.  desire
A.  (v.t.)  to want something to be true
i.  to want something to happen
B.  (n.)  desire for something to be true
ii.  a desire for something to happen
Hope1 is unrelated to expectation.  If you want something to happen, you hope1 it will happen whether you expect it to or not.
2.  desire + expect
A.  (v.t.)  to want & expect something to be true
i.  to want & expect something to happen
B.  (n.)  desire & expectation for something to be true
ii.  a desire & expectation for something to happen
This is a case of a single term labeling a merger of two distinct concepts as though they were one.  It can cause confusion.  e.g. A hopeless goal has no chance, therefore generates no expectation, but can be highly desired.
horizon (n.)
the edge2 where the Earth appears to meet the sky
horizontal
(adj.)  parallel to the horizon
(perpendicular to vertical)
how (subset of what)
1.  (adv.)  in what manner   e.g.  how it happened,  how you behave
A.  in what state or condition   e.g.  how it looks,  how are you?
2.  (adv.)  by what means
e.g.  how it is done,  how it works,  how it got here
A.  for what reason   e.g.  how can you say that?
3.  (adj.)  to what degree
e.g.  how high,  how pretty,  how broken
A.  what price   e.g.  how much
human being (n.)   (arguably a subet of animal)   I know of no attributive definition of human being that successfully distinguishes them from all other primates.  The term can be defined genetically as anything descended from the first human being.  But defining the first human being has the same problem.  Only religious traditions offer any solution - dogmatic ones.
humility (n.)   (subset of attitude3,4 )   (opposite: pride)   (see essay)
1.  an emotion/opinion of one's own inferiority  (justified or not)
Humility1 is an unavoidable side effect of the belief1 that you are doing poorly.
2.  an attitude4 of subservience, generally expressed for the purpose of getting what you want from people who probably wouldn't give it to you if they knew your real self opinion
3.  restraint of arrogant self expression
humility / pride (n.)   (subset of attitude3,4 )   (see essay)
a pair of opposite attitudes3,4 therefore generating emotions closely aligned with fear/courage
hurt
(compare to harm)   to cause displeasure
1.  to cause pain
hypothesis (n.)   (subset of fiction)   (see ad hoc)
a proposition or thesis proposed as possibly true before it is tested (logically or empirically) enough to be called a theory
A hypothesis cannot presuppose anything contrary to known fact.  Any statement that does so is bogus.
idea (n.)
1.  a unit of thought   (syn. concept)
2.  a universal1 or eternally real 1 object (Plato)
3.  a synonym for the Absolute  (Hegel)
ideal (adj.)
1.  pertaining to ideas1
2.  mental
3.  sbj.  axiologically best   (see perfect4 )
A.  esthetically ideal:  completely satisfying one's esthetic preferences
B.  ethically ideal:  the way reality should be
idealism (n.)   (contrast to realism)
1.  any system or doctrine whose fundamental interpretive principle2 is ideal1
A.  the theory that perceived objects cannot be shown to exist outside the mind  (ant. materialism1 )
two main types of idealism1A:
objective idealism1A  (usually pantheistic)
subjective idealism1A  (usually many minds, one Supreme Mind)
B.  the mind-body view that mind (soul/spirit) is all there is to humanness  (opposite: materialism1B )
2.  axiological idealism:  any system or doctrine whose ultimate value or significance is to achieve ideal3  (ant. axiological realism)
identical p.b.c.  (adj.)   (syn. same)   (contrast to similar)
1.  ont.  being the same thing
2.  epis.  appearing to be the same thing
A.  appearing to be one thing seen at two different times
B.  two things having no apparent differences
identify (v.t.)   (This + recognize constitute a p.b.c.)
to recognize something as what it is
identity (n.)  what something is , as opposed to the fact of its existence
identity
over time
(n.)
All physical objects and some abstractions are in transition.  Identity over time consists of:
1.  a uniformity of form and content within a given time range
2.  an unbroken and overlapping sequence of these uniformity periods
ignorance (n.)  not having data.  as opposed to:
unintelligence:  not being able to process data
negligence:  having data, being able to process it, and failing to
stupidity:  having data, processing it, and not acting accordingly
imaginary (adj.)   (superset of fictitious)
1.  existing in a mind  (superset of possible)
e.g.  a memory of a real event
a speculated future event
A.  existing only in a mind
e.g.  mermaid
counter example:  Square circle is not even an imaginary concept because it cannot be imagined.
2.  not real or actual by whatever definition of those terms one means to exclude
imagine (v.)  to think creatively and speculatively
immanent (adj.)  dwelling in or present with
immediate (adj.)   lit. without intermediary   not separated
1.  in time   (see instant)
2.  in space
immitate (v.t.)
1.  to act1A like something else acts
A.  to try to appear to be something else   (syn. pretend2 )
2.  to appear to be something else
immutable (adj.)
1.  not changing  (constant1,2 )
A.  not changing within a finite time period
B.  not changing within an indefinite time period
C.  never changing
2.  not able to change
A.  not able to change within a finite time period
B.  not able to change within an indefinite time period
C.  never able to change
impede (v.t.)   (see obstruct) , (prevent)
1.  to make difficult
A.  to make action difficult
2.  to cause a delay
impediment (n.)   (see obstruction)
1.  something that makes something difficult
A.  something that makes action difficult
2.  something that makes causes delay
implicit (adj.)
1.  implied2 though not plainly expressed  (ant. explicit)
2.  necessarily involved, though not plainly expressed
(confused with inherent)
imply (v.t.)   (contrast to infer)
1.  logically imply:  to have as a necessary part or consequence
e.g.  (If A then B) means (A implies B).
A.  to appear to logically imply something
2.  to suggest or hint
important (adj.)   (contrast to pertinent , relevant)
(sbj.)   very significant2
improve (v.t.)   (syn. help1 )   to make better
in
1.  (adj.  prep.)   not out   In + out constitute a p.b.c., each definable only in opposition to the other
A.  within a defined category
i.  within an enclosed space
2.  (adv.)   (see inner)   toward center
A.  from out of a defined category to not out of it
i.  from out of an enclosed space to not out of it
incomposite (adj.)   (opposite: composite)   (contrast to simple)
containing no parts
incorrigible (adj.)   (opposite: corrigible)
1.  not able to be changed
2.  not willing to be changed
Connotatively the change implies improvement.
increase (opposite: decrease)
1.  (v.i.)  to become more
2.  (v.t.)  to cause to become more
3.  (n.)  the fact of increasing1
4.  (n.)  the amount increased1
Increase can happen in a quality or quantity.
increment (n.)   (opposite: decrement)
1.  a specific amount of increase
2.  the quantity by which a variable3 increases
indeterminism (n.)   (opposite: determinism)
the theory that the universe is constituted such that some events are not the inevitable consequence of antecedent causes
index
1.  (n.)  something that indicates the presence of something else
A.  by pointing to it
i.  an ordered list
2.  (v.t.)  to put in an ordered list
indexical (adj.)  of, or serving as an index
indicate (v.t.)   (see denote , signify , that , this)
1.  to direct1 attention to
2.  to give evidence of:
A.  the truth of a particular proposition
B.  a fact
e.g.  Smoke indicates fire.
indication (n.)   (see sign)
1.  something that directs attention to
2.  something that gives evidence of:
A.  the truth of a particular proposition
B.  a fact
e.g.  Smoke is an indication of fire.
indifference (n.)   (syn. apathy)  not caring,  usually about some particular thing
indistinct (adj.)   (opposite: distinct)
1.  not different from something next to it
A.  appearing to be so
2.  similar to other things
A.  appearing to be so
3.  having vague degrees of existence   (see blur)
induce (v.t.)
1.  to reason:
A.  to generalizations from observing facts (particulars)
B.  to the next particular from observing past particulars
2.  to make an action happen   (subset of cause)
3.  to cause an electric or magnetic effect in a body by exposing it to a variation in a field of force
4.  to motivate a free-will being to want to do something   (syn. persuade1 )
induction (n.)   (subset of logic)   (contrast to deduction)   (see probability)
1.  reasoning to generalizations (sometimes universals1Bii ) from observing facts (particulars)  Sometimes called scientific or empirical1 logic
e.g.  All observed examples of A are B.  Therefore A is generally B.
Most observed examples of A are B.  Therefore A is generally B.
2.  reasoning to the next particular from observing past particulars
e.g.  Most previous examples of A were B.
Therefore the next example of A will probably be B.
3.  reasoning to probable antecedents from observing multiple consequents
e.g.  B usually follows A.  Therefore A probably causes B.
Induction yields a certain conclusion only when all possible examples yield that conclusion - in which case it becomes deduction.
inductive principle (n.)
1.  the unprovable assumption that induction is true
i.e.  The greater the number of cases in which A has been found associated with B, the more probable it is (assuming no counter-examples) that A is always associated with B.
2.  the operationally necessary assumption that induction works
i.e.  The greater the number of cases in which A has been found associated with B, the more probable it is (assuming no counter-examples) that A is usually associated with B, and will be associated next time.
inerrant (adj.)   (opposite: errant)
1.  containing no relevant errors1
A.  containing no errors1
2.  not misleading
3.  not misled  i.e.  not making an error2
inevitable (adj.)   (syn. caused , determined)
happening of necessity rather than chance
infer (v.t.)   (contrast to imply)
1.  to recognize a logical implication
to reason from the known or assumed to a conclusion
A.  to think2 something logically implies something
2.  to think someone is suggesting or hinting
inference (n.)
1.  a thought, proposition or propositions inferred1
2.  a thought, proposition or propositions inferred2
infinite (adj.)  THE 2nd MOST ABUSED CONCEPT IN PHILOSOPHY, because the types of it are not distinguished,  e.g.  the distinction between ontological and epistemological infinite.
1.  ont.  without limit in at least one dimension
A.  actually infinite:  without limit at any moment in time
i.  infinite multiplicity
e.g.  the set of all whole numbers
ii.  infinite divisibility
e.g.  the set of all points between zero and one
B.  potentially infinite:  limited at any moment in time, but without limit if continued eternally
Potential infinity cannot be shown to exist or not exist ontologically.
I prefer to reject it in favor of the epistemological concept "unknown finitude".
2.  epis.  beyond human ability to measure or comprehend
infinite set (n.)   a set with an infinite amount of elements, as opposed to a finite set
This includes all uncountable sets.  e.g.  the set of all rational numbers
It also includes some countable sets:  e.g.  the set of whole numbers, written:  {0,1,2,3... } , the set of even numbers:  {2,4,6... } , odd numbers:  {1,3,5... }.   The elipsis on the right end indicates that the set continues.  The lack of a character after the elipsis indicates that it continues forever.
infinity (n.)   (see infinite)   THE MOST ABUSED CONCEPT IN PHILOSOPHY because the pretense of understanding it cannot be logically refuted.  Though scientists and mathematicians are forced to admit they don't know what infinity is, they proceed to talk as though the do know what it is, confident that no mere philosopher can stand against a united wall of PhDs.
1.  ont.  dimension without limit or boundaries
2.  epis.  dimension beyond human ability to measure or comprehend
3.  epis.  pop.  the highest number   Treating infinity as a number produces such impressive technology when it works that they gladly ignore the paradoxes and contradictions produced when it doesn't work.
influence (contrast to affect , cause , motivate , persuade)
(n.)  one of several factors which when combined motivates, persuades, or becomes a sufficient causal condition   (see authority)
(v.t.)  to act as one of several factors which when combined motivates, persuades, or becomes a sufficient causal condition
inform (v.t.)   (see communicate)
to transmit data   (may be correct or incorrect)
information (n.)  transmitted data   (may be correct or incorrect)
inhabit (v.t.)  (see live , reside)
1.  to occupy
2.  to occupy sometimes as a base of operations
inherent (adj.)   (opposite: extrinsic1 )   (contrast to intrinsic)
existing in something as an inseparable attribute
(confused with implicit)
inner (adj.)   (opposite: outer)   (see in)
1.  toward the center
2.  rel.  nearer to a given point than something else
inorganic (adj.)   of matter:
lacking sufficient complexity to be called organic
A.  not made of carbon
inscrutable (adj.)
1.  difficult to understand or interpret
If you says something is inscrutable1 , tell me only what you understand of it, or how you interpret it, then shut up.
2.  impossible to understand or interpret
If you says something is inscrutable2 , you have no justification for saying anything further about it.
inside (adj.  prep.)   (opposite: outside)
1.  the side nearer to the center
2.  on the inside1
instant
1.  (adj.)  soon to happen
A.  without delay   (see immediate)
2.  (n.)  a brief interval of time   (syn. moment)   (subset of period)
instantiation (n.)
1.  a particular example of a general concept or principle2
2.  a particular value3 plugged into a variable3
instrument (n.)   a thing by means of which something is done
1.  a tool, usually for delicate work
integer (n.)  anything complete in itself
1.  a positive or negative whole number
integrity (n.)
1.  the quality or state of being complete
2.  the quality or state of being unimpaired
3.  the state of refusing to lie about yourself   (see honesty2)
A.  to someone on whom you are dependent   (ant. sycophancy)
intelligence (n.)  ability to process data
intend (v.t.)
1.  to plan to do something
2.  to want your actions to have a particular result
A.  to want your words to be interpreted as you desire
intended (adj.)   (opposite accidental)
1.  planned
2.  of results:  wanted
intent (n.)   (syn. purpose)   that which is intended   (contrast to accident)
1.  that which is planned   (see deliberate)
2.  a result which one desires from his actions
A.  how you want your words to be interpreted
inter (v.t.)   (see intern)
to dispose of a dead body by putting it somewhere:
1.  in the ground followed by burial
2.  in a tomb
interactionism (n.)   (subset of dualism3 )   (sibling set of parallelism , occasionalism , pre-established harmony)
the mind-body view that brain and mind are non-predetermined separate realities that interact.  One may exist temporarily without the other.
interment (n.)   (see internment)
disposing of a dead body by putting it somewhere:
1.  in the ground followed by burial
2.  in a tomb
intern (v.t.)   (see inter)
to put something in something and shut it in
1.  to lock something up
internal (adj.)   (opposite: external)
1.  on the inside
2.  originating from inside
internalize (v.t.)   (ant. externalize)
1.  to transfer from outside to inside
2.  to keep inside
internment (n.)   (see interment)
putting something in something and shutting it in
1.  locking something up
interpret (v.t.)   (similar to judge)
to identify:
1.  the meaning of perceived data
2.  the intended2A meaning of a verbal expression (regardless of its length)
Interpreting is an art (not science) because it includes intuition as well as logic.  Interpretation2 has no affect on literal meaning.  A statement which is literally a lie remains a literal lie regardless of the truth of the intended meaning, and v.v.
intersect (v.)  (subset of meet)
1.  of lines and linear objects
A.  to meet and continue
i.  in space
e.g.  two lines in the form of an X
In the form of an L they don't intersect.
ii.  in space/time
e.g.  to meet and continue across a boundary
two light beams passing through each other
2.  (of plural sets)  to contain some of the same elements
e.g.  If set  A = {v,w,x}  and set  B = {x,y,z} , then sets A and B intersect, because both contain x.
intersection (n.)
1.  the place where two lines or linear objects meet and continue
A.  in space
e.g.  where two lines meet in the form of an X
In the form of an L it's not intersection.
B.  in space/time
e.g.  meeting and continuing across a boundary
two light beams passing through each other
2.  (of plural sets)  containing some of the same elements
Symbol:  ∩   The intersection of set A and set B is written: A ∩ B .
e.g.  If set  A = {v,w,x}  and set  B = {x,y,z} , then x is the intersection of A and B.   Symbolically:  x = A ∩ B
interval (n.)   (see length)
that which exists between two points
1.  in time   (see period)
2.  in space   (see distance)
intrinsic (adj.)   (opposite: extrinsic2 , extraneous1 )   (contrast to inherent)
being, coming, or acting from inside
intuit (v.)
1.  to arrive at a belief1 without having consciously reasoned1 to it
2.  to know something without having sufficient data to know it rationally
intuition (n.)  
1.  belief1 unsupported by conscious reason1ing
but possibly supported by sub-conscious reasoning
A.  arriving at a conclusion2 unsupported by conscious reason1ing   (contrast to logic3 , faith1Bi )
2.  knowledge without known rational support
but possibly with unknown rational support
Intuition is not categorically opposed to reason.  The degree to which intuition has proven reliable is the degree to which it is rational to rely on it.
inverse (adj. and n.)   (denotatively synouymous to reverse) (opposite as opposed to direct)
1.  opposite in location
e.g.  Mirror images are inverse images relative to the reflective surface.
2.  opposite in direction
e.g.  Mirror images are inverse images relative to right and left.
3.  opposite in order
e.g.  1,2,3,4 inverts to 4,3,2,1
4.  opposite in proportion
e.g.  Two variable quantities are in inverse proportion if one increases by the same amount that the other decreases.
invest (v.t.)
1.  to abstractly cover - as with vestments
A.  to bestow power, priviledge, or authority
2.  to spend resources expecting a pleasant result
A.  to spend money expecting a profit
investment (v.t.)
1.  abstract covering - as with vestments
A.  bestowal of power, priviledge, or authority
2.  spending resources expecting a pleasant result   (see risk)
A.  spending money expecting a profit
irrational (adj.)  not logically coherent2   (ant. rational1 )
is
(v.t.)  a p.b.c., but there are three kinds of it based on philosophical categories:
1.  is identical to   (ontological)
e.g.  A nickel is identical to a nickel.
A particular nickel is identical to that particular nickel.
2.  is in the category of   (epistemological)
e.g.  A nickel is in the category of money, metal things, etc.
3.  is equivalent to   (axiological)
e.g.  A nickel is equivalent to 5 pennies, half a dime, etc.
A difference that makes no difference:
is1 definitely a difference.
is2 possibly no difference at all depending on context.
is3 definitely no difference at all.
There are two kinds of is based on necessity:
1.  is necessarily   (see necessary1 )
e.g.  laws and axioms of logic, math, and geometry
e.g.  A = A.
2 + 2 = 4.
Two angles equal to the same angle are equal to each other.
A.  is necessarily in our present universe
e.g.  Water is 2 parts hydrogen and 1 part oxygen.
2.  is accidentally   (see accident2 )
e.g.  The book is on the shelf.
Fried chicken is on my mind.
These categories can be subdivided further, but there's no point in doing it here.
isolate (v.t.)
1.  to set something apart   (syn. separate2A )
A.  from other things like it
B.  from a variety of other things
2.  to make alone
issue (v.i.)
1.  (v.i.)  to come or go out   (syn. emerge)
A.  to be genetically descended from
2.  (v.t.)  to bring, put, let, or give out   (see publish)
3.  (n.)  something brought put, let, or given out
A.  a question or problem to be disputed and/or decided   (see matter1A )
join (see combine , meet1,2 )
1.  (v.i.)   to come together physically  
A.  and touch1   (see connect1 )
i.  and fasten to   (see unite)
2.  (v.t.)  to come together abstractly
e.g.  to join a club
3.  (v.t.)   to cause to come together physically   (see gather)
A.  and touch
i.  and fasten to
joint 1.  (n.)   a place where two things join1
A.  a part that connects two parts
2.  (adj.)  joined2 abstractly
3.  (adj.)  common to two or more entities
joy (n.)   (v. enjoy)   (opposite: sorrow)   the most pleasant emotion
It is denotatively synonymous with happiness and pleasure1 regardless of what causes it.
Connotatively, it is less caused by circumstance than happiness, and less caused by sensation than pleasure.
judge
1.  (v.t.)  to interpret
A.  general and universal concepts
B.  particulars, including, but not limited to, concepts, perceived data, probability, propositions, and arguments   (see analyze)
2.  (v.t.)  to evaluate2 the above particulars
A.  to evaluate2 sentient beings
i.  for reward or punishment
3.  (v.t.)  to choose between alternatives   (syn. decide2 )
4.  (v.t.)  to declare one's judgment of the above
5.  (n.)  a sentient being who judges1,2,3   (syn. arbiter)
judgment (n.)
1.  that mental faculty which interprets
A.  general and universal concepts
B.  particulars, including, but not limited to, concepts, perceived data, probability , propositions, and arguments
2.  evaluation of the above particulars   (see opinion2 )
A.  specifically of sentient beings
i.  for reward or punishment
3.  choice between alternatives   (syn. decision2 )
All judgments concerning truth and probability are involuntary.
Some judgments concerning values are voluntary.
A voluntary judgment which appears to concern truth or probability is actually a value judgment overstepping its legitimate bounds.

4.  legal decision, verdict
Judgment Day (n.)  a time (which may or may not ever come) when free-will creatures get rewarded or punished according to:
1.  justice
2.  some criteria other than justice
just (adj.)
1.  only, merely
2.  of justice   (compare to fair)
A.  producing justice
B.  containing justice
C.  resulting in justice
justice (n.)   (contrast to law3 )   (see essay , Christian justice)
1.  abs.  ethical1 balance, impartiality
Justice has two abstract locations: a dispensing end, and a receiving end.
A.  that which is deserved   (contrast to grace , mercy)
i.e.  the same happiness to unhappiness ratio that one has expected to cause in one's sphere of influence by one's willful actions
i.  dispensing:  giving people what they deserve
ii.  receiving:  getting what one deserves
B.  non-violation of rights2A
i.  dispensing:  behaving so as not to violate the rights of any being having rights
ii.  receiving:  not having one's rights violated
2.  rel.  pop.  equitable cheating   (see fairness)
A.  dispensing:  cheating everybody equally
B.  receiving:  everybody gets cheated equally
justice system (n.)   a system that produces justice
There is no justice system on Earth.  The best approximation is a good legal system.  When it fails, vigilante law may be just.
justification (n.)
1.  the act of making something just2
A.  showing something to be just2
2.  the act of declaring something just2
3.  the fact of having sufficient reason3
A.  for a proposition to be believed1
B.  for a proposition to be known3
4.  the act of showing sufficient reason3
A.  for a proposition to be believed1
B.  for a proposition to be known3
5.  lining up
justify (v.t.)
1.  to make something just2
A.  to show something to be just2
2.  to declare something just2
3.  to have sufficient reason3
A.  for a proposition to be believed1
B.  for a proposition to be known3
4.  to show sufficient reason3
A.  for a proposition to be believed1
B.  for a proposition to be known3
5.  to line up
keep
1.  (v.t.)  to have something
A.  and not let go of it   (see hold , possess , retain)
B.  and care for it
i.  and not let it change
2.  to continue as is   (syn. remain , stay)
A.  in the same condition
     i.  doing the same action
B.  in the same place
kill (v.t.)  
1.  to destroy life
A.  to destroy a particular life or lives
2.  to make something active inactive
kinetic (adj.)   (see dynamic)   relating to motion
1.  caused by motion   (ant. static2 )
kind
1.  a subset of a superset   (syn. type1 )
A.  distinguised by attributes
e.g.  A dog is a kind of carnivore, pet, furry thing, etc.
B.  distinguised by genetics
e.g.  A dog is a kind of canine, mammal, vertebrate, etc.
2.  (adj.)   (syn. beneficent)  producing improved condition
know (v.)   to assume1A what must1 be assumed
All that is known is true.  If you think2 you know, but you're wrong, you didn't know.
How you know when you know is not among the things I know.

types of knowing:
1.  immediate
e.g.  to know that you exits, think, emote, perceive, will
2.  categorical
e.g.  to recognize categories and patterns
3.  rational
4.  operational:  to know how to do
e.g.  run, swim, dance, etc.
knowledge (n.)   (see certainty , certitude , epistemology , gnostic , wisdom)
1.  necessary assumption:  an assumption that must be made because a mind is compelled to make it
    The relationship of knowledge to truth is as follows:  All that is known is true.  If you think2 you know, but you're wrong, you didn't know.
How you know when you know is not among the things I know.
Knowledge is not an ability.  It's an inability to do otherwise.  I would have preferred a stronger definition, but have been unable to find or think of one.  (see essay)
2.  A good pragmatic definition could be:  ideas about reality that sufficiently correspond to reality
Unfortunately sufficiency is subjectively defined.
types of knowledge:
1.  immediate knowledge
e.g.  that you exits, think, emote, perceive, will
2.  categorical knowledge
e.g.  recognition of concepts, categories, and patterns
3.  rational knowledge
4.  operational knowledge:  how to do
e.g.  run, swim, dance, etc.
language (n.)   a system of labeling, organizing, and expressing thoughts
large (adj.)   (comparative: larger)
p.b.c.  definable only by its synonyms:  big , huge, or in contrast to its opposite:  small in reference to magnitude or size
last (adj.)   (opposite first)
following all others in a sequence or hierarchy
law (n.)
1.  a proposition which is necessarily true
A.  always
e.g.  laws of logic, math, and geometry
B.  usually
e.g.  any example of statistical probability
2.  a proposition describing observed reality
A.  which has been true in all known instances of its being tested  (compare to axiom)
e.g.  physical laws, E = mc2
B.  which has been true in most known instances of its being tested
e.g.  What goes up must come down.
3.  a rule of conduct   (contrast to justice)   (see essay: Justice, Law, Mercy, Grace)
A.  made by an authority3
B.  made by mutual agreement
C.  made by custom
laws of thought (n.)   (which should have been called laws of categories)
those propositions which are eternally and universally true of any concept or category:
law of identity:  A thing is what it is.  (A = A)
law of non-contradiction:  A thing is not what it's not.  (A doesn't = -A)
law of excluded middle:  A thing either is or is not some particular thing.
(A = B)  or  (A doesn't = B)
i.e.  There is no middle ground between a category and its complement.
It should have been called "law of excluded other" because there is no other alternative to (A = B)  or  (A doesn't = B).
lead (v.t.)
1.  to come or go first
2.  to cause to follow
3.  to show or point the way   (syn. conduct , guide)
learn (v.t.)   (see discover)
1.  to get knowledge
2.  to fix in mind
3.  to acquire as a habit
least (adj.)   (superlative of little)   (comparative: less)
p.b.c.  definable only by its synonyms:  smallest, littlest, or in contrast to its opposite:  most in reference to magnitude, but not quantity   (see fewest)
legal (adj.)
1.  based on law
2.  permitted by law
A.  authorized by law
3.  not conflicting with law
length (n.)   (adj. long)   (part of size)   (superset of depth , height , width)
an interval seen as a quantity of measurement units and/or fractions of those units
less (adj.)   (comparative of little)   (superlative: least)
p.b.c.  definable only by its synonyms:  smaller, littler, or in contrast to its opposite:  more in reference to magnitude, but not quantity   (see few)
lessen (syn. cut2 , diminish1,2 )   (see decrease1,2 )
1.  (v.i.)  to become less
2.  (v.t.)  to make less
liar (n.)   (contrast to deceiver)
a sentient being who willfully attempts to deceive
1.  a being who has willfully attempted to deceive
2.  a being who is willfully attempting to deceive
3.  a being who habitually willfully attempts to deceive
A.  a being who is known to habitually willfully attempted to deceive
license (n.)   (see right)
1.  formal permission
A.  by an authority
B.  by law
2.  a document stating that permission has been given
lie
1.  (v.t.)  to willfully attempt to deceive
A.  not specifically verbal
B.  specifically verbal
2.  (n.)   (see untruth)  a willful action in attempt to deceive
A.  not specifically verbal
B.  specifically verbal
life (n.)   p.b.c.   I have never seen a definition that includes all life forms and excludes all non-life forms.
like
1.  (adj.)   (syn. similar   (see match)
nearly the same thing
A.  ont.  being nearly the same thing
B.  epis.  appearing to be nearly the same thing
2.  (prep.)  similar to
3.  (v.t.)   (see love1 , prefer)   (subset of emote)
A.  enjoying the liked object
B.  desiring to benefit the liked object
C.  desiring to possess the liked object
limit
1.  (n.)  (syn. end1 )  the farthest point or boundary on something
A.  (v.t.)  to create or impose a limit1
2.  (n.)  (syn. end2 )  the highest or lowest degree of something
A.  (v.t.)  to create or impose a limit2
3.  (v.t.)   (syn. restrict)  to hold within fixed boundaries
line (n.)   (superset of path)   (part of plane)   (see distance , length , series)
the form1A of two or more connected points such that the end points are connected to only one point, and the rest of the points are connected to exactly two points
linear (adj.)  line shaped
linguistics (n.)  study of language , including phonology, morphology, semantics , syntax
Types of linguistics:  descriptive, historical, comparative, geographical
liquid
1.  (n.)  the form of matter1B such that the atoms or molecules can move without friction relative to adjacent atoms or molecules   (compare to gas , solid)
2.  (adj.)  able to flow
A.  flowing
literal (adj.)   (see meaning)   pertaining to letters, words, or sentences
1.  pertaining to letters
2.  pertaining to words
3.  pertaining to sentences
little (adj.)   (comparative: less)
p.b.c.  definable only by its synonyms:  small, minute, or in contrast to its opposite:  big in reference to magnitude
live (v.i.)
1.  to have life
2.  to inhabit , reside
local (adj.)   pertaining to location
1.  characteristic of a particular location
2.  confined to a particular location
locate (v.t.)   (syn. find)
to learn the location of something
location (n.)   (see position)
1.  a point or area in space
A.  in abstract space
B.  in physical space
i.  an area designated for a specific purpose
2.  where something is
A.  abs.  in the universe
B.  rel.  relative to something
logic (n.)   (subset of necessary truth)   (part of critical thinking2 )   (superset of mathematics)
Dictionaries say that logic is a set of principles2 by which one may distinguish truth from falsity.  They tell us what it does because they haven't figured out what it is.

1.  (ont.)  the sum of all that is eternally1 and universally1 true of the relationship of variables
2.  (epis.)  a syntactical system verbally expressing ontological logic in the form of laws
Epistemological logic necessarily exist in a mind or minds.
Ontological logic is that reality to which those laws correspond.
If it did not exist as laws, it would not be coherent.
If it did not exist in extension, those laws wouldn't correspond to empirical data.
Two subsets of logic:  deduction and induction (See also fuzzy logic)
Not all systems of thought are logical.  There is no such thing as my logic vs. your logic.  There is only logic (correctly or incorrectly applied).  But logic may be expressed in different syntax, semantics, and systems of inference, for different purposes, for which it is given different names,
e.g.  formal, modal, epistemic, relational, etc.
3.  that by which defensible conclusions2 are arrived at   (contrast to faith1Bi , intuition1A )
logical positivism (n.)  a philosophical movement to unify the sciences by developing a language usable by all sciences
long (adj.)   (superset of deep , tall , wide)   (opposite: short)
large in length
love (v.t. and n.)   a very ambiguous term
1.  a subset of emote (v.t.)   (see like3 ), or emotion (n.)
A.  enjoying the love object
B.  desiring to benefit the love object
C.  desiring to possess the love object
D.  depending2 on the love object for some benefit or necessity
2.  a subset of willful effort
A.  effort to benefit the love object
B.  effort to possess the love object
Love1 or 2 is not a relationship, unless you count unilateral action as relationship.
e.g.  Me loving you does not imply you loving me.
3.  a psychological relationship that tends to generate, or be generated by love1 and tends to generate love2
This ambiguity causes some contradictory ideas about love.
e.g.  Is it love if:
    you want to keep something alive that would be better off dead?
    you would destroy the love object if you can't possess it?
By what definition of love do the following make sense?
promising to love in a marriage vow
Horny teenage boy loves sexy cheerleader - or hot car.
Mat.5:44, Lk.6:27 - Love your enemies.
Jn.15:13 - no greater love ... a man lays down his life for his friend
1Cor.13:3 - Though I give all my goods to the poor ... but have not love, it profits me nothing.
Mat.23:6, Lk.11:43 - Pharisees love chief seats in the synagogues.
The opposite of love1,2,3 is hate, not indifference.  Indifference implies the absence of emotion, effort, or psychological relationship.
low rel.   Low and its opposite: high , cannot be defined except in relation to each other.  Therefore high/low constitues a p.b.c.
1.  (adv.)  near to a point which is regarded as the lowest possible   (see down)
e.g.  the center of the earth
A.  very so near
B.  more so near than the person judging lowness
C.  more so near than usual or expected
e.g. flying low
2.  (adj.)  being near to a point which is regarded as the lowest possible
e.g. the center of the earth
A.  being very so near
B.  being more so near than the person judging lowness
C.  being more so near than usual or expected
e.g.  a low flight
3.  (adv.)  of rank: distant from the highest possible place in a hierarchy
e.g. the ruler
A.  very so distant
B.  more distant than the person judging lowness
4.  (adj.)  of rank: being distant from the highest possible place in a hierarchy
e.g. the ruler
A.  being very so distant
B.  being more distant than the person judging lowness
loyal (adj.)  persistently devoted despite reasons to discontinue devotion
loyalty (n.)   (see allegiance)  persistent devotion1C despite reasons to discontinue devotion
Loyalty is not a virtue.  It is only as virtuous as that to which one is loyal.
luck (n.)  an attribute of an event which, though caused , is not caused by a deliberate attempt to cause it
machine
(n.)  a set of parts that are bound together to form a unit, and work together to achieve a purpose
1. an inanimate tool with more than one moving part
magnitude (n.)   (superset of size , weight)   (see amount , quantity)
a necessary attribute of anything that can be measured
magic (superset of miraculous or miracle)   This term has been defined narrowly or broadly.  Narrowly, it usually indicates an impossible event.  It can also indicate an improbable event.  Broadly, it can include events caused by psychological manipulation.
1.  (ont.)  (adj.)  contrary to what the laws of physics would require
(n.)  that set of events that happens contrary to what the laws of physics would require
(n.)  one such an event
(n.)  an attribute of such an event
A.  (epis.)  appearing to be ontologically magic1
e.g.  rabbit out of a hat,  vanishing acts
2.  (ont.)  (adj.)  extremely improbable by statistics
(n.)  that set of events that are extremely improbable by statistics
(n.)  one such an event
(n.)  an attribute of such an event
A.  (epis.)  appearing to be ontologically magic2
e.g.  card tricks
3.  (ont.)  (adj.)  caused by psychological manipulation
(n.)  that set of events that are caused by psychological manipulation
e.g.  voodoo,  hypnosis
(n.)  one such an event
(n.)  an attribute of such an event
manage 1.  (v.i.)  to function sufficiently
2.  (v.t.)  to get something to function sufficiently   (see direct)
A.  to get something to behave as desired   (see control)
e.g.  to manage a company
manner (n.)
1.  a way of acting   (syn. behavior , mode2A )   (superset of style)
A.  a usual way of acting
i.  of individuals   (syn. habit)
ii.  of societies   (syn. custom)
many (adj.)   (opposite: few)
big in quantity, but not in magnitude   (see more)
masochist (n.)   a person who wants to experience displeasure
A masochist has a sense of justice, and has done bad things, and hasn't figured out that redemption comes by doing good things.
match
1.  (v.i.)  to be like something else
e.g.  (A) matches (a) more than (A) matches (b).
2.  (v.t.)  to put similar or identical things together   (ant. mix2 )
e.g.  >>>A A<<<     >>>A a<<<     >>>A (A a A a)
A.  (n.)  things that match2
material (adj. and n.)
1.  of substance
2.  of matter
3.  (sbj.)  of bodily needs or desires
A.  affecting emotions   (syn. important , significant2 )
materialism (n.)
1.  Matter is all.
A.  the view that matter is the only reality, and that abstracts and properties2 of mind can be explained in terms of matter
(a subset of naturalism;  i.e.  naturalism without the laws)   (opposite: idealism1 )
B.  the mind-body view that matter is the only underlying substance of humanness.  There is no such thing as mind.
(subset of monism3 )   (ant. idealism1B )
(superset of physicalism2 and epiphenomenalism)
2.  the value system which regards material benefits as the highest value  (subset of hedonism1 )
mathematics (n.)   (superset of arithmetic)
1.  logic applied specifically to numbers
2.  the rules for combining numbers logically
matter 1.  (n.)  what anything is made of
A.  what abstractions are made of   (see issue3)
B.  what physical things are made of  (substance1,   superset of particle)
i.  whatever is perceptible to the senses
ii.  whatever occupies space and has extension  (contrast to energy)
2.  (v.i.)  to be significant2
mean
1.  (v.t.)   This plus its synonym, signify, constitute a  p.b.c. in that they cannot be defined without assuming you already know what they "mean."
A.  to intend2A for your words to be interpreted a particular way
2.  (sbj.)  to affect emotions   (syn. signify2 )
3.  (n.)   (a type of average)   the sum of two or more values2 divided by the number of values in the set
meaning (n.)   (see semantics)
1.  p.b.c.  what something means   Heh!  It can't be defined without assuming you already know what it "means".
Definition is to terms as meaning1 is to sentences.

Types of meaning:  literal , intended2Asubstitute
literal meaning:  the normal meaning of words and sentences regardless of the intent of the person saying them   All sensible statements have at least one literal meaning.  Some statements are literally ambiguous.
e.g.  "I saw a tree walking down the street" can mean:
While I was walking down the street, I saw a tree.
While I was walking, I saw a tree down the street.
I saw a tree which was walking down the street.
While I was down the street, I saw a tree walking.
intended meaning:  If a sentient being intends to communicate something by a statement, then that statement has an intended meaning.  Unless the sentient being is being deliberately evasive, deceptive, ambiguous, or ironic, he will intend only one meaning.
If there is only one intended meaning, it is usually one of the literal meanings.
But the intended meaning(s) can be logically unrelated to the literal meaning(s).  Sometimes the intended meaning is the exact opposite of the literal meaning.
"I could care less" is usually intended to mean "I could not care less".
"Yeah, right!" is usually intended to mean "No, wrong!".
substitute meaning:  Statements can have substitute meanings which are neither literal nor intended.  Competent communicators avoid these unless those communicators are being deliberately unclear.
2.  (sbj.)  the degree to which emotions are affected by something   (syn. significance1 )
means (n.)
1.  that by which something is done   (see instrument)
2.  that which enables something to be done   (syn. way)
measure (v.t.)   to calculate measurement
measurement (n.)
1.  a quantity of equal units and/or fractions thereof describing the magnitude of something in terms of that unit
e.g.  Length is a measurement in terms of a quantity of equal distance units.
Time period is a measurement in terms of a quantity of equal duration units.
2.  magnitude determined by measuring
e.g.  Three meters is a measurement.
Three days is a measurement.
median (n.)   (a type of average)   the value2 at the midpoint of a set of values
meet (see join1,2 )
1.  (v.i.)  to come together physically   (superset of intersect1 )
A.  from different directions
2.  (v.i.)  to come together abstractly
e.g.  to meet conditions, requirements, expectations
3.  (v.t.)  to encounter   (see join)
A.  from different directions
e.g.  A>>>  <<<B
i.  front to front
member (n.)   (syn. element2 )
1.  a distinguishable part of a body
A.  a person who is part of a defined community of persons
2.  a unit in and of a set   (syn. element2 )
meme (n.)   a unit of information in a mind whose existence influences events such that more copies of itself get created in other minds
memory (n.)   (see remember)   retained data
1.  retained mental impressions acquired in the past
A.  ability to retain such data
B.  that faculty which retains such data
2.  retained physical data
A.  ability to retain such data
B.  that object which retains such data
mention (v.t.)   (superset of adduce , cite)
to speak about something briefly or incidentally
merciful (adj.)  lenient; not administering punishment
1.  not administering expected punishment
2.  not administering deserved punishment  (subset of gracious1 )
3.  not administering legally prescribed punishment  (subset of gracious2 )
mercy (n.)   (contrast to forgive , justice1A )   (see essay: Justice, Law, Mercy, Grace)
Mercy has two abstract locations: a dispensing end, and a receiving end.

1.  not dispensing or receiving expected punishment
2.  not dispensing or receiving deserved punishment  (subset of grace2A )
3.  not dispensing or receiving legally prescribed punishment  (subset of grace2B )
merge (v.)   (see mix)
to combine so as to be inseparable

merge
degrees of merge
metaphysics (n.)  Used to describe Aristotle's Physics by Andronicus of Rhodes (c .70 BC) as the Greek "ta meta ta physika", meaning "the things after the physics."
1.  speculative philosophy in general
2.  ontology
method (n.)
1.  a way of doing   (syn. mode2 )
2.  regularity and order3liness
A.  in action
B.  in arrangement1
middle
1.  (n.)  a point half way between extremes   (syn. center)
A.  a point half way between two other points
B.  a point equidistant from the points of a periphery
i.  an approximation of this point
2.  (n.)  an area around a middle1
mind (n.)   (see mind-body relationships)
that part of self which thinks , reasons , knows , judges , imagines , perceives1A , emotes , and wills.
If soul/spirits exist, they are denotatively indistinguishable from minds.
To a materialist , mind is either synonymous with brain, produced by brain, or doesn't exist.
To a critical realist , mind is an immaterial entity or substance with personal consciousness.
mind-body relationships (n.)  those theories of how minds and bodies interrelate
(superset of monism3 and dualism3 )
minus (adj.)   (opposite: plus)
from which is removed
e.g.  8 - 6 = 2  means (8 from which is removed 6) equals 2.
miracle (n.)   (subset of magic)
magic caused by a deity
mix (v.)
1.  (v.i.)  to come together with something unlike
e.g.  A >>> <<< B     A >>> B B B B
2.  (v.t.)  to put unlike things together   (ant. match2 )
e.g.  >>>A B<<<     >>>A B B B B
3.  (v.)  to combine together so that all parts are randomly associated   (see merge)

mix
degrees of mix3
mobile (adj.)   movable
1.  easily movable
modality (n.)
1.  a tendency to belong to a particular category
A.  a tendency to conform to a pattern
2.  classification of propositions on the basis of whether they assert or deny the possibility, impossibility, contingency, or necessity of their content
mode (n.)
1.  a way of being
A.  a condition of functioning
e.g.  Your computer is not in sleep mode.
B.  a type of something
e.g.  Cars are a mode of transportation.
2.  a way of doing   (syn. method)
e.g.   Cubism is a mode of painting.
A.  a way of acting   (syn. behavior , manner)
e.g.  Sarcasm is a mode of expression.
3.  the most frequent item in a set of variables2   (see statistics)
a.   the most frequent value2 of a set of values   (a type of average)
model
1.  (n.)  an understandable representation of a less understandable object
A.  a smaller copy of a larger object
B.  an accessible copy of an inaccessible object
C.  an existing copy of a planned or nonexisting object
2.  (n.)  a standard1B of excellence
3.  (n.)  a style or design
e.g.  a Model T Ford
4.  (v.t.)  to make a model1
5.  (v.i.)  to serve as a model2
modus ponens (n.)   (subset of deduction)   (sibling set of modus tolens)
a conditional statementif p, then q, followed by the assertion that p is true, and concluding that q must therefore be true:
p ⊂ q    If p, then q.
    p         p is true.      
  ∴ q     Therefore q is true.
modus tolens (n.)   (subset of deduction)   (sibling set of modus ponens)
a conditional statementif p, then q, followed by the assertion that q is false, and concluding that p must therefore be false:
p ⊂ q    If p, then q.
  ∼q        q is false.      
∴ ∼p      Therefore p is false.
moment (n.)
1.  a point in time
A.  a particular point in time
2.  pop.  a brief interval of time   (syn. instant)   (see period)
monism (n.)  the theory that:
1.  all reality is one, or of one substance; that there is no qualitative difference between the stuff of the universe, the stuff of humans, or the stuff of reality.  (superset of pantheism)
(contrasted to dualism2 and pluralism)
A.  one principle2 (i.e.  nature2 ) is all that it takes to explain everything in reality.  Primary monisms are idealism and materialism.
2.  (in epistemology)  the idea and the object known are one in the cognitive act.
3.  there is one underlying substance in humanness.  (subset of mind-body relations , sibling set of dualism3 )
(superset of idealism1B and materialism1B )
moral (adj.)   (contrast to ethical)   (see vice , virtue)   abs.
conforming to an objective standard for judging what should or should not be
1.  of willful decisions and actions which should or should not be practiced
2.  of laws or policies which should or should not exist
i.e.  If a law or policy should exist, it's moral.  If it shouldn't exist it's immoral.
There is no denotative distinction between ethical1 and moral.  Conventional usage slants "ethical" connotations toward business transactions and "moral" toward more emotional issues.
moral absolutism (n.)   (not to be confused with moral universalism)
1.  the theory that an absolute2 standard exists by which to judge the morality of any act of any person at any time
Any given act is either moral, or immoral, or morally neutral.
What determines the standard is another issue.
2.  the theory that an absolute2 standard exists by which to judge the morality of any category of acts
e.g.  murder, rape, theft, lying, nose picking, charity
That standard can be static or graded.
A.  static moral absolutism:  Any category of acts is always either moral, or immoral, or morally neutral.
e.g.  If lying is immoral, all lies are always immoral.
B.  graded moral absolutism:  Any category of morally judgable acts is judged on a scale from most moral to least moral.
e.g.  If murder is more immoral than lying, then lying is moral if it is to prevent murder.
Moral absolutism in itself does not say that any act or category of acts is moral or immoral.  The standard determines that.
moral principle (n.)  a principle3 stating behavior that should be practiced
1.  a general principle stating behavior that should always be practiced
e.g.  Avoid those actions which diminish the well-being of the class of sentient beings as a whole.
2.  a specific principle stating behavior that should generally be practiced
There is no specific principle that should always be practiced.  For any specific principle, there exists a hypothetical scenario such that it would be immoral to apply it.
e.g.  Principle:  Never torture babies.
Scenario:  You are a prisoner of a psychopath who has proven that he is able and willing to torture and kill babies.  He orders you to torture a baby, and says that if you don't, he will torture and kill it.
moral relativism (n.)   (see relativism)
the theory that no absolute or objective standard exists by which to judge the morality of any act or category of acts
Morality is relative to societies, cultures, individuals, or some sloppy mixture of the three.
Therefore morality can be judged by any agent from a large social group down to an individual.  Neither is there a standard by which to say the judgment of a larger group is to be preferred over that of a smaler group or individual.
moral universaism
(n.)  the theory that an absolute2 standard exists by which to judge the morality of any category of acts for all similarly-situated people, regardless of individual opinions
That standard can be static or graded.   (see moral absolutism)
Moral universaism in itself does not say that any act or category of acts is moral or immoral.  The standard determines that.
morality (n.)   (contrast to ethics)   (see vice , virtue)  abs.
1.  an objective standard for judging what should or should not be
A.  willful decisions and actions which should or should not be practiced
B.  laws or policies which should or should not exist
i.e.  If a law or policy should exist, it's moral.  If it shouldn't exist it's immoral.
There is no denotative distinction between ethicality1 and morality.  Conventional usage slants "ethicality" connotations toward business transactions and "morality" toward more emotional issues.
2.  a psychological mechanism to facilitate survival of a species
A.  created by a personal creator
B.  created by evolution
morals (n.)   (contrast to ethics , piety , and sin)  abs.
1.  willful decisions and actions conforming to an absolute standard of acceptability
2.  morals1 expressed as principles
There is no denotative distinction between ethics1 and morals.  Conventional usage slants "ethics" connotations toward business transactions and "morals" toward more emotional issues.
more (adj.)   (comparative of much) , (opposites: fewer , less)
p.b.c.  definable only by its synonyms:  greater1 , larger in reference to magnitude or quantity (see many)
most (adj.)   (superlative of much) , (opposites: fewest , least)
p.b.c.  definable only by its synonyms:  greatest1 in reference to magnitude or quantity
motion (n.)   (v. move)   (see dynamic , kinetic)
a change in the distance between two objects
This does not imply total relativity, because one object may experience much more G-force than the other.
motivate (v.t.)   (contrast to: cause1 , persuade , influence)
to cause a free-will being to want to do something
This is always achieved by stimulating emotion.
motivation (n.)   (contrast to: cause1 , persuasion , influence)
causing a free-will being to want to do something
This is always achieved by stimulating emotion.
motive (n.)  a reason contributing to a willful decision
This is always ultimately based on emotion.
move (v.)   (n. motion)   (superset of travel)
to change in location
to change the distance between two objects
This does not imply total relativity, because one object may experience much more G-force than the other.
much
(adj. , adv.)  rel.   more than ordinary or expected
Much + great constitute a p.b.c.
1.  in amount
2.  in degree
3.  in quantity
multiplication
(n.)  increase
1.  in amount
2.  in number   (see factor3 , product)   (ant. division1B )
multiply
1.  (v.i.)  to increase
A.  in amount
B.  in number   (see factor3 , product)   (ant. divide1B )
2.  (v.t.)  to cause to increase
A.  in amount
B.  in number
must (v. aux.)  an auxiliary used with the infinitive of various verbs to express necessity
cannot not   (compare to ought)
1.  necessary to be true,   that which cannot not be
e.g.  A triangle must have three and only three sides.
2.  necessary to accomplish something,   that which cannot not be done:
A.  in order to exist
e.g.  One must have have food to survive.
B.  in order to get what is desired
e.g.  One must have have fun to be happy.
C.  in order to conform to a standard
e.g.  One must behave morally or be immoral.
One must obey the law or be a law breaker.
mysticism (n.)   (a subset of religion1A )
1.  direct interrelation with God , a god , or an intermediary thereof
2.  the belief that direct knowledge of God may be achieved apart from propositional revelation  (compare to rationalism1B )
3.  vague, obscure, or sloppy thinking or belief
natural (adj.)
1.  the way something is
A.  when not interfered with
2.  of the attributes of something
3.  of the general cosmic order
A.  apart from and uninfluenced by man
4.  of the instincts and emotions of man  (as opposed to intellect)
5.  confined to physical laws  (opposite: supernatural)
naturalism (n.)   (ant. supernaturalism)   (a superset of materialism)
the world view that the universe is:
1.  all there is
2.  self generating, self operating, requiring no creator
3.  explainable by:
A.  totally random events
B.  scientific causal laws independent of a unifying mind
i.  totally determined
ii.  part determined, part random
4.  purposeless
A.  because it is totally random
B.  because it is deterministic
natural theology (n.)   that branch of theology that assumes that the existence and nature of gods, or a personal Creator of this universe, can be deduced from observing nature   (as opposed to other people or their books or personal experiences)
nature (n.)
1.  what something is  (syn. essence1 )
A.  what something is when not interfered with
B.  attributes of something  (syn. essence2 )
2.  the general cosmic order
3.  that which exists apart from and uninfluenced by man
4.  the instincts and emotions of man  (contrast to intellect)
near rel.   (adj.)   (syn. close  adj.)   (opposite: far)   a relationship of two things that are separate4
All examples are relatively speaking.

1.  having little of some dimension between them
e.g.  Ireland is near to England.
4:00 is near to 4:30.
A.  having little of some dimension between self and other
e.g.  My work is near by.
It's near supper time.
2.  having less of some dimension between self and other
e.g.  the near side of the moon
3.  having little of some abstraction between them   (see similar)
e.g.  A count is near to a duke.
necessary (adj.)   (see need , inevitable)
1.  abs.  that which must be   (contrast to chance)
A.  in logic, any statement whose denial would involve a contradiction
B.  in ontology, the quality1 of something that is eternal and needs nothing else to exist or continue to exist   (contrast to accident2 )
2.  rel.  that which must be, in order for something else to be
In the ultimate sense, nothing is absolutely necessary, because nothing must exist.  But given that something exists, all preconditions which must exist in order for it to exist are absolutely necessary preconditions.
necessary condition (n.)   (contrast to sufficient condition)
an antecedent condition which must be in order for its consequent to be
In order for X to be, a sufficient condition is necessary, but a necessary condition is not sufficient, and X may have no necessary conditions except the sum of all sufficient conditions.
e.g.  If (conditions a, b, and c) constitute a sufficient condition for X, and (conditions d, e, and f) also constitute a sufficient condition for X, then there are no necessary conditions for X among (a, b, c, d, e, f).
Neither (a,b,c) nor (d,e,f) constitutes a necessary condition for X.  But (either a,b,c or d,e,f) constitutes a necessary condition for X, only if there are no other sufficient conditions for X.
A necessary condition is not a cause.
necessary truth (n.)  that which must be true   (see critical thinking2 )
1.  ont.  in order for truth to exist
A.  in order for that which obviously exists to exist
2.  epis.  in order for truth to be distinguishable from non-truth
Necessary truth1, 2 is a superset of logic.
Necessary truth1A implies another subset, because logic alone cannot account for the existence of the universe.
necessity (n.)
1.  inability to be otherwise   (see caused , destiny , determined)
2.  requirement
A.  the fact of needing1 (syn. need2 )
B.  that which is needed1
need (contrast to want)
1.  (v.t.)  to be dependent on something
A.  in order to exist
i.  to have something necessary in order to exist
ii.  to lack something necessary in order to exist
e.g.  Trees need water whether they have it or lack it.
B.  rel.  in order for some particular to be true
i.  to have something necessary
ii.  to lack something necessary
e.g.  Cars need fuel in order to run whether they have it or lack it.
2.  (n.)  the fact of needing1   (syn. necessity1 )
negative (adj. and n.)   (see inverse , obverse , reverse)
There are several types of negative, poorly distinguished by the English language
The negative of A may be:
everything in the universe that is not A ... (complement of A)
anything in the universe that is not A ... (not A, non-A)
absence of A ... (no A, zero A)
minus A
negligence (n.)
having data, being able to process it, and failing to.  as opposed to:
ignorance:  not having data
unintelligence:  not being able to process data
stupidity:  having data, processing it, and not acting accordingly
negligible (adj.)
1.  ont.  not enough to be measured
2.  epis.  not enough to be noticed
3.  axi.  not enough to be cared about
next
1.  (adj. adv.)  being, occurring, coming, or going immediately after1 something else
A.  in time
B.  in order
2.  (n.)  the one following
next to (prep.)  beside
nihilism (n.)
1.  Belief1 that an objective basis doesn't exist:
A.  for knowledge  (epistemological nihilism)
B.  for ethical values  (axiological nihilism)
2.  Belief1 that something doesn't exist
A.  knowledge doesn't exist
B.  ethical values don't exist
3.  Belief1 that something doesn't matter
A.  knowledge doesn't matter
B.  ethical values don't matter
nominalism (n.)   (subset of anti-realism)   (sibling set of conceptualism)
the theory that:
Only particulars (and possibly collections of particulars) exist.
Universals are not real.  They are only class names.
A general term may be applied to similar particulars without referring to an independently existing universal.
Properties2 either don't exist, or are reducible to class names.
nonrational (adj.)  not based on reason   (ant. rational2 )
norm (n.)
1.  a standard of behavior, achievement, fashion, etc.
A.  a standard of excellence  (syn. model2 )
B.  an accepted standard
i.  accepted by a community regardless of size
ii.  accepted by a culture
2.  an average
A.  a median average
B.  a mean average
normal (adj.)
1.  a conforming to a standard   (syn. regular1 )
2.  average   (syn. ordinary1 , standard3 )
A.  at or near the mean average1
B.  at or near the modal average3   (compare to usual)
3.  not altered
noteworthy (adj.)   (see emphasize)  worthy of being noticed
nothing (n.)   lit.  absence of any thing
1.  absence of anything in a particular context
A.  absence of any concept
B.  absence of any dimension
C.  absence of space/time
D.  absence of anything numerical or measurable
E.  absence of any natural number   (zero)
F.  absence of anything physical
G.  absence of anything relevant
H.  absence of anything important
notice
1.  (v.t.)  to perceive with one of the senses   (see discern , observe)
2.  (n.)  announcement of a recent or impending change which the announcer wants known
noumenon (n.)  obj.  an objective fact, object, or circumstance which is perceived, as opposed to the perception1A of it - the phenomenon2  (Kant)
nous a Greek word meaning mind , reason, soul/spirit, intellect, used by vocabulophiles who would rather impress than communicate
now (adv.)   (subset of when)   (sibling set of then)
This concept plus presently constitute a p.b.c.  understandable as happening between past and future1
null set (n.)  a hypothetical set containing no members   Symbol:  { }  or  ∅
Aristotle's logic contained no null set.
number (adj. and n.)   (see mathematics , value)
1.  either zero, one, or a unique set containing more than one member, and identified only by the total of the members in the set   (syn. quantity)
2.  a symbol representing a quantity
types of numbers
natural numbers:  used for counting     1, 2, 3, 4, 5...
whole numbers:  natural numbers plus zero     0, 1, 2, 3, 4...
even numbers:  2n   odd numbers:   2n-1
integers:  whole numbers plus their negatives     ...-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3...
rational numbers:  numbers which can be written in the form of one integer divided by another or A/B
irrational numbers:   √2 , π
real numbers:  rational numbers plus irrational numbers
cardinal2  vs.  ordinal
number line
(n.)  the set of all integers1 arranged sequentially in an infinite line from smallest to largest
1.  a finite segment of that line
A.  including fractions2
numerical (adj.)
1.  pertaining to number
2.  having the nature of a number
3.  expressed by a number
numerically
(adv.)  in a numerical manner
obedience
(n.)   willingness to do what is commanded
1.  doing it
obedient
(adj.)   willing to do what is commanded
1.  and doing it
obey (v.t.)   to do what is commanded   (syn. comply2 )
object (n.)  a thing perceived by a mind:
1.  physical as opposed to abstract
A.  solid as opposed to liquid or gaseous
2.  which is the focus of attention
A.  which receives action on it
i.  which receives the action of a verb   (ant. subject)
object (v.i.)   (syn. protest)
to express opposition2A to something
objective
1.  (adj.)  existing independently of a mind to know or experience it   (ant. subjective)   (compare to absolute)   (see truth , values)
2.  (adj.)  ont.  remaining the same regardless of diverse opinions
A.  epis.  thought to remain the same regardless of diverse opinions
3.  (n.)  something that one's efforts or actions are intended to attain
objectivism (n.)   (ant. subjectivism)
the belief that things exist independently of a mind to know or experience them
obligate (v.t.)   (compare to owe)
to bind abstractly
1.  by ethics
A.  by promise   (see pledge)
2.  by law
A.  by contract
obligation (n.)   (compare to duty)
the fact of being bound abstractly
1.  by ethics
A.  by promise   (see pledge)
2.  by law
A.  by contract
obscene (adj.)   (contrast to profane)
causing displeasure
(denotatively indistinguishable from offensive)
observation (n.)
1.  looking at   (see attention)
A.  noticing or being noticed
e.g.  observation of or by the enemy
2.  acting with respect1B for
e.g.  observation of the law or a holiday
3.  the result of observing
observe (v.t.)
1.  to look at   (compare to attend to1 )
A.  to notice
B.  to examine
2.  to act with respect1B for   (syn. attend2 )
e.g.  to observe the law or a holiday
obsolescent (adj.)
1.  soon to be obsolete
2.  no longer valuable because something newer and/or better is available
obsolete (adj.)  having been replaced
1.  by something newer
2.  by something better
Nothing is obsolete until its replacement is immediately available.
obstruct (v.t.)
1.  to impede action or motion
A.  through a passage
2.  to prevent action or motion
A.  through a passage
obstruction (n.)
1.  an impediment to action or motion
A.  through a passage
2.  prevention of action or motion
A.  through a passage
obtuse (adj.)   (ant. accute)
of angles:  between 90 and 180 degrees
1.  dull
obverse (n.)   (sibling set of contrapositive and converse)
relationship of two categorical propositions of opposite quality1 such that the predicate term of each is the complement of the predicate term of the other.  (logical equivalents for all propositions)
A  (All S are P) obverts to (No S are non-P).
E  (No S are P) obverts to (All S are non-P).
I  (Some S are P) obverts to (Some S are not non-P).
O  (Some S are not P) obverts to (Some S are non-P).
obvious (adj.)
1.  difficult to not perceive
1.  difficult to not understand
occasionalism (n.)  the mind-body view that brain and mind exist in corresponding paths which occasionally intersect, and may be predetermined.
(subset of dualiism3 )
(sibling set of parallelism , interactionism , pre-established harmony)
occupy (v.i.)
1.  to have possession of
2.  to take possession of
A.  by settlement
B.  by seizure
3.  to reside in   (see inhabit)
occur (v.i.)   (see recur)
1.  to present itself or be met with
2.  to come to mind
3.  to take place   (syn. happen)
Ockham's razor (n.)
1.  the principle2 that the simplest explanation is most likely to be correct
2.  the principle3 that one should not make unnecessary extra assumptions
offend (v.t.)
1.  to cause displeasure
2.  to violate a law or principle
offense (n.)   (ant. defence)
attack mode
offense (n.)
1.  anything that causes displeasure
2.  a violation of a law or principle
offensive (adj.)
1.  causing displeasure
(denotatively indistinguishable from obscene)
2.  violating a law or principle
offer
1.  (v.t.)  to indicate2 willingness to do something   (see promise)
A.  to state willingness to do something
2.  (n.)  a statement of willingness to do something
often
(adv.)   recuring many times   (see frequent)
ontological (adj.)   (contrast to epistemological)
1.  the fact that a thing is, as opposed to the fact that it is thought or known to be (which is epistemological1 )
2.  what a thing is, as opposed to what it is thought to be, or how it is known to be (which is epistemological2 )
ontological argument for the existence of God (n.)   (see cosmological , teleological , and transcendental arguments)
Anselm's argument for the existence of God as the Being than which nothing greater can be thought.  Since anything being the greatest and lacking existence is less than the greatest having existence, the latter is greater.  The greatest, therefore has to exist.
The argument is based on the erroneous concept of absolute qualitative greatness.
ontology (n.)   (part of philosophy)   (sibling set to epistemology and axiology)
the theory or study of that which is
open
1.  (adj.)  permitting passage through   (opposite: shut1A )
A.  permitting information to pass through
e.g.  an open phone line
2.  (adj.)  permitting access   (opposite: shut2A )
e.g.  open jar , open for business , open meeting
A.  permitting information access
e.g.  open minded , open eyes
B.  not restricted
e.g.  open season , an open account
i.  not already taken
e.g.  job still open
3.  (adj.)  one of two possible positions2 of an object that can have space between it and another object   (opposite: shut3 )
e.g.  a door, window, curtain, lid,
4.  (adj.)  not obstructed
e.g.  open water , an open field
5.  (adj.)  having gaps
e.g.  open ranks
6.  (v.i.)  to be or become open1,2,3,4,5
7.  (v.t.)  to open1,2,3,4,5 something
operate
1.  (v.i.)  to act so as to produce a result
e.g.  by means of logic or mathematics   (see process)
A.  to act in order to produce a desired result
2.  (v.t.)  to put or keep in action
e.g.  to operate a tractor
operation (n.)   (see effort , work)
1.  the fact or act of operating
A.  a method of operating
2.  an act that produces a change in a quantity
e.g.  addition, subtraction, multiplication, division
opiate
(n.)   something that causes pleasure
1.  and diminishes thought for the consequences of indulging in it
2.  for the purpose of distraction
opine (v.t.)   (see regard)   sbj.
1.  to think2 a particular proposition or position3 is true or probable2   (syn. believe1 )
2.  to judge the value of something unquantifiable   (syn. evaluate2 )
opinion (n.)   sbj.
1.  a probability2 judgment short of certainty2   (syn. belief1 )
2.  judgment of the value of something unquantifiable   (syn. evaluation2 )
opponent (n.)   an adversary under specific circumstances, such as a competition
oppose
(v.t.)   p.b.c.   the basic term describing two things against3 each other
1.  physically across a midpoint
2.  abstractly across a neutral point
A.  of statements:  opposed in truth value   (syn. contrary)
B.  of animals:  opposed in will or desire   (see conflict , adverse)
opposite (adj.)  often used as a substantive   (see essay)
The opposite of X is negative-X, not the absence of X.

1.  (adj.)  perfectly3a reversed
2.  (n.)  the relationship of two concepts on a common axis and equidistant from a midpoint on that axis.
The axis represents a quality1 in which both concepts participate.  Opposites cannot be identified without identifying that quality1 which is the criterion for opposition.
A.  absolute opposite
e.g.  Three is the absolute opposite of minus three.
(zero being considered an absolute midpoint)
-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
An inward spiral is absolutely opposite in motion to an outward spiral
(zero motion being considered an absolute midpoint)
B.  relative opposite
e.g.  Three is the opposite of seven relative to five.
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
France is opposite Germany relative to the Rhine River.
3.  (n.)  pop.  absence
e.g.  Black is seen as the opposite of white.
But white is light, and black is the absence of light.
opposition (n.)  a relationship of two things against each other
1.  physically across a midpoint
2.  abstractly across a neutral point
A.  of statements:  opposed in truth value
B.  of animals:  opposed in will or desire
option (n.)
1.  ability to choose   (syn. free will2 )
2.  a thing that can be chosen or not chosen
oral (adj.)  pertaining to a mouth
1.  spoken   (subset of verbal)
order
1.  (v.t.)  to tell someone to do something   (syn. command1 , demand1 )
2.  (v.t.)  to put things in desired positions   (syn. arrange1 )
3.  (n.)  showing evidence of deliberate arrangement1   (see design , hierarchy , method , sequence , system)
There is no such thing as accidental order.  However, the appearance of order may occur by accident.
ordered pair (n.)   (see Cartesian product , relation4 )
a collection of two distinguishable objects, one being the first (or left), and the other being the second (or right).  Conventional notation for an ordered pair is < a,b >.  The pair is "ordered" in that < a,b > differs from < b,a > unless  a = b.
Two ordered pairs < a,b > and < c,d > are equal if and only if  a = c  and  b = d.
orderly (adj.)
1.  in desired positions
2.  systematically arranged
ordinal
1.  (adj.)   expressing succession, specifically of a number in a sequence   (contrast to cardinal)
e.g.  first, second, third, etc.   or 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.
2.  (n.)   a number expressing succession in sequence rather than quantity
ordinary (adj.)
1.  average   (syn. normal2 , standard3 )
A.  at or near the mean average1
B.  at or near the modal average3   (compare to usual)
2.  having few or no distinguishing features   (syn. common4 )
organ
(n.)   a means or instrument for performing some action
1.  a body part that does this
The fact that this term is used for a musical instrument is irrelevant to the abstract concept.
organic (adj.)
1.  pertaining to an organ or organs
2.  sufficiently complex to be distinguished from the rest of matter, which is inorganic, at least by comparison
A.  of carbon compounds
3.  pop.  grown without pesticides
organism (n.)  anything composed of organs
1.  a living entity   (related to evolution)
organization (n.)
1.  the fact of being organized
A.  the fact of having been organized
2.  a way of being organized
3.  the result of having been organized
4.  a thing that has been organized
organize
1.  (v.i.)  to get together with other same or similar things in order to achieve a purpose
2.  (v.t.)  to put things together in order to achieve a purpose   (see arrange1 , order2 )
origin (n.)   (compare to source)   where existence a begins
orthodox (adj.)
1.  obj.  (literally) right thinking2
2.  sbj.  right thinking according to a given world view or paradigm
orthogenesis (n.)  the theory that evolution is determined by internal factors rather than the external forces
1.  biological:  Evolution is determined by genetic factors independent of outside influences and natural selection.
2.  sociological:  All cultures evolve on the same fixed course uninfluenced by differing environmental factors.
orthogonal (adj.)  pertaining to right4 angles
1.  at a right angle   (syn. perpendicular)
e.g.  height , width, and depth are all orthogonal to each other.
ought (v. aux.)  an auxiliary used with the infinitive of various verbs to express expectancy   (ought to = should)   (compare to must)
1.  (epis.)  expected to be true,   that which ought to happen
e.g.  Dry wood ought to burn easily.
2.  (axi.)  expected for some purpose,   that which ought to be done
A.  to get what is desired   (pragmatic ought)
e.g.  One ought to have money.
B.  to conform to an ethical standard   (ethical ought)
e.g.  One ought to pay one's debts.
Children ought to get hot lunches.
out
1.  (adj.  prep.)   not in   In + out constitute a p.b.c., each definable only in opposition to the other
A.  not in a defined category
i.  not in an enclosed space
2.  (adv.)   away from center
A.  from in a defined category to not in it
i.  from in an enclosed space to not in it
3.  (adj.)   perceivable by the public
outer (adj.)   (opposite: inner)
1.  away from the center
2.  rel.  farther from a given point than something else
outline
1.  (n.)  a closed line on a plane   (see figure)
A.  the circumference of an object as seen from a given viewpoint
2.  (n.)  a summation of a given body of data
A.  (n.)  a summary
B.  (v.t.)  to summarize
outside (adj.  prep.)   (opposite: inside)
1.  the side away from the center
2.  on the outside1
owe (v.t.)   (compare to obligate)
to be required   (thus incurring a duty)
1.  by justice
2.  by ethics
3.  by law3
own
1.  to have something and keep it by force   (syn. possess)
A.  by force of strength
B.  by force of law
2.  (adj.)  belonging or relating to a self
e.g.  my own book;  your own sense;  its own size
3.  (n.)  that which belongs or relates to a self
e.g.  on my own;  what is your own;  coming to his own
pain (n.)   the most unpleasant sensation
panentheism (n.)   (subset of theism)   (subset or sibling set of pantheism)
the world view that everything exists in God , but God is greater than the totality of reality;  that God relates to the world as a hand to a glove, or as a soul to a body.  Contemporary panentheism is promoted by process theology.
panpsychism (n.)
1.  the view that all of reality consists purely of some immaterial thing (mind , soul/spirit) with various levels of consciousness.
2.  the view that reality is composed of living atoms.
pantheism (n.)   (subset of monism1 and theism)   (sibling set of monotheism and polytheism)   (sibling set or superset of panentheism)
the world view that all of reality is in some way divine or God;  all is God and God is all.  God is not transcendent.
parable (n.)   an allegory with a moral message
paradox (n.)
1.  an impossible phenomenon
A.  (ont.)  an actually impossible phenomenon
B.  (epis.)  an apparently2 impossible phenomenon
2.  (epis.)  a self negating proposition
e.g.  A = non A.  (compare to contradiction)   (opposite: tautology1 )
parallel (adj.)  the relationship of two lines on the same plane which are equidistant at all points
This includes concentric circles and their arcs.
parallelism (n.)  the mind-body view that brain and mind both exist as separate substances on parallel paths with no interaction.
(subset of dualiism3 )
(sibling set of occasionalism , interactionism , pre-established harmony)
part
1.  (n.)  a definable unit which, when put together with other definable units, makes up another definable unit - a synthesis
Parts1 may be essential or nonessential.  (contrast to property2 )
Essential parts1 are components.
e.g.  Engines, chassis, and axles are essential parts1 of cars.
Tires may or may not be essential parts1 of a car, depending on how car is defined.
Essentiality of the part1 depends on definition of the whole.
A part1 is not the same as a subset or a fraction.
e.g.  Engines and chassis are parts1 of cars.
Fords, Chevys, and Hondas are subsets of cars.
A quarter of a car is a fraction.
A part1 is not necessarily physical.
e.g.  Math, logic, and speech all have parts1.
2.  (n.)  a fraction1B of something delineated randomly or arbitrarily   (see fragment)
3.  (v.)  to divide into parts1,2   (syn. partition)
4.  (v.)  to separate1,2
particle (n.)  any unit of matter1B the size of the largest molecule, or smaller than that
particular (adj. and n.)
1.  of or belonging to a single entity  (ant. general1 )
2.  one out of several  (contrast to distinct , peculiar)
3.  a proposition which affirms or denies its predicate to a part of, but not the whole of, a subject  (ant. universal3 )
e.g.  Some S are P  as opposed to  All S are P
partition
1.  (v.)  to divide into parts1,2   (syn. part3 )
2.  (n.)  that which partitions1
passage
1.  (v.i.)  to travel through a particular path
2.  (n.)  the path traveled1
passive (adj.) 
1.  influenced or acted on
A.  without acting in return
2.  not active1,2,3
3.  the voice of a verb whose subject receives the action of the verb   (ant. active5 )
past (adj.)   (subset of time)   This concept is interdependent with its siblings, present2 and future.  None of them can be understood except in relation to each other.
existing or happening before1A the present2
the past (n.)   the time period before1A the present2
path (n.)   (see passage)
a line on which travel happens, or can happen
pattern (n.)   (see regularity)   (contrast to design)
a thing repeated such that the repetition becomes a noticeable unit in itself
Knowledge that patterns exist relies on inductive reasoning.  It cannot be deduced from any quantity of repeated particulars.
Accidental pattern may exist.
pay
(v.t.)   (subset of requite)
to administer payment
payment
(n.)   (subset of requital)   requital for free-will actions
Payment has a dispensing end and a receiving end.
1.  dispensing:  requital dispensed by "A" to "B" because of particular free-will actions believed to have been done by "B"
A.  Payment believed to be pleasant to the recipient is thought to be reward.
B.  Payment believed to be unpleasant to the recipient is thought to be punishment.
2.  receiving:  requital received by a recipient because of its free-will actions
A.  Payment that is pleasant to the recipient is reward.
B.  Payment that is unpleasant to the recipient is punishment.
People and animals can receive payment.  Robots and comatose people can't.  If something is received by a sentient being for reasons other than free-will actions, it is not payment.  If something is given to a sentient being for reasons other than free-will actions, it is not payment.
peace (n.)  absence of any of the unpleasant emotions
peculiar (adj.)
1.  unusual, extraordinary  (contrast to particular , unique)
A.  having few things similar to it
B.  having few things identical to it
2.  not previously known   (syn. strange)
penalty (n.)  prescribed punishment
perceive (v.)
1.  to be aware of
A.  to be aware through sense perception
2.  to understand from processing sense perception
3.  pop.  to discern, understand , intuit
percent 1.  (adj.)  per hundred
2.  (n.)  parts per hundred
percentile (n.) any of the 99 numbered points that divide an ordered set of numbers into 100 parts each of which contains one-hundredth of the total
perception (n.)
1.  general awareness  (see consciousness)
A.  awareness of the world through sense perception
2.  knowledge that comes from processing sense perception   (see sensation)
perception, sense (n.)   (part of mind)   (sibling set of thought , emotion , will)
1.  firing of sensory neurons prior to mental processing
2.  mental processing of sensory neuron firing  (see perception)
A.  manifest in sensation
perfect (adj.)
1.  obj.  complete
A.  abs.  unable to be more complete
B.  rel.  as near to complete as possible
2.  obj.  pure
A.  abs.  unable to be more pure
B.  rel.  as near to pure as possible
3.  sbj.  conformity to a given standard1
A.  abs.  unable to conform more to a given standard
B.  rel.  conforming to a given standard as much as possible
4.  sbj.  ideal3
A.  abs.  unable to be more ideal3
B.  rel.  as ideal3 as possible
The term "absolutely perfect" means nothing until the above ambiguity is resolved.
5.  pop.  than which nothing greater can be imagined   (see Ontological Argument)
This definition fails for lack of an objective quality2 of greatness.
period (n.)
1.  an interval of time:   (superset of instant)   (see duration)
A.  between particular moments
B.  between particular events
i.  between repeated events
a.  between complete cycles2A   e.g.  two full moons
2.  the punctuation mark at the end of a declarative sentence
permission (n.)   (see license)
1.  the act of permitting
2.  the fact of having permitted
3.  the fact of having been permitted
permit
1.  (v.t.)   This + allow , consent2 to, and let are synonyms, each defining the others, thus constituting a p.b.c.
2.  (n.)  a document that says that something is permitted
perpendicular (adj.)   (syn. orthogonal , right4 angle)
1.  the angle at which the position of its lines is at maximum difference
e.g.  height , width, and depth are all perpendicular to each other.
perpetual (adj.)
1.  continuing  (contrast to continual)
A.  in an indefinite space or time period
B.  in infinite space or eternal time
2.  extending without interruption  (contrast to continuous)
A.  in an indefinite space or time period
B.  in infinite space or eternal time
person (n.)  a conscious, self-conscious, and free-willing being  (when it's awake)   (material2 or immaterial)
persuade (v.t.)   (contrast to influence)
1.  to motivate a free-will being to want to do something enough to try to do it
(syn. induce4 )   (superset of coerce)
2.  to cause1 someone to believe1 something
persuasion (n.)   (contrast to influence)
1.  motivating a free-will being to want to do something enough to try to do it
(superset of coercion)
2.  causing1 someone to believe1 something
pertinent (adj.)   (contrast to important , relevant) 
having immediate or direct bearing on the matter at hand
phenomenon (n.)
1.  obj.  any fact, object, or circumstance which is apparent1 to the senses and scientifically describable
2.  sbj.  the appearance of something as opposed to the thing itself - the noumenon  (Kant)
phenotype (n.)
1.  a type distinguished by perceptible attributes rather than genetic traits   (see genotype)
2.  all individuals belonging to a phenotype1
philosopher (n.)
1.  a sentient being who tries to understand reality by reason and experience
2.  pop. and erroneously  a person who studies philosophers1
philosophy (n.)   (contains ontology , epistemology , axiology , science and religion)
1.  lit.  love of wisdom
2.  effort to know2,3 and judge1 reality by reason1 and experience
3.  a particular system of philosophy2
A.  to know or judge a particular part of reality
4.  pop. and erroneously the study of philosophers
phrase (n.)  a set of words standing for a concept but not containing a subject and predicate
physical (adj.)
1.  pertaining to nature and matter1B
A.  according to natural laws
2.  of body as opposed to mind
3.  made of matter1B
physicalism (n.)
1.  the view that every descriptive term in science designates an observable property2
2.  the view that there is no intangible attribute to humanness.  Brain = mind.  (subset of materialism3 )   (sibling set epiphenomenalism)
piety (n.)   (contrast to sin , ethics and morals)
willful behavior for the purpose of benefiting a superior
pithanostic (adj.)   (ant. antipithanostic   see apithanostic , agnostic 1 )   (see essay)
From Greek pithanos, meaning probable or likely
thinking something probable
e.g.  a particular proposition
plan
1.  (n.)   (subset of design)   (see intent)  a scheme of preparation
A.  a diagram of something made prior to its creation
B.  a verbal (possibly also graphic) expression of how to achieve a goal
2.  (v.t.)  to make a plan1
plane (n.)   (see area1 )
a surface containing all points of every straight line existing in it
plane figure (n.)  an outlined figure on a plane
plausible (adj.)   ambiguous
1.  possible
2.  probable2
Since the term necessarily means either possible or probable2 , there is no reason to use it in a philosophical discussion unless you are being deliberately ambiguous.
pleasant (adj.)   (see joy)   (opposite: unpleasant)
an attribute of an emotion or sensation such that one wants it to continue as long as possible, and to experience it as often as possible
However, the pleasantness of any particular experience of emotion (except possibly joy) diminishes with time.  The pleasantness of any particular experience of sensation also diminishes with time.
pleasure (n.)   (opposite: displeasure)
1.  same as happiness, but connotatively caused more by physical sensation
2.  any pleasant sensation   (opposite: pain)
pleasure / displeasure (n.)   same as happiness / unhappiness, but connotatively caused more by physical sensation
pledge
1.  (v.t.)  to verbally promise
A.  in such a way that you can be held accountable for it
2.  (n.)  a verbal promise
A.  that you can be held accountable for
3.  (n.)  security for pledge1 & 2
pluralism (n.)   (contrast to dualism2 and monism1 )
the idea that reality is not reducible to one or two ultimate substances or principles2
plus (adj.)   (opposite: minus)
to which is added
e.g.  2 + 2 = 4  means (2 to which is added 2) equals 4.
point (n.)   (see interval , moment , line , space , time)
1.  a unit that has location, but not dimension
2.  a location on an object where an accute angle exists in three dimensions
policy (n.)  a prescribed method of action to guide present and future decisions
politics (n.)
1.  the art of governing people
2.  the art of getting people to do what you want
pontificate (v.i.)  to make a questionable statement dogmatically as though one knew it were true and had the right to say it
population (n.)   a group of things in a given category
1.  a group of organisms in a given region
A.  a group of people in a given region
posit (v.t.)
1.  to situate or set in place
2.  to assert or propose as a fact
position The term is often used to mean location, but they are separate concepts.
1.  (n.)  the direction something is facing relative to something
e.g.  upright, prone, supine, perpendicular, upside down, backward  (superset of attitude1 )
2.  (n.)  the configuration of something
e.g.  bent, erect, crooked, crouched, folded, twisted
3.  (n.)  an assertion of a proposition or propositions
A.  an internally coherent set of propositions
4.  (v.t.)  to put something in a position1,2
possess (v.t.)   (see acquire , hold)   to have something
1.  and keep it by force   (syn. own)
A.  by force of strength
B.  by force of law
2.  and maintain control of it
possession (n.)
1.  possessing
2.  being possessed
3.  something possessed
possibility (n.)
1.  ontological possibility: something that may or may not be  (syn. chance)
A.  something that may or may not have been in the past
B.  something that may or may not be in the present
C.  something that may or may not be in the future   (syn. chance2C , potential2 )
2.  epistemological possibility: a proposition of unknown truth value
possible (adj.)   (contrast to actual , probable , certain)
1.  ontologically possible: of that which may or may not be
A.  that which may or may not have been in the past
B.  that which may or may not be in the present
C.  that which may or may not be in the future   (syn. potential2 )
2.  epistemologically possible: of unknown truth value
potential (adj.)
1.  able to become  (contrast to powerful)
This does not imply certainty of becoming.   (see fate)
2.  that which may or may not be in the future   (syn. chance2C , possible1C )
power (n.)
1.  ability to do, cause, or act   (syn. energyforce2 )   (see authority1 , strength1 )
A.  a specific ability to do or cause something
i.  the rate at which work is performed or energy is transmitted
ii.  the amount of energy required or expended for a given unit of time
2.  something or someone that has power1
e.g.  the powers that be
3.  the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself (exponent)
powerful (adj.)  able to cause   (see strong)   (contrast to potential1 )
practical (adj.)
1  caused by the act of practicing1
2.  able to facilitate1 the attainment of a goal   (see useful)
A.  facilitating the attainment of a goal
B.  intended to facilitate the attainment of a goal
3.  based on observed results   (contrast to theoretical2 )
practice
1.  (v.t.)  to do
A.  frequently
B.  usually
C.  repeatedly
i. so as to become proficient
2.  (n.)  the act of practicing1
3.  doing by which truth is judged   (contrast to theory2 )
pragmatic (adj.)
1.  leading to desired results
A.  appearing to lead to desired results
2.  striving for desired results
3.  judging a thing by its results   (teleological2 )
pragmatism (n.)
1.  being pragmatic2
2.  the idea that a thing should be judged by its results
A.  that the truth of a proposition or position3 is determined by its results  (epistemological pragmatism)
B.  that the value of anything is determined by the value of its results  (axiological pragmatism)
i.  that the ethics of a willful act is determined by its results  (teleological ethics)
praise (n.)   (see glory)
1.  expressed admiration
2.  expressed honor
precede (v.t.)   (to be previous)
1.  to be, occur, come, or go before1 something else
A.  in time
B.  in order
2.  to be, occur, come, or go immediately before1 something else
A.  in time
B.  in order
precise (adj.)   (see accurate , exact)
1.  ont.  having minimal tolerance of deviation, variation, or error
A.  having no tolerance of deviation, variation or error
2.  epis.  clearly stated   (syn. explicit)
A.  described in detail   (ant. general3 )
precision (n.)   (see accuracy)
1.  ont.  degree of tolerance for variation or error
A.  intolerance of variation or error
2.  epis.  degree of clarity
A.  high degree of clarity
precondition (n.)   (see foundation2 )
something which must be in order for something else to be
e.g.  If existence of B requires existence of A, then A is a precondition of B.
preconditional (adj.)   (see transcendental3 )
necessary in order for something else to be
e.g.  If existence of B requires existence of A, then A preconditional to B.
predicate (n.)   (sibling set of subject)
that part of a sentence which says something about the subject
(contains at least one part: a verb)
predict (v.t.)   (contrast to expect)
to say that an event will happen before it happens
predictable (adj.)   (see chance2 )
knowable before it happens
pre-established harmony (n.)  the mind-body view that brain and mind exist on parallel paths established by God.  (subset of dualiism3 )
(sibling set of interactionism , occasionalism , parallelism)
prefer (v.t.)  to like3 something more than something else
preference (n.)   (syn. favor3 )   (see choice , select)
liking3 something more than something else
premise (n.)   (subset of proposition)   (sibling set of conclusion)   (superset of presupposition)
a proposition used in an argument1 to deduce a conclusion or establish inductive probability
prescribe (v.t.)
1.  to order1 specific future action to be taken   (see policy)
A.  if given conditions are met
2.  to advise specific future action to be taken
A.  if given conditions are met
present (v.t.)   (syn. submit1 )  to show1,2 to someone
1.  for consideration
A.  for approval
present
1.  (adj.)   (ant. absent)  existing
A.  at a particular location
i.  at this location   (see here)
2.  (adj.)   (subset of time)   This concept is interdependent with its siblings, past and future.  None of them can be understood except in relation to each other.
existing or happening now as oppossed to past or future
3.  (n.)  a thing presented1
the present (n.)   (see now)
1.  the midpoint in time between the past and the future
2.  the general time period around the present1
presently
(adv.)   This concept plus now constitute a  p.b.c.  understandable as happening between past and future
press
1.  (v.t.)  to move against3 with steady force2A
A.  physically
B.  abstractly
i.  in effort to influence or coerce
2.  (n.)  something that presses1
pressure
(n.)  movement against3 with steady force2A
1.  physically
2.  abstractly
A.  possibly influencing a decision to act
presume (v.t.)   to assume1 without justification
presumption (n.)  assumption1 without justification
presupposition (n.)  a foundational premise
A presupposition may be a  p.b.c. fundamental to all inquiry  (e.g.  "I exist") or only agreed upon by the parties to a discussion without prior proof.
e.g.  "For the purposes of this debate, let us assume..."
presuppositionalism (n.)  a philosophical position from which to argue that your position is necessary in order to argue
1.  Christian presuppositionalism:  Christian faith is the only basis for rational thought, because a personal Supreme Being, as presented in the Bible, is the only thing that could connect ideas to brain cells.
The same argument could be made for Judaism, but apparently Jews have better sense.
pretend (v.i.)
1.  to act1A:
A.  as though something believed false were true
B.  as though something false were believed true
2.  to try to appear to be something else   (syn. immitate1A )
prevail (v.i.) 
1.  to achieve2 what is attempted   (syn. succeed2 )
A.  to be victorious
2.  to exist widely, or be in general use   (to be prevalent)
prevalent (adj.)  widely existing   (prevailing2 )
prevent (v.t.)   (compare to avert , obstruct2 )
to cause not to happen
preventative No such word.   It's preventive.
prevention (n.)   (see obstruction)
causing something not to happen
preventive (adj.)  causing not to happen
previous (adj.)   (preceding)   (superset of prior)
1.  being, occurring, coming, or going before1 something else
A.  in time
B.  in order
2.  being, occurring, coming, or going immediately before1 something else   (ant. next)
A.  in time
B.  in order
pride (n.)   (subset of attitude3,4 )   (opposite: humility)   (see essay)
1.  a favorable self-evalutive judgment2  (justified or not)
abs.  because you think you are good
rel.  because you think you are superior to the competition
Pride1 is an unavoidable side effect of the belief1 that you are good or superior.
2.  an attitude4 of superiority  (justified or not),  generally expressed when you don't give a damn what people think of you
principle (n.)
1.  the source, origin, or cause of something
2.  a foundational truth, law, or doctrine on which others are based
3.  a rule of conduct   (see moral principle)
prior (adj.)   (subset of previous)
being, occurring, coming, or going before1 , and more important than, something else
1.  in time
2.  in order
privilege (n.)   (contrast to right2 )
permission to be, do, or have something
All privileges are revokable by the permitter.
probability (n.)   (contrast to certainty , knowledge , possibility , see apithanostic )
obj.  the statistical chance of a given possibility within a fixed3 number of possibilities
probability judgment (n.) sbj.   a mental judgment1Ai about the statistical chance of a given possibility   (see common sense2 )
1.  within a known number of possibilities
2.  when data is insufficient to establish statistical probability
probable (adj.)   (contrast to certain , possible   see pithanostic)
1.  obj.  having a more than 50% statistical chance within a fixed3 number of possibilities
2.  sbj.  appearing to have a more than 50% statistical chance within a known number of possibilities
A.  appearing to have a more than 50% chance when data is insufficient to establish statistics (likelihood)
3.  sbj.  pragmatically probable: the best bet under existing circumstances
problem (n.)  a condition3 causing a desire to eliminate it
1.  an issue3a causing a desire to resolve it
2.  a question causing a desire to answer it
problem
of evil
(n.)  The PROBLEM of EVIL, as it has been stated elsewhere, fails because of the possibility of greater good being caused by allowing evil.  However, the problem can be fixed:
A living being having infinite power can do anything it wants to do.
Only an evil being wants to cause undeserved displeasure.
Therefore a living being who causes undeserved displeasure is either evil or does not have infinite power.
This argument is sound even if undeserved displeasure is greatly outweighed by the quantity of good caused by it.
procedure (n.)  a set of actions done to achieve a purpose
1.  a standardized set of such actions
A.  a prescribed set of standardized actions
proceed (v.i.)
1.  to go forward  (opposite: recede)
A.  after a pause
2.  to act
A.  to begin an action or series of actions
B.  to continue a series of actions
process
1.  (n.)  a way of doing   (syn. method1 , mode2 )
A.  involving several operations
B.  a way of developing
i.  involving several operations
2.  (v.t.)  to perform a set of operations
A.  logical and mathematical   (see calculate , figure2 )
B.  mechanical
produce (v.t.)
1.  to create3
2.  to bring into view
product (n.)
1.  something produced
2.  a number resulting from multiplying1B two other numbers, which are its factors3
profane (adj.)   (contrast to obscene , secular)
1.  not sacred
2.  showing disrespect for what is sacred
profanity (n.)   (see essay)
1.  that which is profane
2.  words disaproved of by people having poles up their asses   (contrast to curse , swear)
promise
1.  (v.t.)  to indicate2 that you will do something   (see offer)
A.  to say you will do something   (superset of agree4 , see pledge)
2.  (n.)  a verbal agreement2 to do something
3.  (n.)  a basis for expectation
proof (n.)   (see prove)   (contrast to evidence)
1.  that which demonstrates certainty1
A.  that which demonstrates a particular fact to be necessarily certain1
B.  that which demonstrates the truth or falsity of a particular proposition to be necessarily certain1
2.  that which is accepted as sufficient criteria
A.  for certainty1
i.  to accept a particular experience as what it appears to be
ii.  to accept a particular proposition as true or false
B.  for probability
proof, burden of (n.)  In a dispute between one whose point is provable and one whose point is not provable, b.o.p. is an obligation on him whose point is provable to do so.
(see essay)
proper (adj.)   (n. propriety) 
1.  adapted or suited to a specific purpose or conditions
2.  the way something should be   (assumed to be objective)
3.  sbj.  conforming to an accepted standard1
properly basic concept (n.)  a concept which cannot be defined without using terms which are themselves defined by it - the p.b.c.
e.g.  meaning , knowledge , existence , dimension , truth , thing , all forms of the verb "to be" or "to do"
All thought rests on p.b.c.s.  They are prior to logic.
A person who claims not to know the meaning of a p.b.c. cannot claim to know the meaning of anything which rests on that concept.  To deny understanding of p.b.c.s altogether is to claim to know nothing, which is a knowledge claim in itself, and therefore necessarily false.
property (n.)
1.  a thing or things owned
2.  something "had" by a substance.   (syn. quality1 )   (contrast to part1)
A property2 is an objective attribute.
"A property2 has at least four characteristics which distinguish it from a substance. . . A property2 is universal , immutable , can be had by more than one object, and does not have causal power."  (J. P. Moreland, Scaling the Secular City, 79).
Types of properties2essential/accidental2B ,  abstract/peculiar ,  intrinsic/extrinsic
An essential property2 of X is a property without which X would cease to be X or would not exist.
e.g.  Being a number is an essential property2 of twelve.
X may have many accidental2B properties2 and remain X without those properties.
e.g.  Being the number of months is an accidental2B property2 of twelve.
Abstract properties are common to all members of a set, and not peculiar to the set
e.g.  Abstract properties of triangles are only those properties common to all triangles and not peculiar to triangles.
e.g.  angles, sides, three angles, three sides, straight sides
Peculiar properties are peculiar to the set.
Any peculiar property constitutes an attributive definition of the set.
e.g.  A peculiar property of triangles is closed figures with three straight sides.
intrinsic property:  innate, inherent, inborn, coming from inside
extrinsic property:  emergent, acquired, separable
emergent property:  a series of incremental changes that continue long enough to be recognized and named
proposition (n.)   (superset of premise and conclusion)
1.  a statement in which a predicate affirms or denies something about a subject
2.  the abstract content of a statement
propriety (n.)   (adj. proper)
1.  being adapted or suited to a specific purpose or conditions
2.  being the way something should be   (assumed to be objective)
3.  sbj.  being conformed to an accepted standard1
protest (v.i.)   (syn. object)
to express opposition2A to something
prove (v.t.)   (see proof, test)
1.  to demonstrate certainty1   (see verify)
2.  (pass.)  to be accepted as a sufficient criterion
A.  for certainty1
B.  for probability
proven (adj.)   demonstrated to be certain1
public
1.  (adj.)  of or belonging to a community   (syn. common2 )
A.  usable by any of the people of a community
2.  (n.)  people of a community as a whole
pull (v.t.)   (opposite: push)   to cause motion in the direction of the causer
punish (v.t.)   to administer punishment
punishment
(n.)   (subset of payment , penalty)   (opposite: reward)
something unpleasant that is received by a being as a payment for one or more of its free-will actions
People and animals can be punished.  Robots and comatose people can't be punished.  If something unpleasant is received by a person for reasons other than free-will actions, it is displeasure, but not punishment.  If something unpleasant is given to a person for reasons other than free-will actions, it is maltreatment, but not punishment.
pure (adj.)   (denotatively indistinguishable from simple1 )
containing only one kind of unit in its composition
e.g.  Pure gold contains only gold atoms, but a single gold atom cannot be called pure because it contains protons and electrons.
Pure garbage contains no non-garbage units.
purpose (n.)   (syn. intent)   that which is intended
1.  that which is planned
2.  a result which one desires from his actions
A.  the object for which something exists or is done
push (v.t.)   (opposite: pull)   to cause motion away from the causer
quality (n.)
1.  (denotatively indistinguishable from: aspect, characteristic, feature, property2 , trait)
These terms cannot be defined except by reference to each other.  Therefore collectively they constitute a
p.b.c.
2.  sbj.  degree of excellence, esthetic preferability
3.  pop.  good quality2
quantity (n.)   (see amount , magnitude , number)
either zero, one, or a unique set containing more than one member, and identified only by the total of members in the set
Quantity can be defined in terms of number, unless number is then defined in terms of quantity.
question
1.  (n.)  a sentence declaring a lack of information   (superset of problem)
A.  and requesting that information
2.  (v.t.)  to declare a lack of information
A.  and request that information   (see ask)
quit (v.t.)  to stop doing
quotient (n.)  the result of mathematical division
rage (v.i. and n.)   (subset of anger)
anger shown by action, usually with little self control
random (adj.)   (compare to accidental , arbitrary)
1.  ont.  an attribute of an event which has the same probability of happening as its number of possibilities
i.e.  A random1 chance of one of two events happening is one out of two.
A random1 chance of one of three events happening is one out of three.

Random1 events lack: design , method , pattern , plan , puropse , order.
2.  epis.  an attribute of a variable of unknown value
rational (adj.)
1.  logically coherent2   (ant. irrational)
2.  based on reason   (ant. nonrational)
A.  of propositions: based on reason
B.  of sentient beings: acting according to reason   (contrast to sane)
i.  prefering reason over emotion or perception2
ii.  not necessarily understanding1 logic, but submitting to as much logic as one understands
e.g.  A moron who accepts the obvious is being more rational than a genius who denies the obvious.
Rationality can also be defined in relation to values.  e.g.
3.  acting in accordance with one's own best interest
rationalism (n.)
1.  the theory that reason is the only source of knowledge:
A.  independent of sense perceptions2  (ant. empiricism1 )
B.  independent of divine revelation  (ant. supernaturalism)
2.  the theory that reason is the primary source of knowledge
ray (n.)   a line terminated in one direction and infinite in the other
react (v.i.)   (superset of respond)
to act because of being acted upon
reaction (n.)   (subset of action , effect)   (superset of response)
1.  an action or effect that continues a preceeding action
e.g.  billiard balls, chain reaction
2.  an action or effect that returns a preceeding action
e.g.  bounce, rebound, recoil
real (adj.)
1.  (syn. existing)  a  p.b.c.  understandable only in contrast to supposed antonyms:
2.  material2 as opposed to things not made of matter
3.  genuine as opposed to counterfeit or artificial
4.  pop.  often used sloppily to mean: absolute or objective
realism (n.)   (contrast to idealism)
1.  the theory that real1 objects exist, have properties and relations independently of any knowledge or experience of them
(opposite: anti-realism1 )
2.  the theory that Universals exist external to our minds
(opposite: anti-realism2 )
3.  seeing correctly and acting appropriately rather than optimistically, pessimistically, or otherwise erroneously
reality (n.)
1.  being real1
A.  all of that which is   (see truth)
B.  any part of that which is
reason
1.  (v.)  to recognize and categorize concepts , understand1 and use logic , and judge probability , apart from influence by emotion
(n.)  that category of thought which reasons   (adj. rational)
2.  (n.)  knowledge and opinion based on reason1
3.  (n.)  the cause of something
A.  the final or ultimate cause as opposed to prior or subsequent causes
rebut (v.)   (sloppily conflated with refute )
to contradict statement or argument
recall (v.t.)   (subset of remember)   (contrast to recognize)
to voluntarily move data from memory into consciousness without the aid of a perceived clue
recede (v.i.)
1.  to go back   (opposite proceed)
2.  to become more distant
receive (v.t.)   (see accept , take)
1.  to come to a state of having   (syn. acquire , get1 )
e.g.  to receive guests, a college degree,
A.  to come to a state of possessing
e.g.  to receive money, a college diploma
2.  to have something visited upon you or it
e.g.  to receive punishment, a penalty, applause, fame
A.  to take the effect or force of
e.g.  to receive an injury, forgiveness, a shock, radio waves
3.  to be presented with
e.g.  to receive news, advice, a parking ticket
recognize (v.t.)   (This + identify constitute a p.b.c.)   (contrast to acknowledge , recall)
to identify something
1.  as being the same as a remembered thing
2.  as conforming to a description1A of it
rectangle (n.)   a figure1 composed of four right4 angles
recur (v.i.)   (denotatively indistinguishable from repeat)   (see frequent)
occur or happen again, usually after an interval has passed
reduce (v.t.)  to make less
refer (see regard , relate)
1.  (v.i.)   to direct1 attention to   (syn. indicate1 )
A.  for information
2.  (v.i.)   to say something about something
3.  (v.t.)   to refer1 someone to
reference (n.)   (see relation)
1.  directing1 attention to
A.  for information
2.  saying something about something
refuse (v.)   (see reject)
to not comply with a suggestion, request, or command
1.  to declare intent not to comply
refute
(v.)   (sloppily conflated with rebut )
to prove a statement or argument false
regard (see refer , relate)
1.  (v.t.)  to be about something
A.  to opine about something
2.  (v.t.)  to pay attention to something
3.  (n.)  attention to something
region (n.)  a particular area2 relative to something
e.g.  relative to the universe, galaxy, solar system, earth, nation, geographical feature
regular (adj.)
1.  conforming to a standard1   (syn. normal1 )
2.  repeated and not changing  (syn. consistent)
A.  in form
i.  making a pattern
B.  in action
i.  recuring at identical fixed intervals
regularity (n.)   (see method)
1.  conforming to a standard1
2.  repeated and not changing
A.  in form
i.  making a pattern
B.  in action
i.  recuring at identical fixed intervals
regulate (v.i.)
1.  to control according to a rule, principle, or system
2.  to adjust to a particular standard
reject (v.t.)   (ant. accept)
1.  to refuse to take1 or receive1 what is offered
2.  to refuse to agree to:
A.  terms presented
B.  the truth of a proposition
3.  to discount as worthless
relate (v.i.)   (see refer , regard)
1.  to abstractly1 connect   (syn. associate1 )
A.  to understand an abstract connection
2.  to be abstractly1 connected to  (see about)
A.  to be seen as abstractly connected to
relation
(n.)  an ordered pair among members of two sets such that one member is in each set
e.g.  Set A = {1,2,3,4}.   Set B = {a,b,c,d}.
Relations are:  < 1,a > , < 2,b > , < 3,c > , < 4,d > .
1,b ,  1,c ,  1,d  are not relations because they are not ordered pairs.
relationship (n.)
1.  a connection:
A.  genetic
e.g.  father/son
B.  physical
e.g.  touching, intersecting, revolving
C.  abstract1
e.g.  dominant/submissive , host/parasite, hierarchical
2.  a single property2 requiring plural things in which to exist
A.  an instantiation of such a property
e.g.  the way a particular thing behaves when next to another particular thing
B.  a function2 of a such property
relative (adj.)   (ant. absolute1 )   (compare to subjective)   (see truth)
seen in reference to something else
1.  dependent on, or limited by something else for its specific nature   (syn. contingent1 )
relatively speaking Relative speaking has nothing to do with absolute or objective reality.
e.g.  Sweden is far from Peru.   (relative to countries)
Mercury is near to Venus.   (relative to planets)
But objectively Sweden is nearer to Peru than Mercury is to Venus.
Relative speaking is not to everyone everywhere, but to communicate intuitively to a target audience.
e.g.  Paris is beautiful.   Paris is decadent.
Men should have beards.   Men should shave.
relativism (n.)   (see moral relativism) the view that objectivity does not exist;  subjectivity is all.
(It should have been called subjectivism, but tradition has stuck us with it.)
1.  objective truth does not exist   (ontological)
2.  objective truth cannot be known   (epistemological)
3.  objective values do not exist   (axiological)
relativity (n.)  the quality of being relative
the general concept of being relative
relevant (adj.)   (contrast to important , pertinent) 
related to the matter at hand
religion (n.)
1.  a worldview or philosophy put into practice   (including atheism1 )
A.  an effort to relate to God or a god
2.  a creed claiming to know the existence, relevant attributes, and behavioral requirements of a God to whom mankind is accountable
A.  a set of practices resulting from such a creed
B.  any of the thousands of institutions that profess such a creed
3.  a dogmatic mindset arising from claiming to know what you don't know about supernatural reality
religious (adj.)   pertaining to religion   (ant. secular)
rely
(v.i.)   to trust something
1.  for support or aid   (see depend2 )
remain (v.i.)
1.  to continue as is   (syn. keep2 , stay)
A.  in the same condition
     i.  doing the same action
B.  in the same place
2.  to be in the same place after the rest are gone
remember (v.t.)   (see recognize)
to move data from memory into consciousness
1.  voluntarily   (superset of recall)
2.  involuntarily
remove (v.t.)
1.  to move something away from its location
2.  to change the essence of something so that it is no longer what it was   (syn. delete2 )
repeat
1.  (v.i.)   (denotatively indistinguishable from recur)
occur or happen  again1
A.  (v.t.)  do something again
     i.  say something again
2.  (adj.)   repeated1  e.g.  a repeat performance
3.  (n.)   something repeated1
e.g.  a repeat of a performance
reply 1.  (v.i.)  to respond verbally
2.  (n.)  a verbal response
(see answer)
request
1.  (v.t.)  to express a desire for someone to do something   (syn. ask)
2.  (n.)   an expression of a desire for someone to do something   (compare to question)
require (v.t.)
1.  to need
A.  to express need
2.  to demand
requirement (n.)   (syn. necessity2 )
1.  the fact of needing1 (syn. need2 )
2.  that which is needed1
requital (n.)   (subset of response)   (superset of payment)
response based on pleasure / displeasure
Requital has a dispensing end and a receiving end.
1.  dispensing:  response dispensed by a being who experienced pleasure or displeasure to that which appeared to have caused the pleasure or displeasure, in order to cause that being similar pleasure or displeasure.
2.  receiving:  response causing pleasure or displeasure received by a being as a result of one or more of its free-will actions affecting the pleasure or displeasure of another being
requite (v.t.)   (subset of respond)   (superset of pay)
to respond based on pleasure / displeasure
resemble (v.t.)   (adj. similar)
1.  ont.  to be nearly the same thing
2.  epis.  to appear to be nearly the same thing
reside (v.i.)   (see inhabit , live)   to exist in
1.  presently
2.  usually
3.  as a base of operations
resist (v.t.)
1.   to not be moved by pressure   (ant. yield)
A.  physical pressure
B.  psychological pressure
2.  to push back against pressure   (syn. oppose)
A.  physical pressure
B.  psychological pressure
resistance (n.)
1.   not being moved by pressure
A.  physical pressure
B.  psychological pressure
2.  pushing back against pressure
A.  physical pressure
B.  psychological pressure
resistant (adj.)
1.   not moved by pressure
A.  physical pressure
B.  psychological pressure
2.  pushing back against pressure
A.  physical pressure
B.  psychological pressure
resource (n.)
1.  something available to be used
2.  a means to accomplish something
resolve (v.i., t.)   (see solve)
1.  to separate into individual constituent parts   (see disintegrate)
2.  to reduce into nonreducible parts
3.  to transform from unstable to stable
A.  to eliminate the need for attention
e.g.  to resolve a problem or ambiguity
respect (literally: look back at)   (see revere)
1.  honor
A.  (v.t.) to regard with honor1
i.  to show honor2 in action
B.  (n.) honor2 for some entity
2.  fear
A.  (v.t.) to fear
i.  to show fear in action
B.  (n.)  fear of some entity
3.  honor and fear
A.  (v.t.)  to regard with honor and fear
i.  to show honor and fear in action
B.  (n.)  honor and fear toward some entity
respond
(v.i.)   (subset of react)   (superset of requite , reply)
to react voluntarily
response
(n.)   (subset of reaction)   (superset of requital)
a reaction done voluntarily by a free-will being
rest
1.  (n.)  inactivity following activity
A.  because of tiredness
2.  (v.i.)  to discontinue activity
A.  because of tiredness
restrain (v.t.)   (subset of hold)   (see bind , fasten , retain)   (ant. free2 )
to prevent from doing something
A.  to prevent something from acting
B.  to prevent something from falling or slipping
restrict (v.t.)   (syn. limit3 )  to hold within fixed boundaries
result
1.  (n.)  a final or relevant effect of a cause   (subset of effect1 )   (syn. consequence)
2.  (v.i.)  to happen as a final or relevant effect of a cause
retain
(v.t.)   (see restrain)  to hold and keep
1.  in a fixed3 condition
2.  in a fixed3 location
revere (v.t.)  to extremely respect
reverence (n.)  extreme respect
reverent (adj.)  extremely respectful
reverse (see antonym , complement , inverse , obverse)
1.  (adj.)  turned backward in one of several ways
e.g.  position, direction, order, quality, meaning
but not necessarily opposite
2.  (n.)  the other side of something
e.g.  heads vs. tails
reward
1. (n.)   (subset of payment)   (opposite: punishment)
something pleasant that is received by a sentient being as payment for one or more of its free-will actions
People and animals can be rewarded.  Robots and comatose people can't be rewarded.  If something pleasant is received by a sentient being for reasons other than free-will actions, it is not a reward.  If something pleasant is given to a sentient being for reasons other than free-will actions, it is a gift.
2.  (v.t.)  to give a reward1
rhetoric (n.)   (superset of sophistry)   (see argument)
the art of verbal persuasion
Rhetoric is a merger of epistemology with politics.
right 1.  (adj.)  correct1A   (opposite: wrong)
2.  (n.)  license to be, do, or have something   (contrast to privilege   see authority)
A.  without deserving punishment for it  (moral right)
Moral rights are not revokable.
B.  without being prosecuted for it  (legal right)
Legal rights are revokable.
A question exists as to whether rights2 are God given, or possessed because of meeting some criteria.
3.  (adj. and n.)  direction opposite of left
4.  (adj. and n.)  90 degrees1A   (see perpendicular)
risk
1.  chance
A.  (n.)  a chance that an unpleasant event may happen
B.  (v.i.)  to expose to the chance that an unpleasant event may happen
2.  investment   (syn. bet)
A.  (n.)  an investment on the chance that a given proposition is true
B.  (v.i.)  to invest resources on the chance that a given proposition is true
rule
1.  (n.)  a restrictive principle   (see law)
A.  intended to restrict willful behavior
B.  that is enforced
2.  (v.i.)  to compel submision
sacrament (n.)
1.  a ritual to remind the practitioner of that which his belief has symbolically tied to it
A.  such a ritual done on a regular basis
2.  an act done to prove you believe something by virtue of the fact that it has no meaning or purpose apart from what your belief assigns to it
A.  such an act done on a regular basis
sacred (adj.)   (ant. profane)
set apart for special consideration, usually for emotional reaons
1.  set apart for religious use   (syn. holy)
2.  set apart for special honor
sad (adj.)   (opposite: happy)  experiencing sadness
sadness (n.)   (opposite: happiness) the most unpleasant emotion , and the one animals try the most to avoid
It is denotatively synonymous with sorrow and depression regardless of what causes it.
safe (adj.)   (see secure)
1.  not in danger of being hurt or harmed
2.  not likely to cause hurt or harm
A.   not able to cause hurt or harm
same (p.b.c.)   (n.)   (see equal , similar)   (syn. identical)   (ant. different)
1.  ont.  being identical
2.  epis.  appearing to be identical
sane (adj.)   (contrast to rational)
1.  able to get what you want without doing things that will ultimately get you more of what you don't want
2.  pop.  mentally healthy
Though there are degrees of insanity, there are no degrees of sanity.  You either are or aren't sane.  Ability to know which you are is another issue.  (For degrees, see wisdom.)
sanity (n.)
1.  ability to get what you want without doing things that will ultimately get you more of what you don't want
2.  pop.  mental health  But no psychology text attempts to define it.
Though there are degrees of insanity, there are no degrees of sanity.  You either are or aren't sane.  Ability to know which you are is another issue.  (For degrees, see wisdom.)
satisfy (v.t.)   (syn. fulfill)
to sufficiently meet1A a set of requirements
say (v.t.)   (syn. communicate , speak2 )
to transmit information
science (n.)   (part of philosophy)   (contrast to art)
gathering observable data and processing it rationally to get whatever conclusions can be derived from it
scientism (n.)  the view that scientific methods:
1.  can be applied to all fields of investigation
2.  are the sole source of knowledge on any subject  (the religion of the empiricist)
scripturalism (n.)   the idea that a particular body of scripture is factually correct by a reasonable interprtetation of its content, and intended by our Creator to be applicable to all people at all times after it is written
Scripturalists interpret scripture by whatever interpretation best allows the possibility of its being true.
Non-scripturalists interpret scripture by whatever interpretation best accounts for its existence.
scripture (n.)
1.  a finite set of documents
A.  containing official messages and instructions
i.  from a deity
1.  from a God to whom all mankind is accountable
A.  also containing extraneous and erroneous material
B.  also containing extraneous, but not erroneous material
B.  believed by a particular group of people to contain official messages and instructions
i.  from a deity
1.  from a God to whom all mankind is accountable
A.  also containing extraneous and erroneous material
B.  also containing extraneous, but not erroneous material
2.  one document out of scripture1
3.  one passage or verse out of scripture2
section (see division)
1.  (n.)  a fraction of something produced by cutting or partitioning
2.  (v.t.)  to cut or divide into sections1
secular (adj.)   (contrast to profane)
1.  not pertaining to religion
2.  pop. opposed to religion
secure
1.  (adj.)   (see stable2 )  not likely to change1
A.  from its present condition
B.  from its desired condition
2.  (adj.)   (see safe)  not in danger
3.  (v.t.)  to make secure1,2
security (n.)
1.  the state of being secure1
2.  the state of being secure2
3.  that which is given to guarantee a pledge
select
1.  (v.t.)  to choose for special attention
A.  because of preference
2.  (adj.)  chosen
A.  because of preference
self (n.)   (contains soul , spirit , mind , body , )
something that makes decisions independent of external cause
self stultify (v.t.)  to stultify one's own statement
1.  in the same statement
e.g.  I can't utter a word in English.
I refuse to make assertions.
Nothing is absolute.
2.  in a subsequent statement
e.g.  My dog didn't bite that man.  I don't even own a dog.
I am not schizophrenic.  And neither am I.
semantic (adj.)  of meaning
semantics (n.)   (part of linguistics)   (contrast to syntax)
the study of meaning
1.  the study of changes in meaning
sensation (n.)  stimulation of any of the five senses   (see perception)
experienced in a range from pleasure to pain
often confused with emotion because it often causes emotion
sense (n.)
1.  ability of nerves and brain to receive stimuli
A.  and react to it
2.  ability to understand
A.  and judge correctly
sense perception Go here
senses, five
(n.)  abilities of animals to receive stimuli
i.e.  sight, hearing, touch, taste, smell   (faculties1 )
sentence (n.)  a complete thought expressed in words
types according to meaning:
declarative   (expresses a statement)
exclamatory   (expresses emphasis)
imperative   (expresses a command)
interrogative   (expresses a question)
types according to complexity:
Atomic sentences have one clause.
Molecular sentences have more than one clause.
parts:  All except exclamatory sentences necessarily contain a subject (possibly implied) and a predicate.
sentient (adj.)   denotatively indistinguishable from aware , conscious
Connotatively this term has been used to distinguish human minds from animal minds.  Efforts to draw a denotative distinction have, to my knowledge, been unsuccessful.
separate
1.  (v.i.)  to stop being together
A.  to disconnect
B.  to go away from something
i.  to go in different directions
2.  (v.t.)  to cause things to stop being together   (syn. divide2 )
A.  to set something apart   (syn. isolate1 )
B.  to set things in groups, parts, or sections
3.  (v.t.)  to keep things apart
4.  (adj.)  not together
A.  not associated with
B.  set apart
separation (n.)
1.  the fact of being separated
2.  the act of separating
sequence (n.)  three or more units arranged in series with the second following the first, the third following the second, etc. in a particular order
Types:  spatial  e.g.  marching ants , temporal  e.g.  following a set of instructions , logical  e.g.  a set of instructions , alphabetical, numerical
Sequence can also be arranged by an arbitrarily chosen criterion.
sequential (adj.)   arranged in sequence
series (n.)   (superset of sequence)
three or more things arranged in a line
1.  spatial   e.g.  cups on a shelf
2.  temporal:  a repeated event   e.g.  the Olympics
set (n.)  a category , usually a group of things having at least one criterion in common by which the set is called
e.g.  the set of all cats,  the set of all cats in this room
The things enclosed in the set are concepts usually called elements or members.
Element (symbol:  ) is preferable when using symbolic notation.
If x is an element of set A, it is written:  x ∈ A .
If x, y, and z are elements of set A, it is written:  x,y,z ∈ A .
If x, y, and z are all the elements of set A, it is written:  A = {x,y,z}.
Conventionally, the set name is a capital letter, the elements are lower case, and are enclosed in curly brackets.
If an element of a set is also a set, then the enclosed set is a subset of the enclosing set, which is called its superset.
A subset is not the same as a part or a fraction
e.g.  Fords, Chevys, and Hondas are subsets of cars.
Engines and chassis are parts1 of cars.
A quarter of a car is a fraction.
This distinction is more difficult when applied to verbs and adjectives.
Set relationships:  intersection2 , union4
Set types:  finite set , infinite set , null set
shape (n.)   (subset of form)
1.  the relative positions of all points:
on the circumference of a two dimensional object
on the surface of a three dimensional object
2.  a quality emerging from 1
short (adj.)   (opposite: long)  small in length
should (v.)  an auxiliary verb used to express expectancy   (syn. ought to)
1.  (epis.)  expected to be true,  i.e. that which should happen
e.g.  Dry wood should burn easily.
2.  (axi.)  expected for some purpose,  that which should be done
A.  to get what is desired   (pragmatic should)
e.g.  One should have money.
B.  to conform to a standard
i.  to conform to an ethical standard   (ethical should)
e.g.  One should pay one's debts.
Children should get hot lunches.
show (v.i.)
1.  (v.i.)  to become apparent   (syn. appear)
2.  (v.t.)  to make something apparent
A.  to guide someone through or to something
B.  to point out
3.  (v.t.)  to make something knowable
A.  to make something known   (see prove)
B.  to make something understood
4.  (n.)  a showing2
A.  with intent to impress
shut (syn. close  v.)
1A.  (adj.)  not permitting passage through   (opposite: open1 )
e.g.  The way is shut.
1B.  (adj.)  not permitted passage through
e.g.  We're shut in.   The water is shut off.
2A.  (adj.)  not permitting access   (opposite: open2 )
e.g.  The house is shut.   I shut myself in.
2B.  (adj.)  not permitted access
e.g.    We're shut out.
3.  (adj.)  one of two possible positions of an object that can have space between it and another object   (opposite: open3 )
e.g.  a door, window, curtain, lid,
4.  (v.i.)  to be or become shut1,2,3
5.  (v.t.)  to shut1,2,3 something
side
1.  (n.)   (see outside)  the outer part of something
A.  the periphery of a plane figure
B.  the outer surface of a solid2
i.  either of two lateral surfaces, as opposed to top/bottom , front/back
2.  a faction
3.  an attribute of something contrasted to other attributes
e.g.  the brighter side of life
sign
1.  (n.)  something that means1 that a particular proposition is true   (see indication)
A.  something intended to mean that a particular proposition is true
2.  (v.t.)  to write one's name
significance (n.)
1.  what something means1
2.  the degree of difference something makes
e.g.  In a number consisting of two or more digits, the left digit has most significance, and the right digit has least significance
A.  (sbj.)  the degree to which emotions are affected by something   (syn. meaning2 )
significant (adj.)
1.  meaning1 something
2.  making a difference
A.  (sbj.)  affecting emotions   (see important , material3a )
signify (v.t.)   (see denote , indicate)
1.  to be a sign of something   (to mean1 )
2.  (sbj.)  to affect emotions   (syn. mean2 )
similar (adj.)   (syn. like1 )   (v. resemble)   (see indistinct)
1.  ont.  nearly3 the same thing   (see approximate)
2.  epis.  appearing to be nearly the same thing
similarity (n.)
1.  ont.  being nearly the same thing
2.  epis.  appearing to be nearly the same thing
simple (adj.)
1.  abs.  containing only one kind of unit in its composition
(denotatively indistinguishable from pure)
(contrast to singular)
2.  rel.  containing few parts  (contrast to compound and complex)
3.  sbj.  easy to do or understand
simulate (v.t.)   (superset of counterfeit)
1.  to appear to be something else
2.  to pretend to be something else
simulation (n.)   (superset of counterfeit)
1.  appearance of being something else
A.  an entity appearing to be something else
2.  pretence of being something else
A.  an entity pretending to be something else
simultaneity (n.)
the property of two events happening at the same time in a frame of reference
sin (n.)   (contrast to evil)
something which disrupts one's relationship with a superior
1.  abs.  something which disrupts one's relationship (real or imagined) with the God (real or imagined) to whom he is accountable
2.  rel.  something which disrupts one's relationship (real or imagined) with his chosen god (real or imagined)
There is no imaginary2 disruption in a relationship.  They're all real, at least in the mind of the imaginer.
singular (adj.)   (contrast to simple and incomposite)
1.  denoting only one - not plural
2.  the only one of its kind   (syn. unique)
A.  having nothing identical to it
B.  having nothing similar to it
size (n.)   (subset of magnitude)
that quality of a thing that determines how much
1.  distance it covers
2.  space it occupies  (syn. volume1 )
a necessary attribute of anything having length in one or more dimensions
skeptic (n.)  a person who holds some form of skepticism
(contrast to agnostic)
skepticism (n.)  the view that:
1   A.  a particular thing cannot be known
B.  some things cannot be known
C.  nothing can be known
2   A.  a particular thing is not known
B.  some things are not known
C.  nothing is known
3   A.  a particular thing should be tested
B.  some things should be tested
C.  all things should be tested
slice (v.t.)   (see chop)
to cut by sliding a blade through diagonally
small (adj.)   (comparative: smaller)
p.b.c.  definable only by its synonyms:  little , minute, or in contrast to its opposite:  large in reference to magnitude
solipsism (n.)  the view that the only reality is "myself";  all objects, persons, ideas, and concepts are only my mental constructs.
(pan-me-ism)   (autism as a philosophical position)
solid
1.  (n.)  the form of matter1B such that the atoms or molecules remain in fixed3 locations relative to adjacent atoms or molecules   (compare to gas , liquid)
2.  (n.)  an object existing in three spatial dimensions
3.  (adj.)  resistant to pressure   (syn. firm)
A.  unmovable
4.  (adj.)  filled, as opposed to hollow
solve (v.t.)   (see resolve)
1.  to explain correctly
A.  to explain satisfactorily
2.  to eliminate a problem
3.  to answer a question
soon (adv.)   (see instant)
in a small amount of time
sophistry (n.)   philosophical rhetoric
sorrow (n.)   (opposite: joy) the most unpleasant emotion , and the one people try the most to avoid
It is denotatively synonymous with sadness and depression regardless of what causes it.
soul (n.)   (part of self)   (denotatively indistinguishable from spirit1 )  an intangible part of human (and perhaps other) beings that contains emotion.  It is therefore either identical to or a superset of mind.
sound
1.  (n.)  those waves which go thru 20C air at about 344 meters per second   (see speak)
2.  (adj.)   (of valid syllogisms)   those which contain true premises , therefore true conclusions
source (n.)   (compare to origin)   that from which something comes
sovereignty (n.)  a type of power that a being has over something
1.  controling something
2.  able to control something
A.  able to control something and controlling it
B.  able to control something but not controlling it
Among Christians, the Calvinist vs. non-Calvinist controversy would evaporate if participants would specify which kind of sovereignty they mean in which context.
space (n.)  that which results from the existence of one or more dimensions
1.  physical space
A.  that which exits between two points   (line)
B.  that which exits between two joining straight lines   (plane)
C.  that which results from three straight linear dimensions set at right angles   (contrast to time)
2.  abstract space = abstract distance
e.g.  more space between 1 and 5 than between 1 and 3
more space between king and surf than between king and duke
more space between joy and sorrow than between joy and love
space/time (n.)   (see universe)
space and time seen as an inseparable whole
spatial (adj.)   of space   (as opposed to temporal)
speak (v.i.)   (see talk)
1.  to make sound orally
A.  to make words orally   (see spoken)
i.  to make sentences orally   (see talk)
2.  to transmit information   (syn. communicate , say)
e.g.  Actions speak louder than words.
speech (n.)
1.  the faculty by which an animal communicates orally
2.  an instace of speaking to an audience, usually of many people
special (adj.)   (contrast to explicit , precise)
1.  of a kind different from others
2.  of or for a particular2 purpose
3.  singled out for attention
specific (adj.)   (contrast to explicit , generic , precise)
1.  limited to given categorical boundaries
2.  characteristic of something
spend (v.t.)   (see invest)
1.  to give something in exchange for something
2.  to use up something
sphere (n.)  a circle existing in three spatial dimensions from a given vertex1A in space
spin 1.  (v.i.)  turn
A.  twirl
B.  turn 180 degrees (subset of reverse)
2.  (v.t.)  turn1 something
3.  (v.t.)  to deliberately misinterpret
A.  to view evidence from an angle such that its obvious implication is obscured
B.  to take a fact in a way that distorts its true meaning  (Bill O'Reilly)
spiral (n.)
1.  motion that begins in a circle, but decreases in its distance from the vertex until it reaches the vertex
A.  decreasing in distance from the vertex at a constant rate
B.  decreasing in distance from the vertex at fixed3 increments
2.  motion that begins in a circle, but increases in its distance from the vertex
A.  increasing in distance from the vertex at a constant rate
B.  increasing in distance from the vertex at fixed3 increments
3.  the line formed by spiral1 or 2
spirit (n.)
1.    (part of self)   (denotatively indistinguishable from soul )  an intangible part of human (& perhaps other) beings that contains emotion.  It is therefore either identical to or a superset of mind.
A.  pop.  sloppily conflated with emotion
2.  a hypothetical personal being that exists independently of a body   (see god)
spiritual (adj.)
1.  of spirit1   (as opposed to body)
2.  of a spirit2
3.  of a dimension beyond those which are scientifically verifiable   (as opposed to temporal)
spoken (adj.)  made of words orally   (see speak)
spontaneous (adj.)
1.  self caused  
2.  caused by nature   (see automatic)
A.  behaving naturally
spot
1.  (n.)  a location distinguishable from its surrounding location
A.  an area distinguishable from its surrounding area
2.  (v.t.) to detect a spot1
3.  (v.t.) to create a spot1
stability
1.  (n.)  not being easily changed
A.  not being easily shaken or moved
B.  not being easily thrown off balance
C.  not being easily diminished or broken
2.  (n.)  not likely to change
A.  being unlikely to be shaken or moved
B.  being unlikely to be thrown off balance
C.  being unlikely to be diminished or broken
3.  (n.)  easily returning to equilibrium
stable
1.  (adj.)  not easily changed
A.  not easily shaken or moved
B.  not easily thrown off balance
C.  not easily diminished or broken
2.  (adj.)  not likely to change   (see secure1 )
A.  unlikely to be shaken or moved
B.  unlikely to be thrown off balance
C.  unlikely to be diminished or broken
3.  (adj.)  easily returning to equilibrium
standard (see perfect3 , criterion)
1.  (n.)  a base against which other things are compared
A.  quantitative standard used for measurement
B.  qualitative standard used for evaluation   (see model2 )
2.  (adj.)  used as a standard1
3.  (adj.)  average   (syn. normal2 , ordinary1 )
A.  at or near the mean average1
B.  at or near the modal average3   (compare to usual)
start
1.  (v.i.)  to change from not happening to happening   (syn. begin)
A.  to change from still to moving
2.  (v.t.)  to cause to start1
state
1.  (n.)  a set of circumstances or attributes characterizing something at a given time
A.  mental or psychological condition
B.  physical condition
2.  (n.)  a sovereign governmental unit controling a defined territory
3.  (v.t.)  to say something
state of affairs (n.)   (syn. condition3 )
all or some of those things implied1 by a declarative statement or collection of declarative statements
statement (n.)   (see assertion , proposition)
the content which is expressed by a declarative sentence
static (adj.)
1.  tending not to move   (ant. dynamic)
A.  not moving
2.  not caused by motion   (ant. kinetic)
statistic (n.)   (see probability)
1.  any datum represented numerically
2.  a single piece of information taken from statistics2
statistics (n.)
1.  numerical data taken from a given set and organized for the purpose of drawing conclusions
2.  conclusions drawn from 1
stay
(v.i.)  to continue as is   (syn. keep2 , remain)
A.  in the same condition
     i.  doing the same action
B.  in the same place
stochastic (adj.)   unpredictable due to the influence of a random variable
A.  a known random variable
B.  a possible random variable
stop (see cancel , terminate)
1.  (v.i.)  to no longer do something
A.  to no longer change
i.  to no longer move
2.  (v.t.)  to cause to no longer do something
straight (adj.)
1.  having the same direction throughout its length   (syn. direct2 )
A.  not deviating or bending
2.  not mixed or diluted   e.g.  straight whiskey
strange (adj.)   (syn. peculiar2 )   (superset of weird)
not previously known
strength (n.)  ability to do something
1.  ability to cause something   (syn. power1 )
2.  ability to resist external forces2
stripe (n.)  the space between two parallel lines
strong (adj.)  able to do something
1.  able to cause something   (syn. powerful)
2.  able to resist external forces2
structure (n.)   (subet of form)
arrangement and interrelationship of the parts of something
stupidity (n.)  having data, processing it, and not acting accordingly.  as opposed to:
ignorance:  not having data
unintelligence:  not being able to process data
negligence:  having data, being able to process it, and failing to
stultify (v.t.)  to cause something to be of no effect
1.  by reversing its effect
2.  by negating it
3.  by showing it to be based on a false premise
style (n.)  the manner:  in which a willful action is done
subcontraries (n.)   (opposite: contraries)
a pair of propositions which cannot both be false, but can both be true
subject (n.)   (sibling set of predicate)   (see object)
that part of a sentence about which something is said
subjective (adj.)   (ant. objective)   (compare to relative)   (see truth)
1.  resulting from a subject's mind rather than the object of thought
2.  of the experience of a subject
subjectivism (n.)   (ant. objectivism)   the belief that:
1.  everything that exists, exists only in a subject's mind (ontological)
2.  even if things exist objectively, they can only be known subjectively (epistemological)
3.  no objective evaluator exists (axiological)
A.  no absolute evaluator exists
submit (v.t.)
1.  to show1,2 to someone   (syn. present)
A.  for consideration
A.  for approval
2.  to accept2 the dominance of another   (syn. surrender)
subset (n.)   (see kind1 , type1 )   a set which is completely enclosed in another set, which is called its superset
i.e.  All elements of the subset are also elements of the superset.
But a set is also a subset of itself, so a distinction must be made.  If a subset contains fewer elements than its superset, then it is a proper subset.
e.g.  If A = {1,2,3} and B = {1,2,3}, then A is a subset of B, but not a proper subset of B.
If A = {1,2,3} and B = {1,2,3,4}, then A is a proper subset of B.
A ⊆ B  says A is a subset of B.
(like "≤" says less than or equal to)
A ⊂ B  says A is a proper subset of B.
(like "<" says less than)
But "⊂" is also used in conditional statements.
substance (n.)
1.  the physical matter1A of which a thing exists
2.  the primary nature1 of what is real
3.  that which possesses properties2
4.  that which makes something what it is, and nothing else (both descriptively and numerically)   (syn. essence1 )
substitute
1.  (v.t.)  to remove something from its place, and put something else in that place
2.  (n.)  that which is put in the place of something else
subsume (v.t.)   DON'T USE THIS TERM!  Its definition has been corrupted by misuse into two contradictory definitions.  Even if you know what you mean by it, the few people who know one or both of its definitions are likely to think you mean the opposite.
1.  to contain or include
e.g.  Windows subsumed DOS.
Mammals subsume canines, which subsume dogs.
i.e.  The superset subsumes the subset.
2.  to take up into or under
e.g.  The individual subsumes the species, which subsumes the genus.
The particular subsumes the universal.
i.e.  The subset subsumes the superset.
subtract (v.)   (opposite: add)   lit.   to draw away underneath
to remove one thing from another
1.  to add2 a negative number to a positive number
succeed (v.i.)
1.  to come next after another   (syn. follow)
2.  to achieve2 what is attempted   (syn. prevail1 )
success (n.)   achieving2 what is attempted
succession (n.)   coming next after another
successful (adj.)   having achieved2 what was attempted
sufficient (adj.)   (syn. enough)   being at least the minimal amount necessary to fulfill1 a given condition
sufficient condition (n.)   (contrast to necessary condition)
an antecedent condition which is enough to cause its consequent to be.
In order for X to be, a sufficient condition is necessary, but a necessary condition is not sufficient, and X may have no necessary conditions except the sum of all sufficient conditions.
e.g.  If (conditions a, b, and c) constitute a sufficient condition for X,
and (conditions d, e, and f) also constitute a sufficient condition for X, then there are no necessary conditions for X among (a, b, c, d, e, f).
Neither (a,b,c) nor (d,e,f) constitutes a necessary condition for X.
But (either a,b,c or d,e,f) constitutes a necessary condition for X, if there are no other sufficient conditions for X.
sum (n.)
1.  the whole amount
A.  the number that results when lesser numbers are added   (subset of number)
2.  all parts of something seen together
summation (n.)   (see outline2 )
1.  the act of finding a sum
2.  the result of finding a sum
super- (prefix)   above, over, higher than:
1.  in location
2.  in a particular quality
A.  in rank
B.  in preference
superior (adj.)   (see greater2 )   above, over, higher than:
1.  in location
2.  in a particular quality
A.  in rank
B.  in preference   (see excellent)
superiority (n.)   being above, over, higher than:
1.  in location
2.  a particular quality
A.  in rank
B.  in preference   (see excellence)
superlative (adj.)   (sibling set of comparative)
the greatet or least degree of an adjective or adverb
supernatural (adj.)  existing outside of natural laws
supernaturalism (n.)   (ant. naturalism)   (contrast to animism)
the world view that personal supernatural entities operate in the universe
superset (n.)   a set which completely encloses another set, which is called its subset
i.e.  All elements of the subset are also elements of the superset.
But a set is also a superset of itself, so a distinction must be made.  If a superset contains more elements than its subset, then it is a proper superset.
e.g.  If A = {1,2,3} and B = {1,2,3}, then B is a superset of A, but not a proper superset of A.
If A = {1,2,3} and B = {1,2,3,4}, then B is a proper superset of A.
B ⊇ A  says B is a superset of A.
(like "≥" says greater than or equal to)
B ⊃ A  says B is a proper superset of A.
(like ">" says greater than)
supremacy (n.)   (compare to dominance)  being supreme
supreme (adj.)   (compare to ultimate)   highest in:
1.  authority, power, rank   (compare to dominant)
2.  degree
3.  some quality
Supreme Being (n.)   (see God)
that which created the first created thing: personal  (theism)  or impersonal  (atheism)
It cannot be known if the Supreme Being created this universe.
surface (n.)   (see area1 )
1.  a two dimensional shape
A.  something approximating a two dimensional shape
e.g.  the surface of the ground
2.  the outside of a solid2
surrender (v.t.)
1.  to accept2 the dominance of another   (syn. submit)
2.  to give something
swear (contrast to curse , profanity2 )
1.  (v.t.)  to verbally reinforce your veracity by wishing harm on yourself (or someone you supposedly don't want harmed) if you are lying
A.  invoking a supernatural agent to carry it out
2.  swear1 applied to a promise to do something
sycophancy (n.)   (ant. integrity3a )
pretending to be what you believe someone on whom you are dependent wants you to be
1.  lying in order to achieve it
syllogism (n.)   (part of deduction)   (sibling set of conditional statement)
three propositions such that the first two (premises) logically imply the third (the conclusion)
Here is a printable chart of all valid forms of syllogism.
symbol (n.)   a thing that stands for or represents something else
Usually a symbol is less complicated than that which it stands for or represents.
symbolic (adj.)   expressed by a symbol
symetry (n.)  equality on opposite sides of a midpoint
types:
bilateral:  equality on opposite sides of a line radial:  intersecting cases of bilateral symetry
syntax (n.)   (contrast to semantics)
systematic arrangement1
1.  of words in a sentence  (part of linguistics)
e.g.  The syntax of "Socrates is a man." is "A = B."
The syntax of "2 + 2 = 4." is "A + B = C."
The syntax of "2 + 2 = 5." is also "A + B = C."
Truth or falsity exists in semantics, not syntax.
On this "equation level" the syntax of "Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation" is:
A = B
fathers = (things that brought forth)
The rest of the sentence is irrelevant to equation level syntax.
Another level of syntax can show subject / verb / object distinctions, and can show places for adjectives, modifying clauses, etc.  On this level, the syntax of a sentence is revealed in a diagram of it.
synthesis (n.)
1.  putting together parts to form a whole  (opposite: analysis1 )
A.  a whole made of parts put together
2.  a proposition or position3 made by putting together other propositions or positions3  (Hegel)
3.  deductive reasoning from simple to complex, general to particular, cause to effect, principle2 to application
#3 is a worthless distinction.  It is confused with a priori2 , and should be discarded.
synthetic (adj.)  literally - put together
1.  produced by putting things together  (opposite: analytic)
2.  artificial  (ant. genuine)
synthetic statement (n.)   (opposite: analytic statement)
one relating a subject concept to a predicate concept which is different from in the subject concept
i.e.  The statement puts two different things together so as to say something meaningful.
system (n.)   (see entropy)
a complete and coherent arrangement1 of interrelated things
1.  abstract:  consisting of information
2.  physical:  consisting of particles and/or waves in motion
A.  thermodynamic:  analyzed in terms of heat transfer
system, closed (n.)  a system that depends on nothing outside itself
(in which entropy always increases)
1.  in order to be a system
2.  in order to operate
system, open (n.)  a system that depends on something outside itself
(in which entropy increases unless energy from its supersystem causes it to decrease)
1.  in order to be a system
2.  in order to operate
systematic (adj.)   constituting a system   (see design , order)
take (v.t.)   (see assume)
1.  to come to a state of having   (see acquire , get)
A.  actively: by means of effort
     e.g.  to take a fortress,  a prize
B.  passively: without effort   (see receive)
     e.g.  to take punishment,  ridicule
2.  to accept something
e.g.  to take advice,  take a bet
3.  a catch-all verb for doing something
e.g.  to take action,  take root;  take a walk,  a nap
A.  with reference to an object
     e.g.  to take a bus,  a chair,  a poll
talk
1.  (v.t.)  to speak1Ai to in order to communicate   (syn. converse)
2.  (n.)  an instance of talking
tall (adj.)
vertically long   (see high3 )   (perpendicular to deep and wide)
tandem 1.  (adv.)  one after another
2.  (adj.)  having two parts or things placed one after another
tangent
1.  (adj.)  touching at a single non-intersecting point
A.  and leading away from that which it touches
2.  (n.)  something that is tangent1
tautology (n.)
1.  a proposition whose negation is contradictory
e.g.  A = A.  (opposite: paradox2 )
A.  a self affirming set of propositions
2.  an analytic statement that is necessarily true, but which gives no useful information
e.g.  It will rain or it will not rain.
teleological (adj.)  with reference to results
1.  with reference to getting results
A.  getting particular results
B.  trying to get desired results (pragmatic2 )
2.  judging something by its results
A.  pragmatics3
B.  ethics
i.  judging the ethics of an act by its results
ii.  judging the ethics of a sentient being by the results of his acts
a.  judging the ethics of a sentient being by the intended results of his acts
teleological argument for the existence of God (n.)  Existence of design implies that finite reality is being guided by something (Someone) outside of that reality toward a purpose or goal
i.e.  Design implies a designer.
Hence an argument for the existence of God.  (see ontological , cosmological , transcendental arguments)
Counter argument:  There is only appearance of design.
temporal (adj.)  pertaining to time
1.  of finite time   (as oppossed to eternal)
2.  of earthly time   (as oppossed to spiritual)
3.  of time   (as oppossed to spatial)
term (n.)   (see phrase)
a word or set of words treated as a single word, and identifying a concept
terminate (syn. end4 )
1.  (v.i.)  to stop existing
2.  (v.t.)  to cause to stop existing   (see cancel)
termination (n.)  discontinuation of existence
tertian quid (n.)  Latin for "third what"
third alternative
a totally worthless term used by vocabulophiles who would rather impress than communicate
terror (n.)   extreme fear
terrorism (n.)
use of violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives
test (subset of experiment)
1.  (n.)   (syn. try2 )  any action done to learn something about the thing being tested
a.   to prove a particular proposition or propositions
2.  (v.t.)  to perform a test1   (see verify)
that (opposed to this)
1.  (pron.)  the indicated thing
A.  the indicated thing there
B.  the farther thing
2.  (adj.)  designating the indicated thing
A.  designating the indicated thing there
B.  designating the farther thing
theism (n.)  the world view that the Supreme Being is personal:  (opposite: atheism)   (superset of the following)
1.  a personal Being created this universe (monotheism)
2.  personal beings created this universe (polytheism)
3.  this universe is a personal Being (pantheism)
4.  this universe is in a personal Being (panentheism)
then (adv.)
1.  (subset of when)   (sibling set of now)
any time period other than now, i.e.  past or future
2.  soon afterward
3.  next in time or order
4.  in that case   This concept begins the consequent of a conditional statement
theodicy (n.)   (a part of theology)   (see essay)
1.  the study of the alledged goodness (righteousness, justice) of God in effort to answer these questions:
A.  Is God good at all?
i.  If so, in what way is God good?
B.  How is God's goodness reconciled with the existence of evil?
2.  pop.  any of the defenses of God's alledged goodness
theology (n.)   (a part of philosophy)
the study of God
Theology, unlike philosophy, assumes the existence of God.
theoretical (adj.)   (contrast to hypothesis)
1.  consisting of theory
2.  based on theory   (contrast to practical3 )
theory (n.)   (contrast to hypothesis)
1.  a possible explanation which has been tested
A.  and proven true
e.g.  germ theory of disease
B.  and proven false
e.g.  flat earth theory
C.  but never proven true or false
e.g.  unified field theory
2.  a systematic statement of principles by which truth is judged   (contrast to practice3 )
there (opposed to here)
1.  (n.)  that location
2.  (adv.)  at or to that location
therefore (conj.)   (opposite: because)
for the preceeding reason
e.g.  ont.  A cause happened, therefore an effect happens.
epis.  I know X is true, therefore I know Y is true.
thermodynamic (adj.)   (see entropy)
pertaining to conversion of heat energy into different forms of energy
thermodynamics (n.)   (see entropy)
the study of the conversion of heat energy into different forms of energy
Laws:
1.  The amount of energy added to a system equals the sum of its increase in heat energy and the work done on the system.
2.  Heat cannot be transferred from a body at a lower temperature to a body with a higher one without addition of energy.
3.  The entropy of a pure crystal at absolute zero is zero.  No physical system can have lower entropy.
0.  If two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, they are in equilibrium with each other.  This law is called #0 because it was implicitly assumed in the development of the other laws, and is more fundamental, but was established later.
thesis (n.)   (superset of hypothesis)
a set of coherent propositions
thing (n.)  p.b.c.
the most general of all categories which includes any unit:
e.g.  a concept, category, substance, attribute, relation, event, etc.
think (v.i.)
1.  to be conscious of data
A.  and process2 it   (see calculate , figure2 )
2.  p.b.c.  to think a particular proposition or position3 is true or probable2   (syn. believe1 , opine1 )
this (opposed to that)
1.  (pron.)  the indicated thing
A.  the present and indicated thing
B.  the nearer thing
2.  (adj.)  designating the indicated thing
A.  designating the present and indicated thing
B.  designating the nearer thing
thought (n.)   (part of mind)   (sibling set of emotion , sense perception , will)
1.  that activity of mind which categorizes, reasons , judges , imagines , processes data
2.  any unit of that process
time (n.)   (adj. temporal)  p.b.c.
the logically next dimension after the three spatial dimensions
that dimension whereby a three dimensional object can change its form1A or location
1.  the interval between two moments
2.  changing from before1 a given moment to after it
time/space (n.)  more conventionally space/time
tool (n.)   (superset of machine)  something useful or needed to achieve a specific purpose
together (adj.)   of plural concepts:
1.  having little of some dimension between
A.  abstract dimension
e.g.  friendship
B.  physical dimension
e.g.  little time or space
2.  having none of some dimension between
A.  abstract dimension
e.g.  agreement
B.  physical dimension   (see join)
3.  bound
A.  abstractly
e.g.  by agreement or contract
B.  physically
toroid (n.)  a cylinder bent in an arc and closed on the ends to make continuous closed cylinder  i.e.  donut shape
torture (v.t.)  to cause displeasure
This is denotatively synonymous with annoy.  The only differences are connotative.  Connotatively the main difference is in degree of displeasure, but any attempt to draw a line between these concepts will prove arbitrary.
touch
1.  (n.)  (syn. contact)  the relationship of two things that are as near as possible without causing deformity to at least one of them
2.  (v.)  to come into a touch1 relationship
3.  (n.)  the act of touching2
e.g.   a light tap, thump, stroke, brush
4.  (n.)  the one of the five senses that tells you when you are touching2
transcend (v.t.)
1.  to go beyond some particular limit
e.g.  beyond experience or knowledge
beyond possible experience or knowledge
2.  to be separate from or other than some particular thing
e.g.  experience or knowledge
all possible experience or knowledge
transcendent (adj.)
1.  going beyond some particular limit
e.g.  beyond experience or knowledge
beyond possible experience or knowledge
2.  separate from or other than some particular thing
e.g.  experience or knowledge
all possible experience or knowledge
transcendental (adj.)
1.  transcendent1
2.  transcendent2
3.  preconditional to
e.g.  to experience, knowledge, science, life, logic, the universe... whatever
transcendental argument for the existence of God (n.)   (see cosmological , ontological , and teleological arguments)
All systems require something outside of themselves to get them started.
e.g.  Minds exist.  Thought cannot be connected to matter without something outside the laws of physics making the connection.
transcendentalism (n.)  any of several philosophies that try to find reality by investigating thought processes rather than objects of sense experience
transfer (v.t.)   (syn. transmit)   (subset of travel)
1.  to cause to go from one place to another
2.  to allow to go from one place to another
transform (v.t.)  to change in form
transmit (v.t.)   (syn. transfer)   (subset of travel)
1.  to cause to go from one place to another   (see communicate)
2.  to allow to go from one place to another
transport (v.t.)  to carry from one place to another
travel
1.  (v.i.)   (superset of passage , transfer , transmit)   (subset of move)
to go from one place to another
2.  (n.)  the act of traveling1
true p.b.c.   (adj.)   (denotatively indistinguishable from factual, right, correct1A )   (see truth)
that which is
Beyond that, all attempts to define this term falls into circularity.  Still, we all know what it means.  To claim not to know what it means denies one justification for thinking or doing anything.
trust
1.  (v.t.)  to willfully decide to act as though a particular proposition or position3 is true  (syn. to believe2 )   (see rely)   You don't trust a sentient being.  You trust the proposition that that sentient being will do what you think he/she will do.
2.  (n.)  a willful decision to act as though a particular proposition or position3 is true  (syn. belief2 )
trustworthy (adj.)  not causing a trustor to regret trusting
1.  not causing a sentient being who trusts it to regret trusting it
2.  not willfully causing a sentient being who trusts him/her to regret trusting him/her
truth p.b.c.   (n.)   that which is , reality expressed in words   (opposite: untruth)   (ant. error)
Beyond that, all attempts to define this term fall into circularity.  Still, we all know what it means.  To claim not to know what it means denies one justification for thinking2 or doing anything.
We can identify types of truth:
1.  Absolute truth is completely independent.
A.  seen without reference to anything else.   (opposite: relative)
B.  not dependent on, or limited by anything outside itself.   (opposite: contingent)
e.g.  for both a and b above:
any and all components of logic, math, and geometry
The house is on the north side of the street.
2.  Relative truth is seen in reference to something else.
e.g.  The house is on the left side of the street.
3.  Contingent truth is dependent on, or limited by something else.
e.g.  The house may be on the north side of the street.
The house may be on the left side of the street.
The house may be on either side of the street.
4.  Objective truth exists independently of a mind to know or experience it.
All that is absolutely true is also objectively true.
e.g.  any and all components of logic, math, and geometry
The house is on the north side of the street.
5.  Subjective truth is true of the experience of a mind (or subject).
e.g.  The house is on the wrong side of the street.
6.  Pragmatic1 truth is assumed true because it works.
e.g.  Infinity is the highest number.
truthiness (n.)   Thank you Stephen Colbert!
a quality of statements and beliefs that makes one feel like they ought to be true
    e.g.  Gospel truth
try
1.  (v.t.)   (syn. attempt)   (see effort)
to do what must be done in order to achieve a goal
2.  (v.t.)   (syn. test1 )  to do what must be done to learn something about the thing being tried
type (n.)
1.  a subset of a superset   (syn. kind1 )
A.  distinguised by attributes
e.g.  A dog is a type of carnivore, pet, furry thing, etc.
B.  distinguised by genetics
e.g.  A dog is a type of canine, mammal, vertebrate, etc.
2.  a thing that represents a category to which it belongs
ultimate
1.  (adj.)   (compare to supreme)   last , most
A.  beyond which nothing exists
B.  beyond which nothing is possible   (see absolute4 )
2.  (n.)  something ultimate1
understand (v.t.)
1.  to know how something operates
2.  to know what something means
unintelligence (n.)  not being able to process data, as opposed to:
ignorance:  not having data
negligence:  having data, being able to process it, and failing to
stupidity:  having data, processing it, and not acting accordingly
union (n.)
1.  being one   (syn. unity1 )
2.  becoming one   (see combine , join)
3.  being seen as one
4.  a relationship of two or more sets such that all of their elements are added together.   symbol: 
e.g.  A ∪ B  means the union of set A and set B.
If A = {1,2,3} and B = {2,3,4} , then A ∪ B = {1,2,3,4} , not {1,2,2,3,3,4} , because duplicate elements are counted only once.
If  x ∈ A ∪ B , then x is an element of A or B or both.
unique (adj.)   (syn. singular2 )   (contrast to peculiar)
the only one of its kind
A.  having nothing identical to it
B.  having nothing similar to it
unit (n.)   (see element , member , point , dimension)
any thing seen as an indivisible whole
unite
1.  (v.i.)   to join so as to make one unit
A.  and merge together
2.  (v.t.)   to join things so as to make one unit
A.  and merge them together
unity (n.)
1.  being one   (syn. union1 )
2.  being united1
3.  being in a state of agreement1
universal 1.  (adj.)  everywhere, all encompassing, or in all
A.  (adj.)  present or occurring everywhere or in all things
B.  (adj.)  common to all elements of a set
i.  (n.)  a property2 common to all elements of a set
ii.  (n.)  an unchanging property2 of nature1 existing in various and changing instantiations (syn. abstract2e.g.  beauty, color
Realists say universals1B2 exist.
Anti-realists are divided.
Nominalists say they don't.
Conceptualists say they exist only in minds.
C.  (adj.)  adaptable to any use, form, size, person, etc.
2.  (adj.)  pertaining to a universe2 or the universe2B
3.  (adj. and n.)  a proposition which affirms or denies its predicate to a whole subject as opposed to a part of it  (ant. particular3 )
e.g.  All S are P  as opposed to  Some S are P
universe (n.)
1.  everything
A.  everything including the Supreme Being
B.  everything except the Supreme Being
2.  a space/time continuum
A.  any space/time continuum
B.  this space/time continuum   (see world)
C.  all space/time continuums
univocal (adj.)   (contrast to equivocal)
1.  having the same meaning in all instances of the use of a word
2.  the specific and unambiguous meaning of a word in a particular context
untruth (n.)   (see lie)
1.  that which is not   (opposite: truth)
2.  a false2 statement   (superset of error)
up (adv.)   (opposite down)
rel.   always relative to a person judging direction
1.  any direction away from a point which is considered lowest
2.  the direction away from the center of the Earth
use 1.  (v.t.)  to cause to do what is desired
2.  (v.t.)  to act based on
e.g.  to use common sense
3.  (n.)  the act of using
4.  (n.)  the state of being used
useful (adj.)   (see practical)  able to be used1,2
usual (adj.)   (compare to normal2 , ordinary1 )
recuring with the frequency of a modal average3
Utopia (n.)
1.  a book published by Sir Thomas More in 1516 about an imaginary island having ideal3B political and social systems
2.  any place supposedly having ideal political and social systems
vague (adj.)   (contrast to ambiguous)   (see general)
1.  obj.  having undefined1 boundaries
A.  obj.  having indefinable1 boundaries
2.  sbj.  having unidentified boundaries
A.  sbj.  having unidentifiable boundaries
valid (adj.)   (superset of sound2 )
a quality of logical arguments such that if the premises are true, then the conclusion must be true
value (n.)   (see axiology , values)
1.  sbj.  being desired by an evaluator   (syn. worth)
A.  the degree to which something is desired by an evaluator
This logically implies the existence of negative value - the degree to which something is undesired, but the term is hardly ever used in the negative.
2.  number , quantity
3.  that for which a variable3 stands
e.g.  E = MC2 doesn't mean anything until values are plugged into the variables.
values (n.)  rel. sbj.  (see axiology , value)
the set of all things which cause pleasure or displeasure, popularly divided into esthetics and ethics
Pleasure-causing things are judged good.  Displeasure-causing things are judged bad.
The degree to which a thing affects pleasure/displeasure is the degree to which goodness or badness is ascribed to it.
Values exist only in the mind of an evaluator.
Values are relative to an evaluator and totally subjective.
Absolute2,4 values exist only if an absolute2,4 evaluator exists.
If absolute2,4 values exist, they are those things which affect the pleasure/displeasure of an absolute2,4 evaluator the same at all times under all conditions.
Objective2 values exist only if an absolute2,4 evaluator exists.
Objective2 values are those things which affect the pleasure/displeasure of an absolute2,4 evaluator, even if those things affect the evaluator differently at different times or under different conditions.
variable 1.  (adj.)  changeable
2.  (n.)  a thing which is changeable
A.  changeable into anything
B.  changeable into anything within a set range of values 3
C.  changeable into some particular thing
3.  (n.)  a symbol used to stand for a changeable thing
e.g.  In algebra letters stand for numbers.
variation (n.)   (compare to deviation)
1.  an instance of varying
2.  a different thing
A.  following a sequence of same things
B.  in a group of same things
vary (v.i.)
1.  to be or become different   (see change)
2.  to differ
verb (n.)  the essential part of a predicate which tells what a subject is or does
verbal (adj.)   (superset of oral1 )
made of words - spoken or written
verifiable (adj.)  able to be proven true
1.  able to be proven true, but not able to be proven false  (ant. falsifiable)
Ability to be proven true does not necessarily imply inability to be proven false and v.v.
e.g. "All S are P" can be proven false by finding an S which is not P.
"All S are P" can be proven true only by examining all S and finding none which are P.
"Some S are P" can be proven true by finding one S which is a P.
"Some S are P" can be proven false only by examining all S and finding none which are P, or by examining all P and finding none which are S.
If a statement is verifiable but not falsifiable, then burden of proof rests on him who says it is true.
verify (v.t.)
1.  to show knowability   (see prove)
A.  by demonstration
B.  testimony
2.  to test
vertex (n.)
1.  a point identified by its central relationship to other points around it
A.  equidistant from the points on an arc or circle
B.  where two lines join or intersect
2.  the highest point
A.  of something
B.  in the sky directly overhead
3.  the point of something opposite its base
vertical (adj.)
1.  the position of an axis that intersects the center of a circle or sphere
A.  an axis intersecting the center of the Earth   (perpendicular to horizontal)
2.  perpendicular to a base or surface
vice (n.)   (ant. virtue)
1.  an immoral act
2.  the set of all immoral acts
virtue (n.)   (ant. vice)   (see morality)
1.  an act or set of acts which goes above ethics so as to raise the overall happiness level within its sphere of influence
2.  an attribute causing virtue1 to be manifest
3.  exhibiting virtue1
vocabulophile (n.)   Don't bother looking it up.  I coined it.
a person who cares about the meaning of atimioremes
volume (n.)
1.  a unit of three dimensional space
A.  a quantity of such units  (syn. size2 )
2.  magnitude of sound1 measured in decibels.
voluntarily (adv.)   (opposite: involuntarily)
by choice1   (syn. willfully)
1.  not automatically
2.  not by coercion
voluntary (adj.)   (opposite: involuntary)   of acts and actions:
done by the choice1 of the doer   (syn. willful)
1.  not automatic
2.  not coerced
voluntarism (n.)
1.  the theory that the will is "cosmic energy", the ultimate constituent of reality (Schopenhauer)
2.  the ethical theory that the will is superior to all other moral criteria such as conscience or reason
3.  the theological theory that
A.  the will is the source of all religion
B.  God is and/or promotes what He is and/or does because He wills it to be so.
e.g.  The Islamic God determines what acts are good and evil by his arbitrary will, not because good (as opposed to evil) is intrinsic to God's nature1
want (v.t.)   (contrast to need)   (see intend)
This + desire + wish constitute a p.b.c.
wave (n.)  a location in which compression and rarefaction alternate uniformly
way p.b.c.   (n.)   Any term used to define this term is itself defined by this term.
e.g.  direction , means , manner , method , mode
weigh (v.t.)  to calculate weight
weight (n.)   (subset of magnitude)
1.  that type of unit that measures the magnitude of gravitational pull between two bodies of matter
2.  weight1 relative to planet Earth calculated at the surface of planet Earth
weird (adj.)   startlingly strange
what (superset of how , when , where , which , who)
1.  (pron.)  a place-holder for an unknown or unstated noun or nouns
e.g.  What is for dinner?   You know what is for dinner.
2.  (adj.)  a place-holder for an unknown or unstated modifier of a noun or nouns
e.g.  What books do you like?   You know what books I like.
when (pron.)   (subset of what)   (superset of now , then)
Though often treated as an adverb, the term stands as a place-holder for a time, which is a noun.

what time
e.g.  When do you eat?   When I get hungry.
where (pron.)   (subset of what)   Though sometimes treated as an adverb, the term stands as a place-holder for a location, which is a noun.
what location
e.g.  Where do you live?   Where my house is.
which (subset of what)  
1.  (pron.)  a place-holder for an unknown or unstated noun or nouns out of a known range
e.g.  Which do you want?   You know which.
2.  (adj.)  a place-holder for an unknown or unstated modifier of a noun or nouns out of a known range
e.g.  Which cards are face cards?   You know which ones.
who (pron.)   (subset of what)
what sentient being
1.  which sentient being
whole
1.  (adj.)  having all the parts and attributes it needs   (syn. complete)
A.  to fulfill some criterion
2.  (adj.)  not defective
3.  (n.)  all of something
e.g.  The whole equals the sum of its parts.
why
(adv.)  for what reason3
e.g.  Why did you go?   You know why.
wide (adj.)   (n. = width)   (subset of long)
long   (perpendicular to tall and deep)
1.  in a horizontal plane
2.  seen as perpendicular to the viewer
3.  seen as perpendicular to its longest axis
width (n.)   (adj. = wide)   (subset of length)
length   (perpendicular to height and depth)
1.  in a horizontal plane
2.  seen as perpendicular to the viewer
3.  seen as perpendicular to its longest axis
will (n.)   (part of mind)   (sibling set of thought , sense perception , emotion)
that part of mind which makes decisions immediately prior to action or attempted action
In this sense will is indistinguishable from self.
(see free will)
willful (adj.) of acts and actions:
done voluntarily
willfully (adv.)   voluntarily
willing (adv.)   (see consent2,3 )
1.  permitting something requested
2.  agreeing to comply1 with something proposed or requested
A.  actually complying with it
win
1.  (v.i.)  to succeed by effort
A.  to be successful in a contest
2.  (v.t.)  to get something by effort
wisdom (n.)   (subset of knowledge3 )   (see sane1 )
knowing how to get what you want without doing things that will ultimately get you more of what you don't want
It is measured in degree of foresightedness.
wish 1.  (v.t.) p.b.c.   same as want, desire
2.  (v.i.) to express a wish1
3.  (n.) that which is wished1 for
wishful thinking (n.) a probability judgment contrary to perceived evidence made for emotional reasons
with (prep.)   present:
1.  by the side of   (syn. beside1 )
2.  in addition to   (syn. beside2 )
3.  in regard to
4.  in the same terms as
word (n.)   (see phrase , term)  a symbol that can be expressed orally or written with letters and standing for a concept
work (n.)
1.  the amount of energy transferred by a force
2.  willfully using energy to try to accomplish a task   (syn. effort)
world (n.)
1.  a planet
A.  this planet
i.  this planet and its inhabitants
2.  the human race
A.  the general public
3.  this universe
world view (n.)  an opinion on the nature of this universe and how it operates
worth
1.  (n.)  denotatively indistinguishable from value1   Connotatively more limited to:
A.  material3 value
i.  in terms of an exchange medium
2.  (adj.)  deserving something specified
A.  equal in value to something specified
worthy (adj.)   (see noteworthy)   deserving something specific
write (v.t.)   to put words into graphic form
wrong (adj.)   (see error)
1.  contrary to truth
2.  believing an error1
yield (v.t.) 
1.  to produce or give as a natural process
e.g.  as the result of cultivation
2.  to quit an effort
A.  to quit a contest   (syn. concede)
i.  to admit defeat
3.  to be moved by pressure   (ant. resist)
zen (n.)
1.  bullshit
A.  posing as an art form
B.  posing as a philosophy
2.  social dominance games
A.  posing as an art form
B.  posing as a philosophy
Simply put, zen is the art of convincing another person that he doesn't understand zen as well as you do.
zero
1.  (n.)  the symbol that stands for the place on the number line between negative and positive numbers, and indicates the absence of both
2.  (adj.)  the quantity of something of which there are none

Some of this is taken from the 1998 Abbreviated Philosophical Glossary by Bob and Gretchen Passantino.
I use Webster's New World Dictionary a lot.  That's a great dictionary.